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L ^ LAK Tr£ cG 01/1/ 

Li U 









of Wyoming 



Epperson Collection 
Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 


April 1966 









Member at Large 

Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Mrs. Leonard Stensaas Rock Springs 

Mrs. R. Dwight Wallace Evanston 

Mrs. Cecil Lucas Gillette 

Richard I. Frost Cody 

Mrs. Virgil Thorpe Newcastle 

Mrs. Frank Mockler Lander 

Mrs. Dudley Hayden Jackson 
Attorney General John F. Raper 



Neal E. Miller Director 

Mrs. Katherine Halverson Chief, Historical Division 

Paul M. Edwards Chief, Museum Division 

Mrs. Bonnie Forsyth Svoboda Chief, Archives Division 


The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and 
October and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.50 each. 
Available copies of earlier issues are also for sale. A price list may be 
obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyright, 1966, by the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department 

tAmals of Wyoming 

Volume 38 

April, 1966 

Number 1 

Neal E. Miller 

Katherine Halverson 
Associate Editor 

Published biannually by the 


Official Publication of the Wyoming State Historical Society 


OFFICERS 1965-1966 

President, Mrs. Charles Hord Casper 

First Vice President. Glenn Sweem Sheridan 

Second Vice President, John Banks Cody 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Neal E. Miller Cheyenne 

Past Presidents: 

Frank L. Bowron, Casper 1953-1955 

William L. Marion, Lander 1955-1956 

Dr. DeWitt Dominick, Cody 1956-1957 

Dr. T. A. Larson. Laramie 1957-1958 

A. H. MacDougall, Rawlins 1958-1959 

Mrs. Thelma G. Condit, Buffalo 1959-1960 

E. A. Littleton, Gillette 1960-1961 

Edness Kimball Wilkins, Casper ...1961-1962 

Charles Ritter, Cheyenne 1962-1963 

Neal Miller, Rawlins 1963-1965 

The Wyoming State Historical Society was organized in October, 1953. 
Membership is open to anyone interested in history. County Historical 
Society Chapters have been organized in Albany, Big Horn, Campbell, 
Carbon, Fremont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Platte. Sheri- 
dan, Sweetwater, Teton, Washakie, Weston and Uinta counties. 

State Dues: 

Life Membership $50.00 

Joint Life Membership (Husband and wife) 75.00 

Annual Membership 3.50 

Joint Annual Membership (Two persons of same family at 

same address.) 5.00 

County dues are in addition to state dues and are set by county organ- 

Send State membership dues to: 

Wyoming State Historical Society 
Executive Headquarters 
State Office Building 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 

table of Contents 


John Dishon McDermott 
Gordon Chappell 

H. R. Dieterich, Jr. 


Paul M. Edwards 



Robert A. Murray 


W. R. Bandy 


Trek No. 16 of the Historical Trail Treks 
Compiled by Maurine Carley 



President's Message by Mrs. Violet Hord 105 

Minutes of the Twelfth Annual Meeting, September 11-12, 1965 .... 106 


Larson, History of Wyoming 120 

Sandoz, Old J ides Country 121 

Josephy, The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest 123 

Cook, Folsom. Peterson, The Valley of the Upper Yellowstone 124 

Hart, Old Forts of the Far West 124 

Karolevitz, Newspapering in the Old West 126 

Frink, Barthelmess, Photographer on an Army Mule 127 

Fielder, Wild Bill and Deadwood 128 

Andrews, Photographers of the Frontier West 129 

Urbanek, Wyoming Wonderland 130 

CONTRIBUTORS _ _ _ _ 131 


Ames Monument Cover 

Fort Laramie, 1858 4 

Lt. Garnett, Capt. Dunovant, Capt. Bee, Col. King 8 

Lt. Col. Grover, Col. Merritt 10 

Lt. Col. Bradley, Lt. Col. Burt 48 

Tunnel Crew 76 

Headquarters, Wiley Tunnel Project 76 

Heading of No. 2 Tunnel 80 

Gravel Chute and Storage Bins 80 

Cheyenne to Deadwood Stage Route, Map 84 

Trekkers at George Lathrop Monument 86 

Hold-up of a Southbound Stage 88 

Junior Historical Society Members, Dr. McCracken 114 

Officers, Wyoming State Historical Society 118 

Military Command 
at Jort Caramie 

John Dishon McDermott 

, AND 

Gordon Chappell 

During the forty-one year period that Fort Laramie was a mili- 
tary post, from 1849 to 1890, eighty-two different officers served 
as its post commander, an average of two per year. Some of these 
men are familiar figures to those acquainted with Civil War battles 
and Indian campaigns, for their names and deeds fill the pages of 
many a book. Others are obscure and forgotten figures, men 
whose only printed memorial is a line or two in Army Registers 
of the period or such encyclopedic works as William Powell's 
List of Officers of tke U.S. Army, 1776-1900 and Francis Her- 
man's two volume Historical Register and Dictionary of the United 
States Army. Whatever their fame, infamy, or obscurity, each 
deserves a measure of recognition. Some commanded Fort Lara- 
mie under incredible handicaps. Some lacked men and supplies. 
More than a few lacked experience. Yet, considering the circum- 
stances, most of these men performed adequately, and a few 

Of these eighty-two commanders, sixty-eight were officers of the 
Regular Army, while the remaining fourteen were members of 
Civil War volunteer regiments. Forty-three of the Regulars repre- 
sented the infantry branch, two the artillery. The other twenty- 
three were cavalry officers, the term here including one dragoon 
and two from the Regiment of Mounted Rifles. 1 In rank these 
officers ranged from second lieutenant to colonel. No general 
ever served as post commander, though twelve officers of lesser 
actual rank who did command the post were entitled to be ad- 

1. Major Winslow F. Sanderson and First Lieutenant Washing. on Lafay- 
ette Elliott, both of whom served as post commanders in 1849, represented 
the Regiment of Mounted Rifles; Captain Samuel Henry Starr, who com- 
manded in 1860, was an officer of the Second Dragoons. By an act oi 
Congress dated August 3, 1861, the Regiment of Mounted Rifles was re- 
designated as the Third Cavalry, and the Second Dragoons became the 
Second Cavalry. 


dressed as "general" and to sign correspondence with that rank as 
a result of brevet commissions. - 

Among the sixty-eight Regular Army officers, only twenty- 
seven, or roughly forty percent, were graduates of the United States 
Military Academy at West Point, New York. Two of these ranked 
as high as fourth in their class, while two others managed to 
finish last. Their graduating classes ranged in years from 1814 to 

Twenty-one of the Regulars had received direct commissions 
from civil life with no previous enlisted military service on record. 
Most of these received their first direct commission in some state 
volunteer unit when the Civil War broke out, then during or shortly 
after the war obtained a direct commission in the Regular Army 
on the basis of the record of their experience as officers in the 
volunteer service. There were a few, however, who received 
direct commissions either during the War with Mexico or during 
peacetime. The creation of two new cavalry regiments in 1855, 
for example, was the occasion for several direct commissions to fill 
the new vacancies. 3 

Twenty of the Regular Army officers who commanded Fort 
Laramie had served as enlisted men at some time prior to becoming 
commissioned officers. Most had enlisted in Civil War volunteer 
regiments, and when these units became decimated in battle, 
enlisted men were commissioned to fill vacancies left by officer 
casualties. In a few instances the enlisted service was in a Regular 
Army regiment, again with promotion to fill a vacancy created by a 

Of the fourteen officers of volunteer regiments who commanded 
Fort Laramie, eleven were cavalry and three were infantry. Colo- 
nel Maynadier was one of the latter, and was the only West Point 
graduate among the volunteer officers who served as post com- 
mander. His regiment, the Fifth U.S. Volunteers, was also unique. 
It was not enlisted under a state quota, thus carried "U.S." in its 
title; furthermore, it was composed of Confederate prisoners of war 

2. Technically, John Gibbon was an exception, for he was promoted 
from colonel commanding the 7th Infantry and the post to brigadier general 
on July 10, 1885, while at Fort Laramie. However his promotion carried 
with it orders to leave for Fort Vancouver where he was to assume com- 
mand of the Department of the Columbia, and he immediately relinquished 
command of the post to Captain Benham. 

3. Albert Gallatin Bracken was one such officer. Although appointed a 
captain in the new Second Cavalry from civilian life, he did have very brief 
prior service as a Mexican War lieutenant in an Indiana volunteer regiment. 
Another example of such an appointment was Eugene Wilkinson Crittenden, 
appointed second lieutenant in the newly-formed First Cavalry on March 3, 
1855, with no prior military service. 


who found the task of fighting wild Indians in Union blue more to 
their taste than a Federal military prison. 4 

The Civil War proved a pivotal experience for most of Fort 
Laramie's post commanders, as indeed it was for the nation itself. 
Some, such as Major Isaac Lynde who had commanded the post 
before the war, met only with disgrace. 5 Many others, such as 
Colonel Albert Brackett, gained fame and promotions. Still others 
found only death. 

Many officers of the Regular Army in ante-bellum years were of 
Southern origin; many of these naturally fought for the Southern 
cause. Three Southern gentlemen who commanded the post dur- 
ing the 1850s, Lieutenant Garnett, Captain Dunovant, and Captain 
Bee, resigned their commissions to become generals in the Con- 
federate States Army. All three lost their lives in uniforms of gray. 
Richard Brooke Garnett died at the third day of Gettysburg; John 
Dunovant died in a fight on the Vaughn Road in Virginia in 1864; 
and Barnard Elliott Bee met death near a Virginia creek known as 
Bull Run a mere eight months after he had left Fort Laramie in 
1 860. 6 

Not all of the officers who commanded the post were wise and 
judicious in their role. Some fell far short of being adequate. 
Captain Avery Cain, for example, engaged in a petty squabble with 
the post surgeon over a man detailed from his company as a hos- 
pital orderly. The post commander, Colonel Slemmer, upheld the 
surgeon, but shortly thereafter died of a heart attack one night, 
which left Captain Cain as his successor. The captain then pro- 
ceeded to take his revenge on the poor surgeon by making a 
shambles of hospital routine. 7 

In contrast, many officers were highly experienced and extreme- 
ly capable. Colonel Brackett had written and had published his 

4. For a detailed history of this unit, see Dee Alexander Brown's The 
Galvanized Yankees (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1963). 

5. In July, 1861, Major Lynde surrendered Fort Thorn, New Mexico 
Territory, and its Union garrison to an inferior force of Texan Confederates. 
Unlike General Twiggs who surrendered his entire department to the Texans 
and then joined the Confederate Army, Lynde was no traitor and did not 
join the Rebels. But for his mishandling of the situation at Fort Thorn he 
was summarily dropped from the United States Army. Following the Civil 
War, in view of his long previous service, he was reinstated and immediately 
retired. For a first-hand account of the Fort Thorn affair, see Lydia 
Spencer Lane's / Married a Soldier: or Old Days in the Old Army (Albu- 
querque: Horn and Wallace, 1964; a reprint of the original 1893 edition). 

6. According to unverified local tradition around Fort Laramie, wild 
mint which grows along the Laramie River is a legacy of Southern officers 
stationed at the post prior to the Civil War who planted mint in order to 
have it for their juleps. 

7. For a detailed account of this affair, see Gordon Chappell, "Footnotes 
to Old Fort Laramie; The Trouble with Raising Cain," The Torrington Tele- 
gram (published biweekly at Torrington, Wyoming) October 2, 1961. 





Courtesy of Fort Laramie National Historic Site 


History of the United States Cavalry a full decade before he com- 
manded the post. Colonel John Gibbon had commanded the 
famed "Iron Brigade" during the Civil War and followed that with 
long, distinguished frontier service before he became Fort Lara- 
mie's post commander. 8 

There were also the highly inexperienced, such as Second Lieu- 
tenant Hugh Fleming, who in 1854 sent an even less experienced 
subordinate with highly discretionary orders and in violation of an 
Indian treaty into a Sioux village with a greatly outnumbered de- 
tachment to arrest a brave who allegedly had stolen a cow. Rather 
than criticize Mr. Fleming, however, one might better condemn 
those responsible for assigning a mere second lieutenant to so 
sensitive and important a command as Fort Laramie. 9 

Among the post commanders, one officer filled that position 
under two different names. Captain John Rziha commanded the 
post briefly in 1870, and on May 3, 1874, officially changed his 
name to John Laube de Laubenfels. Later that year he command- 
ed the post under his new name. 1 " Another interesting case in- 
volved George Drew. As a volunteer major he commanded the 
post in 1865. Fourteen years later he was again in command for a 
few hours during his superior's absence as a first lieutenant of 
Regulars; quite a demotion. To make the affair more confusing, 
he had been promoted to captain a few weeks before, but neither he 
nor anyone else in the garrison was aware of it. 11 

Oddly enough, West Point, generally credited with producing 
the cream of the officer corps, provided Fort Laramie with not only 
some of its finest but also some of its poorest commandants. A 
comparison of the records of the West Point graduates with the 
records of those who had either come up from the ranks or received 
direct commissions from civilian life indicates that the West Point- 
ers were, as a whole, neither better nor worse than those officers 
who had never seen that bluff on the Hudson River. 12 

8. Gibbon had commanded one of the three major columns in the Sioux 
War of 1876, and the following year was severly wounded in the Battle of 
the Big Hole against the Nez Perce. He was certainly one of the army's 
most capable officers. 

9. See Lloyd E. McCann's "The Grattan Massacre," Nebraska History. 
Vol. XXXVII, No. 1, March 1956), pp. 1-25. 

10. de Laubenfels, a Pole, was for some reason dismissed from the serv- 
ice on December 31, 1875. 

11. Drew commanded the post on June 8, 1879 for only one day and 
possibly for less than a day. He had been promoted captain on March 20, 
1879, but had not yet been informed of the promotion. 

12. For a comparison of officers records, consult the biographical section 
of the manuscript "Military Command at Fort Laramie," by Gordon Chap- 
pell, in the research files at Fort Laramie National Historic Site. 




Courtesy of Fort Laramie National Historic Site 

Thus in its forty-one years as America's most famous frontier 
military post, Fort Laramie was commanded by an extremely 
diverse range of individuals — men of widely varied background, 
education, and experience. Nevertheless each one who served in 
this capacity, regardless of ability and all questions of competence 
aside, earned at least a small place in the history of the American 


Immediately below the name of the commander appears infor- 
mation concerning the reasons that officer assumed or relinquished 
command, if such information was reflected in the records. The 
words "beginning" and "ending" are abbreviated ' k B" and "E". 
In a few instances there is an additional entry preceded by the letter 
"R", signifying remarks. Such remarks concern a particularly 
important event which occurred during that officer's tenure. 





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Rank and Name Year (s) 

Colonel Edmund Brooke Alexander 1860-1862 

Captain Asaph Allen 1862 

Captain Augustus Hudson Bainbridge 1872 

Major Eugene Mortimer Baker 1 874 

Captain Barnard Elliott Bee 1860 
Captain Daniel Webster Benham 1883-1886, 1888 

Major Matthew Marsh Blunt 1871-1874 

Colonel Albert Gallatin Brackett 1 879-1 880 

Lt. Colonel Luther Prentice Bradley 1 874-1 876 

Captain John Wilson Bubb 1880 

Captain Levi Frank Burnett 1 889-1 890 

Captain Thomas Bredin Burrows 1876 

Lt. Colonel Andrew Sheridan Burt 1888 
Captain Avery Billings Cain 1868-1869, 1878-1879 

Captain Francis Newman Clarke 1 859 

Captain William S. Collier 1 879-1 880 

Lt. Colonel Edward Collins 1 887 

Lt. Colonel William Oliver Collins 1863-1864 
Captain Richard Comba 1883, 1885-1887 

Ma'or Eugene Wilkinson Crittenden 1871 

Colonel W. R. Davis 1865 

Major Hannibal Day 1 859-1 860 

Captain John Laube De Laubenfels* 1874 

Colonel Thomas Casimer Devin 1877-1878 

Major George Augustus Drew 1865 

Captain John Dunovant 1860 

Major William McEntire Dye 1 868-1 869 

1st Lieutenant Washington Lafayette Elliott 1850 
Major Andrew Wallace Evans 1876, 1 878-1879 

Major William H. Evans 1866 

2nd Lieutenant Hugh Brady Fleming 1854 

Colonel Franklin Foster Flint 1869-1871 

Captain William D. Fouts 1864 

1 st Lieutenant Richard Brooke Garnett 1 852-1 854 

Colonel John Gibbon 1 882-1885 

Lt. Colonel Cuvier Grover 1872 

Captain Nicholas Harrington 1862 

Major Verling Kersey Hart 1880-1882 

Captain Edward Mortimer Hayes 1881-1882 

Major William Hoffman 1854-1857 

Major George Washington Howland 1866 

Major A. J. Hughes 1866 

Captain Jacob Lee Humfreville 1866 


Captain Guido Ilges 1871-1872 

1st Lieutenant John Burgess Johnson 1878 

Captain Sanford Cobb Kellogg 1880-1882 

Captain William Scott Ketchum 1 850-1 852 

Colonel John Haskell King 1 874 

Captain Thaddeus Sandford Kirtland 1889 

Captain Christopher S. Lovell 1859 

Major Isaac Lynde 1857-1858 

Major Thomas L. Mackey 1863-1865 

Captain Thomas J. Majors 1865 

Captain Louis Henry Marshall 1861 

Major Julius Wilmot Mason 1 877-1 878 

Colonel Henry Eveleth Maynadier 1865 

1 st Lieutenant George Wilcox Mclver 1 890 

Captain Robert Peebles McKibbin 1868 

1 st Lieutenant John McNab 1861 

Colonel Henry Clay Merriam 1885-1889 

Colonel Wesley Merritt 1880-1882 

Captain Alexander Moore 1877 

Lt. Colonel John Munroe 1 858-1 859 

Captain Samuel Munson 1877 

Major George Morgan O'Brien 1866 

Lt. Colonel Innis Newton Palmer 1866-1867 

Captain Charles Cotesworth Rawn 1882-1884 

Captain Daniel Robinson 1889 

Captain Gerald Russell 1878, 1880 

Captain John Rziha * 1870, 1874 

Major Winslow F. Sanderson 1 849-1 850 

Captain James Madison Johnson Sanno 1885 

Lt. Colonel Adam Jacoby Slemmer 1867-1868 

Colonel John Eugene Smith 1871-1874 

Captain Samuel Henry Starr 1860 

1st Lieutenant Charles William Taylor 1890 

Captain John A. Thompson 1862-1863 

Major Edwin Franklin Townsend 1876 

Major James Van Voast 1 866 

Captain Henry Walton Wessells, Jr. 1 880 

Captain Constant Williams 1887 

Major John S. Wood 1864 

Captain Albert Emmett Woodson 1882 

* Captain Rziha changed his name in 1874 to John Laube de Laubenfels, 
and commanded Fort Laramie that year under the latter name. He is listed 
alphabetically under both names. 



For one or more reasons, the officers listed below were entitled 
to be addressed as "general' 1 at the time they commanded Fort 
Laramie. With one exception, none were paid or commanded 
troops in that actual rank while post commander. Below each 
officer's name and actual rank while he commanded Fort Laramie 
are listed one or more reasons he could be addressed as "general"; 
any single reason was sufficient justification. If an officer had 
actually commanded volunteer troops during the Civil War with 
the rank of general, even though he served at a reduced rank in the 
Regular Army after the war it was common courtesy to address him 
as a general officer. Likewise, it was common courtesy, and for 
awhlie it was mandatory, to address an officer by his highest brevet 
rank if it exceeded his actual rank. In most cases, an officer who 
had been a general of volunteers held one or more brevets to the 
rank of general also. 

Bradley, Luther Prentice Lieutenant Colonel 

1. Brigadier General of Volunteers, July 30, 1864. 

2. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 2, 1867. 

Devin Thomas Casimer Colonel 

1. Brevet Brigadier General (Volunteers), Aug. 15, 1864. 

2. Brigadier General of Volunteers, October 19, 1864. 

3. Brevet Major General (Volunteers), March 13, 1865. 

4. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 2, 1867. 

Dye, William McEntire Major 

1. Brevet Brigadier General (Volunteers), March 13, 1865. 

Gibbon, John * Colonel, Brigadier General 

1. Brigadier General of Volunteers, May 2, 1862. 

2. Major General of Volunteers, June 7, 1864. 

3. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

4. Brevet Major General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

5. Brigadier General of Regulars, July 10, 1885. 

Grover, Cuvier Lieutenant Colonel 

1 . Brigadier General of Volunteers, April 14, 1862. 

2. Brevet Major General (Volunteers), October 19, 1864. 

3. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

4. Brevet Major General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

* Gibbon's promotion from colonel to brigadier general came through 
while he was Fort Laramie post commander, and he then relinquished 
command. He might technically be considered the only general officer 
(actual rank) who commanded the post, though that is stretching the point. 


King, John Haskell Colon si 

1. Brigadier General of Volunteers, November 29, 1862. 

2. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

3. Brevet Major General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

4. Brevet Ma^or General (Volunteers), May 13, 1865. 

Maynadier, Henry Eveleth Colonel 

1. Brevet Brigadier General (Volunteers), March 13, 1865. 

2. Brevet Major General (Volunteers), March 13, 1865. 

Merritt, Wesley Colonel 

1. Brigadier General of Volunteers, June 29, 1863. 

2. Brevet Major General (Volunteers), October 19, 1864. 

3. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

4. Brevet Major General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

5. Major General of Volunteers, April 1, 1865. 

O'Brien, George Morgan Major 

1. Brevet Brigadier General (Volunteers), March 13, 1865. 

Palmer, Innis Newton Lieutenant Colonel 

1. Brigadier General of Volunteers, September 23, 1861. 

2. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

3. Brevet Major General (Volunteers), March 13, 1865. 

Slemmer, Adam Jacoby Lieutenant Colonel 

1. Brigadier General of Volunteers, November 29, 1862. 

2. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 13, 1865. 

Smith, John Eugene Colonel 

1. Brigadier General of Volunteers, November 29, 1862. 

2. Brevet Major General (Volunteers), January 12, 1865. 

3. Brevet Brigadier General (Regulars), March 2, 1867. 

4. Brevet Major General (Regulars), March 2, 1867. 


This list contains the names of those officers who held a brevet 
(honorary) rank at least one grade above their actual rank but 
below the brevet of general — with one exception which is noted. 
These officers were entitled to sign correspondence and to be 
addressed according to the brevet rank shown, a practice which 
has hopelessly confused many competent historians and myriad 
novelists. In some cases a Regular officer held brevet rank in 
both the Regulars and the Volunteers. If commanding the post 
as a Regular, he was entitled to be addressed only according to his 
Regular brevet, even if the Volunteer brevet was the higher. Vol- 
unteer unit officers, of course, were entitled to be addressed accord- 
ing to their Volunteer brevet. 

One officer commanded Fort Laramie once as a Volunteer and 
once as a Regular, and held brevets in both services. In each case, 
the brevet in the particular service applied. 









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Alphabetically Arranged 


Standing in class 

Alexander, Edmund Brooke 



of 35 

Baker, Eugene Mortimer 



of 22 

Bee, Barnard Elliott 



of 41 

Blunt, Matthew Marsh 



of 52 

Clarke, Francis Newman 



of 42 

Day, Hannibal 



of 45 

Dye, William McEntire 



of 52 

Evans, Andrew Wallace 



of 43 

Fleming, Hugh Brady 



of 43 

Flint, Franklin Foster 



of 52 

Garnett, Richard Brooke 



of 52 

Gibbon, John 



of 38 

Grover, Cuvier 



of 44 

Hoffman, William 



of 46 

Howland, George Washington 



of 38 

Ketchum, William Scott 



of 36 

Lynde, Isaac 



of 38 

Marshall, Louis Henry 



of 43 

Maynadier, Henry Eveleth 



of 42 

Mclver, George Wilcox 



of 37 

Merritt, Wesley 



of 41 

Munroe, John 



of 30 

Palmer, Innis Newton 



of 59 

Slemmer, Adam Jacoby 



of 44 

Taylor, Charles William 



of 67 

Townsend, Edwin Franklin 



of 46 

Van Voast, James 



of 43 



of 43 


The principal source for information on post commanders is the 
file of Post Returns in the National Archives in Washington, D.C., 
xerox copies of which are on file at Fort Laramie National Historic 
Site. Only the year 1873 is missing from these records. 

Additional sources are the Letters Sent File, Orders, Circulars, 
Endorsements, the Medical History of the Post, Quartermaster 
Records, and the like. These supplied information which supple- 
mented that in the Post Returns, particularly information concern- 
ing the reasons commanders left the post or relinquished their 
commands. In certain instances these supplementary materials 
showed that the Post Returns did not accurately list the officer in 
command, and that the absence of a commander during a given 
month did not appear on the return. This was a consequence of 





Courtesy of Fort Laramie National Historic Site 

the fact that the Post Returns showed only those commanders who 
were assigned as commanders, and did not list officers who were 
acting commanders during a temporary absence of the assigned 
commander. As the present list is concerned with who was in 
actual command, adjustments were made as indicated by the 
supplementary source material. 

In those cases where information relative to the exact beginning 
or ending of a commander's period of service was incomplete, the 
present list reflects the uncertainty. 

Zlte Architecture 
of H* M. Kickardson in Wyoming 



H. R. Dieterich, Jr. 

The sixty-foot granite pyramid near the site of the old town of 
Sherman in southeast Wyoming holds a minor but colorful place 
in the history of the region. Erected to the memory of Oakes 
Ames and Oliver Ames, Jr., by the creature of their own financial 
genius, the Union Pacific Railroad, the monument stands at what 
was once the highest point on the Union Pacific line, some 8,247 
feet above sea level. Since the monument was completed in 1882 
the rail lines have been twice moved to the south, leaving the site 
isolated from all but the venturesome automobile traveler. The 
granite pile, decorated only by a simple inscription, "In Memory 
of Oakes Ames and Oliver Ames" and by two sculptured medal- 
lions, still symbolizes the union of a family, a railroad and the 
West. 1 

The monument itself figures in the anecdotal history of both 
Laramie and Cheyenne. There was the episode in which an 
imaginative and enterprising frontier justice of the peace from 
Laramie discovered that the monument had inadvertently been 
erected not on land owned by the railroad, but on a section of the 
public domain. The financial possibilities in this situation were 
glowingly evident to the Laramie entrepreneur, who hustled to 
Cheyenne and filed a land claim on the tract that held the monu- 
ment. His scheme was to sell advertising space on the side of his 
monument, at least until he made other arrangements for its 

Here the story suddenly goes flat; having acquired apparent 
legal title, the would-be operator lost his nerve. After modest 
negotiations a staff of Union Pacific attorneys out of Omaha con- 
vinced the Laramie man that he should relinquish his claim to the 

1. "The Ames Monument," ANNALS OF WYOMING II (January, 
1925), 50-52. 


monument and that he would be unwise indeed to tangle with the 
railroad, and the matter was dropped. - 

Along with such lore, a host of minor facts attend the monu- 
ment: some eighty-five men were more or less continuously em- 
ployed over a two-year period in its construction; the granite used 
in the monument was cut from a huge outcrop nearby and was 
skidded by horse and derrick to the site; the cost of the monument 
finally amounted to approximately sixty-four thousand dollars. 
In 1901 the main line of the railroad was moved several miles to 
the south; fifteen years later the railroad considered the possibility 
of moving the monument to track-side again, but nothing came of 
this. And so the stories go. 3 

But the significance of the monument transcends considerably 
these matters of essentially local interest. Few are aware of it, 
but the monument is a representative example of the work of 
Henry Hobson Richardson, one of the greatest of American archi- 
tects and a figure whose importance has long been recognized by 
students of American architecture and by American cultural his- 
torians generally. 4 The Ames monument was one of some half- 
dozen projects he did under commission to the Ames family in the 
late 1870's and 1880's. In a relatively short career (he died in 
1886 in his 48th year) Richardson established for himself a place 
in American architecture equalled only by Louis Sullivan (pioneer 
developer of the skyscraper) and, in our time, Frank Lloyd Wright. 
The monument at Sherman, Wyoming, was Richardson's only 
commission west of St. Louis and is one of the handful of his works 
that may still be seen today. Moreover, the granite plaques that 
carry the likenesses of the Ames brothers on the east and west sides 
of the monument near the top are the work of one of the most 
talented of American artists, the sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens, 
a man who equalled in his own field the importance of Richardson 

2. This particular story is recounted in detail in W. O. Owen, "The 
Great Ames Monument Plot," The Railroad Man's Magazine XXXVII 
(September, 1918), 1-10. Owen had been at the time the County Surveyor 
of Albany County and his article forms the basis for an account of the 
episode that appeared in the Laramie Republican, November 19, 1918. 

3. "Ames Monument" folder, Hebard Collection, Western History Ar- 
chives in the University of Wyoming Library. Material in the folder is 
limited to newspaper and magazine clippings, various random notes and 
letters that pertain to the monument. 

4. The two standard works on Richardson and his architecture are 
Marianna Guilder Van Rensselaer, Henry Hobson Richardson and His 
Works (Boston, 1888), and Henry Russell Hitchcock, The Architecture of 
H. H. Richardson and His Times (New York, 1936). 

5. Hitchcock, 197; Van Rensselaer, 72; Wayne Andrews, Architecture. 
Ambition and Americans (New York, Glencoe Free Press paperback, 1964), 
163. A curious aspect of the sculptured plaques on the Ames Monument is 
that Saint-Gaudens identified each likeness with only a simple monogram of 


Those who have written about the monument in the context of 
western history have not mentioned these facts, although in some 
specialized studies of American architecture and of the architect 
himself the commission is discussed at length. 6 Richardson's name 
nowhere appears in early accounts of the monument and its con- 
struction. It was apparently assumed that the design came directly 
from the firm of Norcross Brothers of Worcester, Massachusetts, 
the contractors who built the monument." The stark simplicity of 
the design helps to explain this curious situation; then, as now, it 
seemed difficult to view as "art" a plain granite pyramid, even one 
that towered sixty feet from its base. The Cheyenne Leader must 
have expressed a common and continuing reaction when it noted 
shortly after the monument had been completed that it lacked the 
"grand appearance that so much money ought to buy" and that it 
seemed overshadowed by the natural heaps of granite nearby. 8 A 
certain obscurity seemed to mark the work, according to the 
Leader: the visibility of both the inscription and the medallions 
was much inferior to that of the advertisements for various com- 
mercial products that paint and business enterprise had left on 
other boulders along the right-of-way. The frontier environment 
fostered little interest in the aesthetics of architecture. It was the 
railroad that was important, not the name of an eastern architect 
who designed a western monument to its promoters. 

But H. H. Richardson was more than just another eastern archi- 
tect; in the 1870's and 1880's he was unquestionably the leading 
figure in his profession in America. His influence was so pervasive 
that critics today speak of "Richardson Romanesque" as a distinct 
movement in the evolution of American architecture. Richardson 
owed much to the architectural tradition of Renaissance Europe — 
he had been trained in the School of Fine Arts in Paris, but the 
vigor and originality of his talent transmuted these ideas into an 
original style, unmistakable and impressive. An acknowledged 
master in the use of stone, brick and timber (he worked before the 

the initials "OA" and with the year of birth and death. Oakes (1804-1873) 
appears on the east side, Oliver (1807-1877) on the west. Regrettably, the 
plaques have been seriously damaged by the rifle fire of vandals unaware, 
we may assume, of the artistic importance of the sculpture. 

6. As for example in both the Van Rensselaer and Hitchcock volumes. 

7. Comment to the effect that the contracting firm also designed the 
monument was common. See for example Charles Fitz, "Tales from Old- 
Timers," The Union Pacific Magazine (May, 1924), p. 30, a copy of which 
is in the "Ames Monument" folder in the Hebard Collection. The Norcross 
firm executed most of Richardson's commissions, including his best known 
one, Trinity Church in Boston. Van Rensselaer, pp. 29, 143. 

8. October 3, 1882. But the Leader estimated badly the total cost of the 
monument when it mentioned the figure of two hundred thousand dollars. 
As noted earlier in this essay, the monument cost something over sixty- 
four thousand dollars. 


development of structural glass and steel), Richardson designed 
buildings marked by richly contrasting natural materials, low-slung 
massive archways and boldly simplified lines. 

For Richardson each commission was a unique problem, the 
solution to which evolved out of the context of the problem itself — 
the purpose of the structure, the materials at hand and the creative 
genius of the architect. The unity of idea and form that Richard- 
son imposed on his materials contrasted sharply with the imported 
hodgepodge of architectural ideas that so often characterized the 
American scene in the Gilded Age. Befitting an age of opulence 
and monumental self-assurance, the Richardsonian style was ex- 
pensive, heavy, dramatic and uncompromising in its architectural 
and artistic integrity. Trinity Church in Boston was his greatest 
achievement — it was completed in 1877, and it remains one of the 
landmarks in American architecture. 

Against this backdrop, the monument at Sherman, Wyoming, 
takes on added significance. The commission was one of a number 
that came to Richardson at least in part through his personal 
friendship with the Ames family. Frederick Lothrop Ames, a 
director of the U.P. and son of Oliver Ames, Jr., was in Richard- 
son's immediate circle of friends in the Boston area where the 
architect moved easily among the financial elite of New England/' 
In the years 1877-79 Richardson designed both a town hall and 
public library for the town of North Easton, Massachusetts, me- 
morials to Oliver and Oakes Ames respectively. These were fol- 
lowed in 1879 by the monument at Sherman. Between 1880 and 
1886 he completed five more commissions for Frederick Lothrop 
Ames, including three commercial buildings in Boston and two 
buildings on the Ames estate in North Ear-ton— one a gatelodge, 
the other a cottage. His work for the Ames family comprised but a 
small portion of the commissions he handled during these years, 
but it represented some of his best building, stamped not only by 
the architect's genius but by his esteem for the Ames dynasty as 
well. 10 

Richardson's most recent biographer has stated as much, term- 
ing the monument in Wyoming "perhaps the finest memorial in 
America . . . one of Richardson's least known and most perfect 
works." 11 The two-step pyramid, fitted together of great random 
blocks of native red granite, is an artistic tour de force, more 
nearly the work of a sculptor than an architect in its elemental 
simplicity, its boldly massive form. The design is entirely original 
— no hackneyed Victorian statue of brothers Oakes and Oliver 

9. Hitchcock, 197. 

10. Van Rensselaer, 139-140, includes a listing by year of Richardson's 
commissions, compiled from his office records. 

11. Hitchcock, 197. 


alongside a Union Pacific engine — and uniqusly fitting for a family 
and a railroad that were impressively successful in an era of rugged 
self-assertion. Against the background of the Rockies, the pyra- 
mid is like an abstract mountain itself, a dramatic statement in 
granite about the persistence and vigor of a pair of industrial 

The monument also says something about the extraordinary 
power and character of its architect. It is the work of a man 
neither timid nor doubtful about the spirit of his time. Talent and 
self-assurance on a grand scale are clearly evident in a design that 
relies simply upon the fundamentals of solid masonry mass and fine 
sculpture. For the low-relief granite medallions that carry the 
likenesses of the brothers Ames, Richardson called on the best 
sculptor of his day, a young artist who had worked with him earlier 
on the Trinity Church commission. Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the 
architect knew, could be counted on to produce sculptured por- 
traiture as uncompromising in its artistic integrity as Richardson's 
own work. 12 

It is altogether possible that the significance of the monument 
for us stems from the fact that we see the architect and his work as 
one. In retrospect we know that H. H. Richardson was one of the 
great precursors of modern architecture, a genius whose work 
embodied the strongest and most lasting aspects of his era, the 
Gilded Age, and the monument holds our attention in this light. 
But this does the monument itself an injustice; it is a success in its 
own right. A contemporary of Richardson's was Frederick Law 
Olmstead, a distinguished and famous landscape architect and the 
designer of Central Park in New York City. He saw the monu- 
ment shortly after it was completed, and Olmstead was greatly 
impressed. "I never saw a monument so well befitting its situation 
or a situation so well befitting the special character of a particular 
monument," he wrote. 13 At the peak of a great hill among other 
great hills, the monument was not often seen by the public, Olm- 
stead admitted, but its appropriateness for the site was striking. 
And striking as well was the wind across the summit, blowing 
cinders from along the right-of-way. Olmstead concluded: "It is 
a most tempestuous place, and at times the monument is under a 
hot fire of little missiles driven by the wind. But I think they will 
only improve it." And he was probably right. 

12. Richardson used the talents of Saint-Gaudens on a number of his 
commissions. Each man held the other in the highest regard. See Homer 
Saint-Gaudens, ed., The Reminiscences of Augustus Saint-Gaudens (2 vols., 
New York, 1913), I, 328-331. 

13. Quoted in Van Rensselaer, 72. 

A Philosophy of History 
for the Small Museum 

Paul M. Edwards 

It is the plight of the small history museum that it tends to grow 
haphazardly. This is generally the case for two reasons; first its 
collections are based on what is given rather than what is wanted, 
and secondly it lacks a general plan that is usually so obvious in 
the museums that boast large staffs. The first of these conditions 
results from the fact that needing so much, the small museum ends 
up taking everything. The collections grow because the donors 
are cleaning the attic. It is hard, especially in those areas where 
the community is closely tied, to refuse such gifts. However, most 
of them have little or no relation to the needs of the history museum 
and a selective "no" is a vital factor in controlling the confusion. 

The second condition, and the one to which I wish to turn my 
attention, exists because the goal of the museum, never really 
thought out or defined, is ever at the mercy of the whims of either 
the donor or the curator. Many have inherited museums whose 
artifacts are stacked into cases nearly as old and in need of cleaning 
and repair as the artifacts they house. This sort of collection and 
the confusion it represents comes from three characteristic failures 
of the small museum. (1) The curator has never assumed a 
position as to the character of the present. He has never under- 
stood, or at least agreed upon, where he stands, what his museum 
is supposed to be, and what it is to represent. (2) The curator has 
never limited his museum to a selected area of historical preser- 
vation and display. He tries to be all things to all people which is 
no more successful in museum work than it is in politics. (3) The 
curator has never defined history to his own satisfaction. That is, 
he has never come to any conclusions as to what history is, or what 
it means. He has never tried to deal with it in the general terms 
of an abstraction, or the particular terms of an influence or a force. 
Far too many curators are collectors rather than historians. Yet 
in the final analysis the curator is an interpreter of history. He is 
an historian, and the museum is his vehicle of expression. He will 
either express his views well, or his lack of views will leave history 

His museum is rightfully devoted to an interpretation of the 
world of men by materials selectively designed to appeal through 
direct experience. It is concerned with the formation of an idea 


about the past and the resulting ideas of the future that come from 
this interpretation. Thus, if the museum is to be effective in 
carrying out its role, it is necessary for the curator to have given 
serious consideration to the nature of history — to have a philos- 
ophy of history. 


This term tends to be frightening if it is not understood from 
the beginning that it is one way of expressing a theory of historical 
significance. It is really a systematic interpretation of a universal 
history in which events have some ultimate meaning. 

Sir Lewis Namier has said that the historian is a painter rather 
than a photographer. That is to say that the historian is a creative 
artist rather than either a scientist or a narrator. The truth of this 
is seen when we recognize that the life and thinking of the historian 
is a part of the history he interprets; thus history as he sees it is 
"creatively" different than the view of others. The thing that 
separates the antiquarian from the historian is that while the first is 
concerned with collecting old things, the second is concerned with 
the value of things. And value is a personal, created attitude. 
For values are intuitive; that is, they are based on a process that 
goes beyond reasoning. Thus our first step is the understanding 
that historic values are personal and are a part of the contribution 
of any interpreter of history. 

Theories of history are as numerous as the events they unify. 
Some see history as the progressive unfolding of God's revealing 
plan. Others suggest that history is the overview of life cycles, 
either for men or civilizations, that re-occur as they move through 
the episodes of growth and decay. Still another view is that history 
is the obvious outcome of the presence of certain imminent laws. 
In a scientific sense once the conditions are known the historic 
outcome is inevitable. It works the other way also, suggesting 
that once the historical outcome is understood man can go back 
and introduce the causes that brought it about. Another sugges- 
tion is that history is the influence of one factor such as the 
economic interpretation of history : the suggestion that the history 
is the record of the struggle of the classes for predominance and 
control of the resources of the world. 

While I am neither suggesting that the above are wrong or that 
they are not significant in man's struggle to understand himself, I 
wish to offer a suggestion as to a philosophy of history that asso- 
ciates itself with the museum curator. 

History is individual and thus it is at best the record of man in 
time. This does not discount the divine theory or, for that matter, 
the economic theory. Instead it is designed to particularize his- 
tory — to bring into our discussion the realization that man is 
history and that history is to be recorded by recording man in a 


single space and at a single time, in an infinite number of cases. 
It never repeats itself because the fact that it follows the previous 
experience makes it different. The knowledge of the rise and fall 
of earlier civilizations makes the citizen of this civilization different 
from the Greeks. 

History is a value, not a thing. It is an attitude that can be 
traced back through the ideas and the actions of men, not objects. 
It is carried on by human beings whose singleness of character 
grants it a uniqueness, and whose sharing of the triumph and 
tragedy of the time and space they occupy, is the story that the 
historian is called first to tell and later to be committed to. While 
history is more than the sum of the facts, it is what ties them 

But what does this mean to the development of a philosophy of 
history? It means that when the curator begins to think of the 
story of man he needs to be concerned with the men and women of 
the past, not the objects they held, or the chairs they sat in. This 
is not a plea for the end of museums, it is instead a plea that objects 
of the museum be considered and dealt with for what they are. 
For they are the symbols of human dreams, they are the outcomes 
of human effort, they are the remains of human folly, they are the 
manifestations of men and women living in an era that challenged 
them. The role of the curator is to live with the objects as if they 
were the canvas, the paints, the brushes with which to paint a 
picture which will pull men from the vast generality of the past to 
a given time and given space: to give to those who come to view 
the displays, a human scene, that they might feel akin to the strug- 
gles of man living in his world. 

The past is known by the overlapping of the years. Your son's 
link with the past is your life which overlaps his grandfather's and 
his own experience. The thing which gives us the edge over the 
animals is that we have been able to begin where our father left 
off rather than starting anew. Man is the key — the historical 
conductor who needs to be involved both in understanding the past 
and in living in the future in order for the present to have some 
real meaning. 

The carefully-developed museum is the point at which the ever 
fleeting present has been captured. Yet this "present" must be 
fitted into the flow of history, indicating to us the full impact of 
what was happening and why man was so motivated. If the 
artifacts are to contribute to the story then they must be displayed 
in recognition of the fuller influence they had. If they are scattered 
everywhere, with no unity, with no relationship to past or future 
then history is seen by the visitor as being scattered and isolated 
and the events and the items of history are lost in the confusing 
maze of the "yesteryear". 

Series of displays that indicate the duration of history, yet stop 
the moments to be seen by the contemporary visitor, will serve still 


another purpose. For it is the historian who is called to express 
the unity of man. In this age of specialization the role of the whole 
man, involved in past and future, involved in economics and re- 
ligion, involved in fun and in work, involved in fear and happiness, 
needs to be presented. A responsible representation can view man 
in no other way. This is not a thing of the past, but is contempo- 
rary in the realization that the past has been lived by those who 
lived as whole men. It carries with it something of the realization 
that it is man's duty to know and to inquire into every area of man's 
multiple concerns. 

In the final analysis it is the human situation that the museum 
seeks to describe. And only when it does so will it be a significant 
contribution to the community it seeks to serve. Your exhibits 
are reflective of your interpretation and depend on your philos- 
ophy — a philosophy which needs to be developed, not adopted. 
If your displays are cluttered and disassociated, history will be 
interpreted as cluttered and disassociated. If your displays are 
dull and drab and dead, history will be interpreted as being dull 
and drab and dead. The exhibit then must present, to the most 
casual visitor, a clear picture of the story you want to portray. 

Communications is the key to the effort. Clarity is essential. 
Well planned simple displays will assure the visitor the attitude of 
history without the presentation of more facts than he can handle. 
If your museum is unselective, if it is a depository for any and all 
who would preserve their names on a donor card, it becomes a 
labyrinth of history to which the visitor has no key and in the long 
run will seek no entrance. 

The exhibits must present a flow by which the visitor can become 
involved in the duration of history and can move along with it, 
learning, growing, as he stands in the presence of the manifestations 
of such development. It must merge the local character with 
national character, the local citizen with the world, not by having 
artifacts from the world over, but by not isolating the fact that 
we live in a complex and multiple society and that for most of us, 
our locale is but a moment in the migration of millions. 

It needs to be remembered that if history is individualistic and 
illustrative of an attitude, the visitor is a character in the historic 
pageant. When he walks among the props of previous acts, he is 
still a member of the cast. He is involved, and the lure of the 
museum is the lure of personal participation. The past is not dead 
for the visitor who finds there a breadth to his experience, a depth 
to his values, and a reason for making his present significant. It 
will have meaning to him if it is presented in such a way that it 
lives, and moves in such a way that he can identify his human 
emotions and concerns with those of the past that found their 
solutions in the creation and the use of the artifacts on display. 

What I wish to emphasize is that value is created at the cost of 
human effort and it costs human experience to make man aware of 


the values of his present position. The museum is the place where 
the attitude of history — which is value in man — can be portrayed 
in such a way as to give significance to those who wander in for a 
taste of the past. 


This is not specifically a bibliography for the preceding article. It is a 
listing of publications and articles which will be of interest to persons en- 
gaged in museum planning and administration. 

Norling, Bernard, Better Understanding of History, University of 
Notre Dame Press, 1960 

Miller, Herbert, The Uses of the Past, Mentor Book, 1945 

Spence, Peterson and O'Connor, Church Archives and History, 
American Association for State and Local History, Vol. 1, No. 
10., April, 1946, University of North Carolina Press 

Carr, Edward, What is History?, Alfred A. Knopf, 1964 

Theory and Practice in Historical Study, Bulletin 54, Social Science 
Research Council, New York, 1946 

Gustavson, Carl, A Preface to History, McGraw-Hill, 1955 

Parker, Arthur, A Manual for History Museums, Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, New York, 1935 

Russell, Charles, Museums and Our Children, Central Book Com- 
pany, Inc., New York, 1956 

Guthe, Carl, The Management of Small History Museums, Ameri- 
can Association for State and Local History, Volume 11, 
Number 10, 1959 

Adam, T. R., The Civic Value of Museums, American Association 
for Adult Education, New York, 1937 

Zhe United States Mmy 

in the Aftermath 

oftnefloknson County Invasion 

April through November, 1892 

Robert A. Murray 

The Johnson County Invasion has been a highly controversial subject for 
nearly seventy-five years. We are aware that exception may be taken to 
elements of this article. To the best of our knowledge, the records of the 
Adjutant General of the United States and the Fort McKinney military 
records, upon which this article is based, have not been used previously as a 
research source on the subject. The following article, as a result, has unique 
historical value and interest among the published writings on the Johnson 
County Invasion. Ed. 

The year 1892 stands about midpoint in the decade and a half 
in which Northern Wyoming's livestock industry evolved from the 
transitory open-range phase toward a land-use pattern essentially 
like that of today. 

The army ended effective Indian occupation of this region in the 
decisive campaigns of 1876-77, and settled down to slow-paced 
years of intermittent police action against tribal fragments straying 
from the reservation. The vast grazing land attracted first and 
briefly, the buffalo hunter, 1 then the cattlemen who had already 
filled the range of southern Wyoming and adjacent states. 2 

Open-range cattle ranching found its basis in the idea that a 
stockman could use public owned grazing lands free of charge and 
up to the full extent that he could stock them. A belt of such open- 
range stockmen formed one of the westward-moving layers of the 
frontier from the American Revolution on. These stockmen fol- 
lowed the hunter and the soldier and occupied any given tract only 
until the land began to fill with legitimate settlers, and then moved 

1. The story of Wyoming's buffalo-hunters has never been brought 
together in one place, but is mentioned and dated in John Barsotti's fine 
article "Freund & Bro., Gunmakers on the Frontier," in the 1957 Gun Digest, 
John T. Amber, editor, Gun Digest Publishing Co., Chicago. 

2. Walter von Richtofen, Cattle Raising on the Plains of North America, 
University of Oklahoma Press, reprint, 1964. 


on to new pastures. Conflicts over land use did not ordinarily 
arise, since land law and tradition were clearly on the side of the 
settler, and since more and better grazing land lay ahead to the 
west. :! 

The southern end of this stock raising belt thrust into Texas in 
th3 1830's and there, under favorable circumstances, flourished 
ahead of the slowly developing agriculture of the state. The 
stockmen of Texas found a new market as rails thrust westward into 
the plains in the late 1 860's. They also discovered the potential of 
a vast belt of grassland extending on to the great continental forest 
of Canada. Every advancing railhead a ready market, an abun- 
dance of stock cattle, cheap labor, all led the southern cattlemen to 
expand their operations northward as fast as expulsion of the 
Indians could be achieved. Other sizeable stocks of cattle lay 
available in the prairie belt of the upper midwest, and in the moun- 
tain valleys of the great northwest. 

Widely-publicized instances of high profits lured speculative 
investment capital into the industry and a cattle boom was on. 
The year 1885 saw much of the plains region effectively occupied 
by herds owned by large corporate cattle companies. The specu- 
lative bubble burst when the severe winter storms of the mid- 
eighties dealt a heavy blow directly, and indirectly exposed a 
wealth of "blue sky" capitalization, book-count herds and other 
shaky management practices. Surviving corporate cattle firms 
worked in straitened circumstances. Foreign and eastern capital 
was less available. Credit was hard to find and more costly. The 
free use of public lands was increasingly criticized. Heavily 
stocked ranges held beef prices down. Diffusing knowledge of 
irrigation techniques, barbed wire fencing, windmills, and an 
expanding railroad network made it easier for the individual ranch- 
er to carve out a workable owned-unit from the public domain by 
purchase and by homesteading. Mavericking and assorted other 
sharp practices that were stock in trade with the corporation men 
were taken up by others. 

Corporate cattlemen reacted in various ways. They all com- 
plained about the demise of the "old days 1 '. The more realistic 
and progressive tightened their organizational belts and tried to 
adapt management practices and ranching techniques to the chang- 
ing conditions. Some others of them reacted defensively and 
violently. They glorified open range practices as "rights" and 
rose to defend them. 4 

Northern Wyoming may have appeared ideal test ground to this 

3. Paul C. Henlein, The Cattle Kingdom in the Ohio Valley, 1783-1860, 
University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, 1958. 

4. Edward E. Dale, The Range Cattle Industry, University of Oklahoma 
Press, Norman, 1930. 


faction. There were sizeable corporate holdings there. Better 
watered than much of the state, it had attracted small owner- 
operator ranchmen and farmers early, and by 1892 there were 
several thousand residents in this region. 

During the winter of 1892, belligerent defenders of "free grass" 
organized and planned a raid into Johnson County. Ostensibly 
this was to be a punitive expedition against "rustlers" of cattle from 
corporate herds. This approach gained them the sympathy and in 
some cases the financial support of men and corporations not 
willing to participate directly. The size and the extra-legal nature 
of the expedition belie the assertion that the few "rustlers" of the 
region were their goal. It seems equally unrealistic to assume 
that they planned a complete reign of terror. Rather it appears 
they aimed to do in a number of alleged "rustlers" plus enough of 
the "guilty-by-association" (or rather by lack of association with 
the corporate interests!) to discourage not only rustling, but any 
influx of small landholders into the region. The expedition failed 
miserably to achieve its objective. The general facts and many 
details of the "Invasion" and subsequent events have been widely 
publicized. 5 The role of the U.S. government in general, and in 
particular that of the U.S. Regular Army have not. Federal cor- 
respondence on the topic is particularly valuable in that it contains 
the largest surviving volume of continuous contemporary corre- 
spondence on the subject. Most of it, too, is the writing of persons 
who were not among the contenders, but who had the uncom- 
fortable and difficult role of peace-keepers in those tense times. 

The army had fairly substantial forces scattered through the 
northern plains in 1 892, largely because of the recent Ghost Dance 
trouble on the northern reservations in 1 890-9 1. 6 Fort D. A. 
Russell, with eight companies from the 7th and 17th Infantry 
Regiments, stood just outside Cheyenne. 7 Near Buffalo was Fort 
McKinney, with Headquarters and three companies of the 8th 
Infantry and three companies of the 6th Cavalry. s Fort Custer, 
Montana, and Fort Robinson, Nebraska, were but a short distance 
from the state's boundaries. 

5. The classic exposition of the so-called "Johnson County War," is of 
course Asa S. Mercer's Banditti of the Plains, most readily available in the 
University of Oklahoma Press reprint of 1954. Other useful collections of 
fact and opinion are: 

Daisy F. Baber-The Longest Rope, Caxton Printers, Caldwell, Idaho, 1959. 
Frank M. Canton, Frontier Trails, N. Y. 1930 

Robert B. David, Malcolm Campbell, Sheriff, Casper, Wyo., 1932. 
Bohlen and Tisdale, An Era of Violence, Cheyenne, 1963. 

6. Robert M. Utley, Last Days of the Sioux Nation, Yale University 
Press, 1964. 

7. Letter, Major H. C. Egbert, 17th Infantry to Adjutant General, De- 
partment of the Platte, April 23, 1892. 

8. Fort McKinney, Wyoming, Post Return for April, 1892. 


There was little real legal reason for federal intervention in 
Wyoming's cattle troubles. The "Invasion" was planned and 
executed in violation of Wyoming law. The Invaders on April 9th, 
killed Nathan D. Champion and Nick Ray and burned the KC 
Ranch. Sheriff W. G. Angus soon assembled a legally-constituted 
posse and surrounded the invading party some 13 miles from 
Buffalo. That numerous members of Wyoming's state government 
sympathized with the Invaders has been abundantly proven by 
other writers, whose contentions are borne out by subsequent 
justice department investigations some months later. 9 

Colonel J. J. Van Horn on April 11, 1892 sent the first official 
news of trouble in Johnson County, for the information of the 
commanding general, Department of the Platte: 

I have the honor to report the following in regard to the disturb- 
ances now taking place in this county, so far as I am able to learn from 
citizens in this vicinity and from my guide (Grouard) viz: It appears 
that a body of about fifty armed men known here as "white caps" and 
supposed to be in the employ of the large cattle owners left in the 
vicinity of Casper about the 6th instant and proceeded to a point on 
the North Fork of Powder River sixty miles from post, known as K. C. 
Ranch, where they killed two men (Nate Champion and one other 
man) and burned the ranch. One body was so badly burned that it 
was hardly recognizeable, this on the 9th instant. The "white caps" 
are now at the T. A. Ranch situated about sixteen miles from the post 
on the North Fork of Crazy Woman where they are strongly en- 
trenched, and defending themselves against a posse comitatus of citi- 
zens (about 80) from Buffalo and vicinity who have them surrounded. 

It is more than possible that quite a number of lives will be lost 
before the "white caps" can be captured by the civil authorities. The 
telegraph line is in bad working order at present, and has been down 
for several days until yesterday. I have a repair party out now, which 
will not be in for ten days. 

I will endeavor to keep the Department Commander informed as to 
the facts and true state of affairs in this county, with reference to the 
present disturbances as often as I am put in possession of accurate 
information. The people are greatly excited and I have been entreated 
for help, which of course, I declined to give. 

My course is plainly defined by statute. 10 

Van Horn made further report on the morning of April 12th: 

I have the honor to report the following in addition to my report of 
yesterday, viz: Sheriff Angus was seen last night on his return from 
the T. A. Ranch. He talked very sensibly regarding the situation and 
says he is bound to arrest all of those concerned in the killing of Ray 
and Champion and for that purpose has sworn in a large posse to act 
as deputies. Should the so-called regulators resist arrest, he cannot 
be answerable for their lives. The wagons owned by the outfit have 
been captured and the teamsters and cooks taken. One of the latter 

9. Report of Examiner F. B. Crossthwaite, Department of Justice, to the 
Attorney General of the United States, November 2, 1892. 

10. Telegram, Colonel J. J. Van Horn to Adjutant General, Department 
of the Platte, April 11, 1892. 


has divulged the names of the regulators, says the expedition is offi- 
cered by a Major Wolcott, a large cattle owner, lieutenants are Frank 
Canton, now out on bail charged with killing an alleged "rustler" last 
year, and Fred Hesse, a prominent cattle owner of this county. Other 
well known residents of Johnson County are said to be with the party. 
The entire country is aroused by the news of the killing at K. C. Ranch 
and some of the best citizens are enlisted in the Sheriff's posse, deter- 
mined to bring the regulators to justice. 

The County Commissioners were seen last night and talked very 
feelingly. They resent the many slurs cast upon their county by the 
cattle barons who are trying to drive the smaller stockmen off the 
range. They admit there are some rustlers or cattle thieves in the 
county, but claim the big owners are just as bad, if not worse than 
the men they are seeking to exterminate. All express deep horror at 
the recent outrageous murders, but are satisfied to let the law take its 
course. Governor Barber has ordered Co. "C" Wyoming National 
Guards to be in readiness for protection of life and city property at 
Buffalo. Will give you all reliable information as to the state of 
affairs in this vicinity as soon as known. 11 

Other wires were busy on April 12th. Acting Governor Barber 
telegraphed Brigadier General John R. Brooke, commanding gen- 
eral, Department of the Platte, in Omaha, to apprise him of the 
situation. 12 Barber next telegraphed the president, certifying a 
"state of insurrection" to exist, and calling for federal aid to 
suppress it. 13 He further telegraphed the secretary of war request- 
ing an issue of arms and ammunition to Company G, 1 st Wyoming 
National Guard Infantry at Sheridan, to be used in suppressing 
"insurrection." 14 It is interesting to note that while he had called 
Company C of this unit at Buffalo to duty, this company had no 
official supply of arms and ammunition, and he made no effort 
to arm them during this period. 15 Major General Schofield, com- 
manding the army, had Brooke alert the troops at Fort McKinney 
to await a presidential decision. 16 

The Invaders had a party out to cut the telegraph wire on then- 
way up country. 17 Fortunately for them, however, a prolonged 

11. Telegram, Colonel J. J. Van Horn to Adjutant General, Department 
of the Platte, April 12, 1892. 

12. Telegram, Brigadier General John R. Brooke to Major General 
Schofield, Commanding the Army, Washington D. C, April 12, 1892, 
quoting a telegram he had just received from Acting Governor Barber of 

13. Telegram, Acting Governor Barber, Cheyenne, to the President of 
the United States, Washington, D. C, April 12, 1892. 

14. Telegram, Acting Governor Barber to Secretary of War Elkins, April 
12, 1892. 

15. The arms of this company of the Wyoming National Guard had been 
routinely turned in for replacement during the winter, and were not yet 
replaced. There is abundant correspondence in the Fort McKinney letters- 
received file on this point. 

16. Telegram, General Schofield to General Brooke, April 12, 1892. 
Two telegrams, Brooke to Schofield April 12, 1892. 

17. See Mercer, pp. 50-51, and others on this point. 


break was not achieved until just before 1 :00 a.m. on April 13th. 
Telegraphic instructions from General Brooke, conveying the pres- 
ident's orders reached Colonel Van Horn at Fort McKinney at 
12:05 a.m. Van Horn's own report of the next twelve hours is 
especially interesting: 

I have the honor to submit the following report of my action under 
telegraphic instructions from the Department Commander, directing 
me to carry out the orders of the President of the United States, dates 
April 12, these orders were, in substance, to send a sufficient force "to 
cooperate with the Governor of Wyoming, and suppress disorder and 
protect the state against domestic violence, to prevent conflict between 
the opposing parties, to act with prudence and discretion, but with 
firmness so as to preserve the peace." In connection with my dis- 
positions to secure the results desired, I received on April 13th a tele- 
gram from Governor Amos W. Barber of Wyoming in which he sug- 
gests "that a competent representative of the state be at the place for 
purpose of cooperation, C. H. Parmelee of Buffalo, my aide-de-camp, 
has been my representative at that place. The situation at Buffalo is 
of such character as to suggest that he may be acting under coercion, 
and not voluntarily. I request that you secure the presence of Captain 
Parmelee at Fort McKinney at once and satisfy yourself whether he 
is in a position to act independently and without fear. If you are 
satisfied that he is in a position to represent me, I then request that you 
confer with him and take such immediate steps as may be necessary 
and advise me. It is very important that all hostilities be stopped at 
once, and that no violence be permitted to any of the persons con- 
cerned. Considering the excitement in the vicinity it seems advisable 
that the people who are now beseiged should be given protection at 
Fort McKinney until time can be had for further action." 

The orders of the president as transmitted by the Department Com- 
mander were received at 12:05 a.m. 13th inst., and at 2:00 a.m., I left 
the post for the scene of disorder, viz: the T. A. Ranch on North Fork 
of Crazy Woman with the following officers and men: Major E. G. 
Fechet, 6th Cavalry, 1st Lieut. R. H. Wilson, Adjutant 8th Infantry; 
Troop H 6th Cavalry, Capt. W. M. Wallace, 1st Lt. C. B. Gatewood 
and 2nd Lieut. Alonzo Gray; Troop C 6th Cavalry, Captain William 
Stanton, and 1st Lieut. R. B. Paddock, 8th Cav.; Troop D., 6th Cav- 
alry, Capt. G. L. Scott, 1st Lieut. J. A. Cole and 2nd Lt. Elmer Lind- 
sley, a total number of 1 1 officers and 96 enlisted men. The com- 
mand was accompanied by Sheriff Angus of Johnson County, and 
three other citizens who rendered valuable service in finding the road. 
While passing through the city of Buffalo, Captain C. H. Parmelee, 
A.D.C. to Governor Barber, joined the command and remained with 
it during the day. 

Following the Casper road, the T. A. Ranch 13 miles from the post 
was reached at 6:45 a.m., while still several miles distant, my approach 
was discovered by both of the hostile parties, and the beseigers from 
that time kept up an almost continuous fire upon the buildings occu- 
pied by their opponents. 

Upon arriving at about 800 yards from the ranch, I halted behind a 
hill. The situation was found to be as follows: the house and barn 
of the T. A. Ranch had been occupied by the regulators and arranged 
for defensive purposes. The house which was made of sawed beams 
8 inches thick, was occupied by the main body, the horses were kept 
in the stable which was also garrisoned. On a slight rise about 100 
yards west of the barn, a small redoubt had been constructed by 
excavating a ditch about 2 feet wide and deep and placing upon the 
parapet beams from the house for head logs, the whole forming a very 


efficient field work, occupied by about 12 men. The buildings and c. 
are shown in the accompanying sketch. The beseigers were dispersed 
in parties so as to completely surround the regulators and at a distance 
of not less than 500 yards. Firing had been going on by day and night 
for several days. Immediately after halting as stated, I requested 
Sheriff Angus to cause the beseiging party to cease firing. This was 
soon effected, and as soon as it was evident that the firing had ceased, 
the squadron was formed in line, moved forward to a point about 300 
yards west of the redoubt, and halted, after waiting here a moment I 
rode forward toward the redoubt, accompanied by several officers, 
sheriff Angus and the guidons. A white flag being displayed it was 
immediately responded to by the men in the redoubt, and the men 
stationed in it came out to meet me. 

The commander of the Regulators, Major Wolcott, in reply to my 
demand that he should surrender his party to me, replied that he 
would do so if it should be understood that he should be given pro- 
tection by the military and taken to Fort McKinney. He said that 
he and his party would rather die than surrender to Sheriff Angus. 
His conditions having been accepted, he at once surrendered his party 
and turned over the arms and horses and his men to an officer desig- 
nated for the purpose. A list of names and owners of each weapon 
being taken at this time. 

The names of the men surrendered are: [here follows the same 
list of 45 names reproduced in Mercer and elsewhere] 

The arms surrendered comprise 45 rifles, 50 revolvers and 5,000 
rounds of cartridges. Upon examining the house a man whose name 
was afterwards found to be Alexander Louther was found seriously 
wounded. An ambulance was provided and he was taken to the post 
hospital for treatment. The surrender and turning over of arms 
occupied about two hours and was all accomplished without any 
difficulty. During its operation the beseigers collected in a large party 
of about 200 horsemen and observed the proceedings very attentively, 
coming as close as the cordon of troops would permit. The arms 
being turned over, and loaded into a wagon and the regulators formed 
in a column on the road, a party of cavalry was placed at their head, 
and each side and a guard in the rear of all. 

The return march was begun at 8:45 a.m. The beseiging party took 
up a position on the hillside near the road but without any attempt at 
disturbing or molesting the movements. In fact their conduct so far as 
relates to their intercourse with the troops was extremely moderate 
and creditable to themselves. The return march was accomplished 
without incident. Another road was taken so as to avoid passing 
through the city of Buffalo and the post was reached at 12:15 p.m. 
The prisoners were placed in quarters under a strong guard and their 
horses were turned over to the post quartermaster. A wagon, four 
horses and harness, belonging to the regulators was brought to the post 
by the troops. During the conflict at the ranch no lives were lost 
and the only casualty that occurred as far as I can learn was the 
wounding of the regulator, Alexander Louther by the accidental dis- 
charge of his own revolver. Five horses belonging to the regulators 
were killed and several others wounded. 18 

18. Letter, Col. Van Horn to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, 
April 13, 1892. 


Acting Governor Barber during this time first planned to go to 
Buffalo himself and requested a cavalry escort from Gillette to 
Buffalo. Brooke and Schofield approved his request, but he 
apparently changed his mind on finding that the Invaders were 
safe at Fort McKinney. 1! ' The first outline of Van Horn's action 
reached Washington, D. C, on April 14, along with news of Bar- 
ber's decision to have the prisoners escorted to Douglas. 20 Secre- 
tary of War S. B. Elkins forwarded this news to Senators Francis 
E. Warren and Joseph M. Carey the same day. 21 

Sheriff W. G. Angus went to Ft. McKinney on April 14, and 
there served a writ on Colonel Van Horn for delivery of the prison- 
ers to civil authority. Van Horn refused to deliver the prisoners, 
stating that they were held pending receipt of instructions from 
the president through channels. 22 Angus then telegraphed a de- 
mand for their release to the president. 2:{ On the 1 5th, Van Horn 
summarized events of the previous day, mentioned the considerable 
excitement of the public and the interest in the Champion and Ray 
funeral to be held that day. He also stated that the telegraph was 
again out of order and that the "rustlers" were interfering with 
traffic to the post. 24 

The federal government ignored Angus' request, since that same 
day orders were sent out to turn the prisoners over to the governor 
of Wyoming, 25 and Acting Governor Barber was informed of this 
action. 2,i General Brooke made the following report that day: 

I report as follows: my last information from Colonel Van Horn 
stated his arrival at the post with the 46 surrendered men. They are 
now there. The line has since been down and direct communication 
by wire not possible until this evening. I expect his report in full by 
mail about the twentieth. At this moment the telegraph company 
report that my order to Col. Van Horn of today to send the prisoners 
to Douglas in compliance with request of Gov. Barber has been deliv- 
ered. The Governor has directed the Sheriff of Johnson County to 
deliver to Col. Van Horn four of the Wolcott party arrested by the 
Sheriff when he captured Wolcott's wagons prior to the surrender of 

19. Three successive telegrams, General Brooke to General Schofield, 
April 13, 1892. 

20. Telegram, General Brooke to General Schofield, April 14, 1892. 

21. Telegram, Secretary of War Elkins to Senator Francis E. Warren, 
April 14, 1892, and duplicate of same date to Senator J. M. Carey. 

22. Endorsement by Van Horn on writ presented by Johnson County, 
April 14, 1892. also: letter Colonel Van Horn to Adjutant General, Depart- 
ment of the Platte, April 15, 1892. 

23. Telegram, Sheriff W. G. Angus to President Benjamin Harrison, 
April 15, 1892. 

24. Letter, Colonel Van Horn to Adjutant General, Department of the 
Platte, April 15, 1892. 

25. Telegram, Secretary of War Elkins to General Brooke, April 15, 

26. Telegram, Secretary of War Elkins to Governor Barber, April 15, 


Wolcott to Col. Van Horn. The Governor desires me to obtain pos- 
session of the four men in the hands of the Sheriff by force if neces- 
sary. I have asked the Gov. to state to me whether taking them by 
military force is necessary to protect life and preserve the peace. The 
question about these four prisoners will remain in abeyance until he 
answers my question. On the surrender of Major Wolcott's party, I 
directed Col. Van Horn to hold them till he received order from me. 
I am confident he has done so. 27 

He supplemented this report on the 1 6th, stating that the Governor 
had certified the taking of the prisoners necessary to protect their 
lives, and wished them to be taken by force if necessary. He stated 
that Colonel Van Horn found that only two prisoners were in jail, 
the cooks and teamsters having been released on bail. Brooke gave 
Van Horn instructions to obtain these men, using prudence and 
discretion. 28 Secretary of War Elkins replied: 

You can have the Wolcott party taken to Fort D. A. Russell, as re- 
quested by the Governor, and deliver them to him there. You will 
not allow Colonel Van Horn or the military to take parties held in 
custody of the sheriff from the sheriff by force; but the military 
authorities may, upon request of the Governor, protect parties held in 
custody of the Sheriff from violence. 29 

Brooke informed both Van Horn and the governor of these instruc- 
tions. 80 Van Horn then issued orders for the escort of the prisoners 
to Douglas leaving the next day. 31 After this party got under way, 
Van Horn reported that he had secured one prisoner, R. M. Allen, 
from the sheriff on the 1 6th, and that the others were free in Buf- 
falo, and reported to Major Kellog that they felt themselves in no 
danger. 32 The escort, commanded by Major E. G. Fechet, 6th 
Cavalry, consisted of companies C, D, and H of the 6th Cav- 
alry, along with a small detail of infantry serving as crew for a 
1.65 inch Hotchkiss gun, an ambulance and medical personnel, 
and a special telegraph operator. Despite muddy roads, snow 
drifts and general foul weather, they reached the site of old Fort 
Fetterman on the 23d of April. 33 

Major H. C. Egbert, 17th Infantry, came by train to the Fort 
Fetterman site with nine officers and 108 enlisted men of the 17th 
and the 7th Infantry. They received the prisoners and returned to 

27. Telegram, General Brooke to Secretary of War Elkins, April 15, 

28. Telegram, General Brooke to Secretary of War Elkins, April 16, 

29. Telegram, Secretary of War Elkins to General Brooke, April 16, 

30. Telegram, General Brooke to Elkins, 9 p.m., April 16, 1892. 

31. Orders #57, Headquarters, Ft. McKinney, April 16, 1892. 

32. Letter, Col. Van Horn to Adjutant General, Department of the 
Platte, April 17, 1892. 

33. Letter, Major E. G. Fechet, 6th Cavalry to Post Adjutant, Fort Mc- 
Kinney, May 2, 1892. 


Fort D. A. Russell without incident, finding that the governor had 
requested the prisoners held there. 34 The specific orders under 
which the prisoners were held at Fort D. A. Russell were: 

Replying to your message transmitting dispatch of Governor Barber 
to you about holding Wolcott party, it is the desire of the President 
and you are instructed to hold the party as suggested at Fort D. A. 
Russell in vacant barracks; only temporarily, however, and until they 
can be turned over to the Governor and civil authorities, and on the 
condition that the military authorities are holding them at the request 
of and subject to the orders of the civil authorities, and to be released 
only to them; and while they are so held the expense of their sub- 
sistence shall be borne by the civil authorities or by the prisoners. 
It is believed that the Governor and civil authorities should, without 
unnecessary delay take charge of the prisoners. There will be no 
objection, for the time being, to the party occupying the vacant bar- 
racks even after they are in charge of the civil officers if desired. 35 

Action for a time shifted to the political. On April 23d, repre- 
sentatives of nine large cattle companies sent a long plea to Senator 
C. F. Manderson of Nebraska, soliciting his support for the efforts 
of Senators Warren and Carey on behalf of the Wolcott party. 36 
Manderson sent this on to the secretary of war with a strong en- 
dorsement. 37 That same day (May 9th) Governor Barber request- 
ed General Brooke to continue to hold the prisoners at Fort D. A. 
Russell, stating: 

If the prisoners are delivered to the civil authorities at this time I will 
have to turn them over to the officers of Johnson County, as the only 
authority authorized to receive them from me, and in their custody I 
believe there would be so much danger of violence to the men that I 
would be unable to protect them. After the place of trial has been 
fixed the proper civil authorization to receive them from me would 
then be the sheriff of the county where the prisoners are to be tried, 
and the state will then be ready to relieve the military authorities and 
take charge of the prisoners. :w 

A counter proposal in the form of a petition to the president 
requested the immediate return of the prisoners to Johnson County 
for trial. This document came from Big Horn, in Sheridan County, 
and bore the signatures of 171 citizens of that area. The names 

34. Letter, Major H. C. Egbert, 17th Infantry, to Adjutant General, 
Department of the Platte, April 25, 1892. also: telegram, General Brooke 
to General Schofield, April 21, 1892. 

35. Telegram, Secretary of War Elkins to General Brooke, April 21, 

36. Letter, Henry J. Windsor, John A. McShane, Patrick Bros., Converse 
Cattle Co., H. S. Manville, Gen. Mgr.; M. A. Paxton, Oglalla Land and 
Cattle Co., Pratt & Ferris Cattle Co., Henry A. Blair, Clay and Forrest, to 
Senator C. F. Manderson, dated at Omaha, April 23, 1892. 

37. Letter, Senator Charles F. Manderson to Secretary of War Elkins, 
May 9, 1892. 

38. Letter, Governor Barber to General Brooke, May 9, 1892. 


on this petition are not those of "rustlers" but rather read like a 
charter list of "first families" of northern Wyoming, substantial 
individual ranchers, homesteaders, doctors, ministers, miners, all of 
whom supported the views of their Johnson County neighbors. 39 

About this time, Senator Carey secured copies of all the War 
Department correspondence on the subject of the Invasion, and 
traveled to Cheyenne in time for the pre-trial conferences between 
county and state authorities and representatives of the prosecution 
and the defense. 40 Following the initial conference Barber tele- 
graphed the Secretary of War: 

The attorneys for the prosecution and the defense in relation to the 
Wolcott party now at Ft. D. A. Russell have today held a full con- 
ference at my office with the Judge of the district court and with the 
authorities of Johnson County and with my approval it has been vir- 
tually agreed that you should be respectfully requested to so modify 
your order relating to the custody of the Wolcott party that an officer 
of Johnson county be admitted whenever necessary for the purpose of 
serving warrants and that the Wolcott party be further held in the 
same manner as heretofore but to be delivered to the civil authorities 
from time to time as the Judge of the district court may request. I am 
assured by the prosecution and the defense and by the District Judge 
that these cases will be brought to trial and disposed of as soon as 
possible. I therefore earnestly request that the modification suggested 
be made. 41 

Senator Carey strongly endorsed this course, 42 but Elkins, appar- 
ently somewhat impatient by this time replied: 

Replying to your message of the 21st instant, I desire to say that the 
Department considers that the prisoners are now in your custody and 
under your control, subject to your orders and your disposition and are 
held only at your request and that of the civil authorities. That their 
being held at Fort D. A. Russell was upon your statement and others 
that the civil power was unable to protect them from violence. You 
can make any arrangements that you see fit about them and how you 
surrender them to the civil authorities for trial, the sooner the better, 
however. I have no objection to the occupation of vacant barracks 
at Fort D. A. Russell temporarily, but as soon as you can do so, it is 
the desire of the Department that you not only have the full charge 
and control of the prisoners, but that you give them the protection you 
now seek and have from the military authorities. 43 

Finally, on July 5, 1892, the Wolcott party was formally turned 
over to representatives of the state and taken from Fort D. A. 
Russell and General Schofield instructed that they not be received 

39. Petition from Citizens of town of Big Horn, and Sheridan County 
Wyoming to the President of the United States, April 1892. 

40. Letter, Secretary of War Elkins to Senator Carey, May 13, 18 92. 

41. Telegram, Governor Barber to Secretary of War Elkins, May 21, 

42. Telegram, Senator Carey to Secretary of War Elkins, May 21, 1892. 

43. Telegram, Secretary of War Elkins to Governor Barber, May 23, 


back without orders from the War Department. 44 Thus ended one 
phase of army involvement in the Wyoming troubles. 

Meanwhile several events occurred to lend support to the cattle- 
men's assertions of lawlessness in northern Wyoming. On May 
12, 1892, the remains of Deputy U. S. Marshal George Wellman 
were brought to Buffalo. 4r> The death of Wellman complicated the 
local situation. He was a foreman at the Hoe ranch, whose em- 
ployers had been involved in the Invasion. He was, however, 
well thought of personally in Buffalo. His funeral took place in 
St. Luke's Church on May 13th and was attended by members of 
the local Masonic lodge. 4 ' 1 There are widely divergent theories 
about Wellman's death, some seeing it as a cattleman's plot to 
discredit Johnson County, 47 others holding that "rustlers" were 
responsible. 4S Whatever the truth, the incident did create dissen- 
sion in Johnson County and was used as argument by the cattle 
companies in seeking martial law for the region. 49 

The second incident occurred May 1 8th, when a disastrous fire 
destroyed the post exchange and several barracks at Fort Mc- 
Kinney. A second smaller fire several days later was of definite 
incendiary origin and it was generally supposed that both were. 50 

Now the Invaders and their supporters struck a new political 
blow. They sent the following demand to Senator Carey in a 
telegram on June 1st: 

We want changes of troops made as follows: Headquarters of eighth 
infantry and three companies of that regiment now at Fort McKinney 
ordered to Sidney. Major Egbert and 17th Infantry and three 
companies of that regiment ordered from Russell to McKinney. This 
gives us commanding officer. We want cool level headed man whose 
sympathy is with us. Order Major Fechet and the two companies of 
the Sixth Cavalry from McKinney to Niobrara, anywhere else out of 
that country. He and his men have relations with the sheriff and his 
gang that make the whole command very undesirable for us. Send 
six companies of Ninth Cavalry from Robinson to McKinney. The 
colored troops will have no sympathy for Texan thieves, and these 
are the troops we want. See General Manderson who understands 
situation and will assist in carrying out this plan. It is important that 
action should be taken at once. We urge that time is everything. This 
is preliminary to declaration of martial law. Advise us when order 
is made. 51 

44. Telegram, General Brooke to Adjutant General, Washington, D. C, 
July 5, 1892. also: endorsement, Schofield to Brooke, July 7, 1892. 

45. Letter, Col. Van Horn to Adjutant General, Department of the 
Platte, May 12, 1892. 

46. Lillian H. Baker, The History of St. Luke's Episcopal Church, pri- 
vately printed, Buffalo, Wyoming, 1949, p. 7. 

47. Mercer, Banditti of the Plains, pp. 112-114. 

48. Baker, op. cit. 

49. Telegram, Senator Warren to Senator Carey, June 1, 1892. 

50. "Report of a board of officers," May 22, 1892 at Fort McKinney. 

51. Telegram, Wolcott, Hay, Baxter, Blair, Clay and VanDevanter to 
Senator Joseph M. Carey, Washington, D. C, June 1, 1892. 


Senator Warren sent a telegram from Cheyenne to Senator Carey 
the same day, stating: 

Declaration of martial law seems inevitable. Please direct attention 
Department to depredations at Ft. McKinney. Facts show and Flagg's 
People's Voice 21st instant acknowledge twenty carbines stolen from 
cavalry and incendiary fire at post buildings attempted by rustlers. 
Very latest information I saw matters Chicago, Burlington officials 
Omaha, late letters from Mayor Burritt, Buffalo, also merchant Mun- 
kres, banker Thorn, editor Bouton, manager Winterling, all asserting 
in the most positive terms that nothing less than immediate drastic 
measures from the authorities outside and above county officials can 
reduce present state of almost if not complete anarchy Johnson Coun- 
ty. Parties writing send letters in private hands over part of route, 
asserting mails tampered with at small intervening offices. Northern 
letters implore martial law. Perry Organ tonight emphatically urges 
martial law. Exhibit, but do not file this dispatch because I am only 
permitted to use northern names Secretary, they fearing destruction of 
their property and assassination if publicity given their names and 
views. 52 

Carey forwarded these on June 2nd to Secretary of War Elkins, 
with this comment: 

I enclose you copies of dispatches which I desire you to read and hand 
back to Mr. Morris, as it is not well to file them at present. 

I had a very satisfactory talk with the President yesterday, and also 
with General Schofield. I dislike to leave here; but I cannot well do 
otherwise, so I go to Minneapolis. 

General Schofield believes in concentrating troops in the disturbed 
district in Wyoming immediately. This would be a good move, and 
would be carrying out the plans heretofore adopted at the army head- 
quarters with reference to summer encampments. 53 

General Schofield asked General Brooke's opinion on June 3, 
1892, 54 and received this reply: 

Replying to your telegram of today I would say that a cavalry camp 
can be established near where the Burlington and Missouri Railroad 
will cross Powder River-the cavalry from Robinson and Niobrara to be 
sent there. From present information and to accomplish the purpose 
referred to, I think it would be better to establish two camps-one to 
be between Douglas and Casper, at such point as may be found best. 
In this case, the cavalry from Robinson should be at Powder River 
Crossing and that from Niobrara at the other place. The troops to be 
moved as circumstances may require. The garrison at McKinney 
should not be disturbed. Rail transportation should be used as far 
as practicable owing to the heavy rains having made the country very 
difficult. 55 

Schofield approved Brooke's suggestion, 56 and the troops were 

52. Telegram, Senator Warren to Senator Carey, June 1, 1892. 

53. Letter, Senator Carey to Secretary of War Elkins, June 2, 1892. 

54. Telegram, General Schofield to General Brooke, June 3, 1892. 

55. Telegram, General Brooke to General Schofield, June 3, 1892. 

56. Telegram, General Schofield to General Brooke, June 4, 1892. 


in motion by June 7th, 57 six troops of the 9th Cavalry going into 
camp near the point where the Burlington Railroad was to cross 
Powder River, and six troops of the 6th Cavalry camping near old 
Fort Fetterman northwest of Douglas. 58 

Major C. S. Ilsley, commanding the contingent of the 9th Cav- 
alry found the small but typical end-of-track town of Suggs occupy- 
ing his projected camp site. He preferred to go on to Clear Fork, 
to find better campgrounds and to avoid contact between his 
colored troops and the citizens of this hard-looking little town. 
His orders seemed to preclude crossing Powder River, so he moved 
the column upstream some four miles and went into camp. 59 This 
"camp-of-instruction" was designated Camp P. A. Bettens. 60 

Conditions at Suggs were ready made for trouble. There were a 
number of saloons in the town. Troops of Ilsley's command were 
colored regulars, steady and well-proven in combat, but sometimes 
inclined to be a bit turbulent in camp. 61 Citizens in the town were 
generally resentful of the presence of troops. Some, especially the 
businessmen, were at least civil to the troops. Others, a collection 
of miscellaneous drifters, unemployed cowboys and the like, were 
belligerent and insulting to white officers and colored enlisted men 
alike when these were in town on business. 

The command had as a civilian guide one Philip du Fran, who 
had been sent to Major Ilsley by General Brooke, and represented 
as one who knew the Powder River country thoroughly. This was 
the same Phil du Fran captured as a member of the Invaders at 
the TA Ranch, and at this time was supposed to be in confinement 
at Fort D. A. Russell awaiting trial. Du Fran's presence led the 
citizens to believe the troops would be used in a federally sanc- 
tioned raid on the region. Du Fran himself said that when "his 
friends in Cheyenne" were free, he would come back with a com- 
mission as a deputy U. S. Marshall with warrants for over 40 
citizens of the Powder River country, and a regiment to back him 
up. He agitated among the soldiers and openly aired his views to 
junior officers. 

57. Telegram, Adjutant General, Department of the Platte to Command- 
ing Officer, Fort McKinney, June 8, 1892. also: telegram, General Brooke 
to Adjutant General, Washington D. C, June 8, 1892. 

58. Ibid. 

59. "The Affair at Suggs," a report by Major C. S. Ilsley, 9th Cavalry, to 
Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, June 19, 1892. 

60. Presumably named for 1st Lt. Philip Augustus Bettens, one-time 
officer of the 9th Cavalry, who died in March, 1892. 

61. The combat records of the 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments and the 
post records of several posts where they were stationed seem to bear out 
this statement. 


Just one spark was needed and a lady of easy virtue supplied this 
on June 16th. The unnamed woman had formerly lived at Craw- 
ford, Nebraska, near Fort Robinson, and at other points down- 
track, and with other girls also now in Suggs "had been in the habit 
heretofore of dispensing their favors regardless of color." Private 
Champ, of G troop, in town without permission, somehow found 
the girl was in town and went to call on her. She, now living with a 
white man, styled a "rustler", refused to let Champ in the house. 
After a few ineffective kicks at the door he drifted down town to a 
bar, and was joined there by Private Smith of E company, in town 
on an official errand. Moments later, the "lady's" white lover 
stalked in, pointed a cocked revolver at Champ and cursed him 
unprintably. Private Smith drew his service revolver and covered 
the "rustler." Bystanders in turn drew their revolvers and covered 
Private Smith. The bartender intervened, got all to holster their 
guns, and showed the soldiers a good route out of town. As they 
rode out, mounted double on Smith's horse, a fusillade burst from a 
house behind them, one bullet passing through Smith's hat. They 
returned the fire with their revolvers and sped off to camp. 

Their arrival created great excitement, but prompt action by 
Ilsley and his officers and N.C.O.'s prevented a mass foray to the 
town. Anticipating trouble the next night, the 17th, Ilsley doubled 
the guard around camp and ordered two nighttime check roll calls. 
Even so, during the nearly evening hours, Privates Smith, Champ 
and eighteen others slipped out of camp, armed, and assembled 
near the town. 

They moved in a body to near the stage station and fired a volley 
into the air to attract attention, then commenced firing at stores, 
houses, and at a saloon they called "rustler headquarters". Towns- 
men swarmed out and opened a heavy fire with their repeating 
rifles and a general melee ensued. Women and children rushed 
out in their night clothes and headed out the other end of town to 
hide in the sagebrush. The soldiers retreated toward camp under 
a brisk fire from the town, leaving Private Willis Johnston dead in 
the street, and bringing their wounded, Privates Champ and 
Thompkins with them. One citizen received a slight wound in 
this foray. 

When officers in camp heard the firing, they formed up the 
command. Captain Johnathan Guilfoyle and companies I and A 
were sent to town to investigate. On the way they met and arrested 
the absentees straggling back to camp. Guilfoyle threw a picket 
screen around the town to protect it, and spent the night calming 
the citizens and conferring with officials and prominent citizens to 
restore the peace. 

A series of investigations followed. Du Fran's role exposed, he 
was escorted to Gillette by a company of cavalry. Investigating 
officers thought Private Willis Johnston might have been killed by 


the fire of his comrades. The army was extremely embarrassed 
over the entire affair. 62 

General Schofield instructed the adjutant general to issue the 
following order: 

" your troops should be kept out of the town and away from 

the people. The military commander has no functions whatever to 
perform there respecting the civil authorities, and no duty in respect 
to the preservation of the peace. Under the present state of feeling 
the troops should be kept in their camps and entirely separated from 
those who may entertain hostile feelings. 68 

Thus ended the direct involvement of the army in Wyoming's 
affairs. The troops at Camp Bettens and Camp Elkins continued 
their field training and were withdrawn to their respective posts 
early in November. 64 

Through that summer and fall, other federal intervention tapered 
off. A presidential proclamation at the end of July pleased the 
cattlemen and reassured some of Johnson county's worried citizens. 
Behind the scenes, U. S. Marshall Rankin, once assured of the 
support of the assistant U. S. Attorney and the federal district judge, 
calmly let Johnson County simmer down, without provoking fur- 
ther incidents, and with confidence restored, sent in three good men 
to arrest and /or run off the mere handful of actual outlaws believed 

62. This account of the Affair at Suggs is carefully drawn from the fol- 

"Report of a Board of Officers," Camp Bettens, Wyo., June 18, 1892 

Report-"The Affair at Suggs" Major C. S. Ilsley, 9th Cavalry, to Adjutant 
General, Department of the Platte, June 19, 1892 

Letter, 1st Lt. G. S. Bingham, 9th Cavalry, to Major C. S. Ilsley, command- 
ing the Camp P. A. Bettens, June 18, 1892. 

"Report" Capt. Jno. F. Guilfoyle, 9th Cavalry to Camp Adjutant, Camp 
Bettens, Wyoming, June 18, 1892. 

"Proceedings of a Board of Officers Which Convened at Camp Bettens, 
Wyoming, near the Town of Suggs, Wyoming, pursuant to Camp Orders 
No. 3, June 18, 1892." 

"Report on the Trouble at Suggs, Wyoming on June 16th and 17th, 1892" 
by Major Jno. M. Bacon, 7th Cavalry, Acting Inspector General, Depart- 
ment of the Platte, to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, June 28, 

Telegram, General John Brooke, Department of the Platte to Adjutant 
General, Washington, D. C, June 19, 1892. 

Letter, General John Brooke, Department of the Platte, to Adjutant General, 
Washington, D. C, July 21, 1892. 

63. Memorandum, General Schofield to the Adjutant General, Washing- 
ton, D. C, June 20, 1892. 

64. Telegram, General Schofield to General Brooke, November 12, 1892. 
also: telegram. General Brooke to General Schofield, November 13, 1892. 


to be in Johnson County's back country. 65 A justice department 
investigation upheld Rankin, sharply criticized the role of U. S. 
Commissioner Churchill, and of certain state officials, and stated 
that the federal government should never have intervened in the 
situation at all. 66 

Through the closing months of 1892 at the state level, the 
Invaders politicked their way to freedom, having lost their "battle" 
and their "war" and infinitely complicated Wyoming politics for 
many years. 

65. The "three good men" were: Frank Grouard, Post Guide of Fort 
McKinney, Baptiste "Little Bat" Gamier, Guide at Fort Robinson and a 
Pinkerton Agency detective. This data from reports of Marshal Rankin, 
accompanying the Crossthwaite report of 2 November 1892. 

66. Comments on the activities of Marshal Rankin and other U. S. Civil 
authorities are based on: 

Special File 6316-92 — "Letters Received and Sent relating to the 'Johnson 
County War' in 1892 in Wyoming," found in the Records of the Department 
of Justice, RG 60, National Archives. (Microfilm copies on file in the 
Western History section of the Library at the University of Wyoming, Lara- 

Note on military sources: All the military correspondence cited above will 

be found in one of the following: 

"A. G. Document File 29763, PRD 1892" Records of the Adjutant Generals 

Office, RG 94 

Post Records Fort McKinney, Wyoming; Post Records Fort D. A. Russell, 

Wyoming; Records of the Department of the Platte; all RG98, "Records of 

U. S. Army Commands" National Archives, Washington, D. C. (microfilm 

copies have been placed on file with the State Archives and Historical Dept.) 



Courtesy of W . R. Bandy 

The Tunnel crew at the entrance of No. 2 Tunnel. W. R. Bandy, and his 
assistant, Mr. Beryl, are at the right. 

Courtesy of W. R. Bandy 

Headquarters office buildings at No. 2 Tunnel. Mr. Bandy's office was the 
second building from the left. 

Q hosts Zook Over the Zunnel 

W. R. Bandy 

The west has lots of ghost towns, many well known. But how 
about ghost tunnels — some old abandoned irrigation tunnels such 
as the Wiley Project in Wyoming's Big Horn Basin? 

These could well be favorite haunts of a whole flock of ghosts — 
the dynamiters, the muckers, the loaders, even the horses that 
worked along the sage-covered slope of Carter Mountain's foothills. 

Once those diggings were the scene of beehive activity. Now, 
just a few who roamed the Basin at the turn of the century still 
have vivid recollections of seeing groups of overall-clad workmen, 
armed with picks and shovels, darting like ants in and out of those 
holes in the hillside. 

Back of that activity was a scheme devised by S. L. Wiley, 
public-spirited resident of the Basin, to irrigate and develop large 
tracts of desert lands in the Dry Creek valley. 

The general plan was to bring water from the South Fork of the 
Shoshone River by means of a 60-foot canal for a distance of more 
than 30 miles to the Oregon Basin. There it would be spread upon 
the land. Along this long canal were to be four tunnels cutting 
through high boulder-strewn spurs and ridges. Work on that canal 
and the four tunnels was just getting under way when I arrived on 
the scene in the fall of 1907. 

Now, on my occasional visits to Cody, the old familiar scars on 
the foothills to the south remind me of days long ago when as a 
young surveyor I had the good fortune of playing a small part in 
the construction of those tunnels. 

This was my first job on tunnel work. I was on my own, with 
major responsibilities. 

I stumbled onto this job through George W. Zorn, then chief 
engineer for the Wiley outfit. The company was officially known 
as the Big Horn Basin Development Company, with headquarters 
at the Wiley Ranch on Sage Creek south of Cody. My duties 
included doing survey work on the tunnels during construction. 
My headquarters were at the main camp at the east end of No. 2 
Tunnel. To reach the camp from Cody I caught a ride on the 
freight wagon. The long and dusty road led southwest across Irma 
Flat and wound up over the hills at camp. The trip of about 15 
miles took most of the afternoon. The camp was approached by 
going down a steep grade on the east side of a ridge to the head of a 
gulch. I still remember the grade because we often had to push 


Wiley's automobile up the grade a few chugs at a time to get him 
started off for Cody. 

My first view of camp, which was to be my home for two years, 
was from that ridge. It was a thrilling sight to see new buildings 
spread out on the sagebrush slopes below. The fact that they were 
constructed of rough, undressed lumber covered with tar paper 
failed to dampen my enthusiasm, as they were such an improve- 
ment over the flapping, dusty tents that had been my shelter the 
past summers in the desert. The camp structures were grouped 
around the two main buildings, the combined cookshack and dining 
room and the office and commissary. The stables and powerhouse 
were situated down the coulee. 

I was gratified to learn I would have a 1 2 x 1 6-foot shack all to 
myself for an office and living quarters. In it were a homemade 
table, two stools, a flat-topped coal stove, with bench and water 
bucket close by. After putting up my cot and rolling out my bed- 
roll I had all the comforts of home, luxurious in comparison with 
the dirt-floored tent and sagebrush stove I had been sharing with 
two other boys on the survey. Electric lights replacing the tallow 
candles were added blessings. 

A. L. Phillips, the superintendent, was a dynamic person with 
forceful personality. He understood all phases of the work and ran 
a very efficient camp. William B. Edwards, a likeable young fel- 
low from Chicago, was chief clerk, and was in charge of the com- 
missary. Billy, as he was affectionately called, has remained a 
close friend of mine over the years. 

The tunnel excavation was carried on 24 hours a day at each of 
six headings. We worked three eight-hour shifts. At the height 
of activities an average of 250 men were employed at the various 
camps. In addition to the tunnel camps, other camps were main- 
tained at a coal mine on Sage Creek, a sawmill on Carter Mountain, 
near a ditch crew on Sage Creek and a steam shovel on South Fork. 

During winter months the camps buzzed with activity. Carpen- 
ters busy with ax and saw lined the tunnel excavation with timbers 
to hold back slacking shale and rock. 

Clank-clank of blacksmiths could be heard as they sharpened 
drillers' steel. A steady stream of muck, shale and rock poured 
from the tunnel mouths in horse-drawn dump cars. Arriving daily 
were freight teams drawing wagons laden with supplies from Cody, 
lumber from the saw mill, coal from the company's mines on Sage 

Electric wire was continuously extended as tunnel headings 
advanced with 200 sweating miners working around the clock 
blasting their way through the mountains. In addition to the crews, 
each camp had its quota of cooks and flunkeys, as well as a stable 
boss, camp-tender, time-keeper, and "crumb boss" who looked 
after the muckers' bunk houses. 

Compressed-air drills and dynamite were used in the tunnel 


excavation. Mucking and loading the dump cars was done by 
hand. The tunnels were horse-shoe shaped in cross section. The 
finished inside diameter was 12 by 13 feet, making it necessary to 
excavate a hole about 16x17 feet. The grade was a drop of three 
inches per 100 feet. Two of the tunnels were approximately one- 
half mile in length, while the other two were a little over 400 feet 
long. The two long tunnels had curves at each end so one could 
not see out after the first 400 or 500 feet under the ground. 

By mid-winter three of the tunnel crews were working beyond 
the sharp curves, thus placing the entire dependence of alignment 
upon proper calculations by trigonometric formulas. 

This first experience with underground work caused me some 
sleepless nights, with much turning and tossing in bed as I reviewed 
my procedures. I was well aware that a misplaced decimal point 
might prove disastrous, not only to my reputation, but also to my 

To make matters worse for me, when the two opposite headings 
began to approach each other within 200 feet or so, and the sound 
of blasting on the opposite side seemed to come from the side of 
the tunnel instead of directly ahead, there was some good-natured 
ribbing from the crews and the suggestion that the other crew 
might be bypassing us. I put up a brave front. But when the 
breakthrough did occur, I revealed my true feelings or lack of 
complete faith by being the first one to look through the hole, 
although it meant staying up all night on the graveyard shift. 

Before the break-through occurred at No. 2 Tunnel, preparations 
were begun for lining the tunnel with concrete. Suitable concrete 
aggregates were found in deposits of gravel on top of the bench 
above the west end of the tunnel. A mixing plant was built where 
the material could be screened and placed in bins on the edge of 
the bench. Then it could be moved by gravity, as needed, down 
chutes to the mixer at the mouth of the tunnel below. Concrete 
forms were made by bending dump-car rails to the desired shape. 
Placing the freshly mixed concrete behind the forms in the top 
segment of the tunnel roof was accomplished by hand shoveling, a 
rather crude arrangement in comparison with modern methods. 

The breakthrough on No. 2 Tunnel finally came the morning of 
April 12, 1908. For a month the drilling crews had been hearing 
the shooting on the opposite side. They knew they were getting 
closer and closer together. But the tension did not get high until 
I told them on April 11 that the crews were only 12 feet apart. 
From then on they raced to see who could be the first to break 
through. The night of the eleventh I stayed up with ths crew on 
the east side, thinking they would break through when they dyna- 
mited an hour before midnight. 

However, they failed to break through. So, I decided to stay 
on with the graveyard shift until they shot at 7 a.m. 

Mike Flannery, a big Irishman, was boss on the graveyard shift. 

Courtesy of W. R. Bandy 

The heading of No. 2 Tunnel, showing the upper half of the tunnel, always 

kept ten feet ahead of the "bench." Note the curled fuses in the heading, 

ready for blasting. Members of the work crew are not identified. 

Courtesy of W. R. Bandy 

The gravel chute and storage bins for delivering gravel from the pit at the 
top of the "bench" to the tunnel entrance where concrete was mixed. Horse- 
drawn dump cars are shown at the top of the picture. 


About 25 to 30 holes were drilled in the heading and bench of the 
face of the tunnel during each shift, and each was loaded with a 
heavy charge of dynamite. It was set off by an exploding cap 
placed on the end of the old-fashioned fuse and stuck into the 
charge of dynamite. The fuses were lit by hand. They were cut 
long enough to allow time to light all of the 25 or 30 and run to 
safety before the first explosion. 

I helped Mike ignite 28 fuses for the shot at 7 a.m. Hand light- 
ing so many fuses takes considerable time, even with two working 
at it. The first ones continue to spew sparks and smoke around 
one's feet while he is lighting the remainder. 

It was hard work for me to keep my mind on my business with a 
dozen or more fuses spewing around my feet. I was ready to run 
for it when Mike said "That's all!" and started to yell, "Fire! Fire!" 

Running down the tunnel out of range of flying rocks we 
crouched behind some posts and counted the shots as they explod- 
ed. Finally Mike said that was all. We rushed back into the 
smoke and gas to see if we had broken through. 

We had missed count! 

Just as we approached the heading, another charge exploded in 
front of us. Fortunately, it was a lifter down deep in the muck and 
did not throw rocks on us. 

Waiting a few moments, we climbed over the loose rock. We 
could hear voices ahead. We knew the breakthrough had oc- 
curred. By that time we were choking on smoke and gas. We 
stuck our noses down into fresh air pouring through a small open- 
ing in the face of the tunnel. 

A few questions put to the opposite crew assured me that we had 
struck head-on. My worries were over. 

Through the winter and spring of 1907-08 all phases of the work 
progressed satisfactorily. 

Accidents were few and minor, with the exception of one fatality 
among the ditch crew working Sage Creek. When they were cut- 
ting through a 20-foot ledge of sandstone, using hand steel and 
black powder an accident occurred. While they were loading a 
20-foot drill hole by pouring powder into it, the powder clogged in 
the hole part way down. 

A workman picked up a steel drill instead of a wooden stick to 
clear the hole. A spark touched off the powder sending a piece 
of sandstone weighing several tons rolling over the man. 

Occasionally, personal altercations between workmen enlivened 
the camp. One morning the fat Chinese cook and the big white 
flunky got into a fight over who should fill the hot water tank on the 
back of the range. One used a cleaver and the other a heavy iron 
dipper, and they made quite a mess. 

The fight broke up when the cook bit a chunk out of the flunk- 
ey's leg. The cook came running toward the office with his bloody 
apron wrapped around his head and neck. At first glance it looked 


like his head had been cut off. To top it off, our pet coyote, 
sensing something wrong, set up an awful howl. 

Another time a chainman flipped a steel tape against the wet 
trouser leg of the electrician while the electrician was standing on a 
wooden box for insulation while holding two hot wires. Fortunate- 
ly, the electrician's wild leap when the shock hit him broke the 
contact, without serious results. 

Cody was booming during the winter and spring of 1907-08, as 
a result of the many men employed on different public works 
projects in the area. 

In addition to the Wiley Project were the Shoshone Dam above 
Cody, the Corbett Tunnel and the Shoshone Project irrigation 
canals. Among Cody's principal stores were the Cody Trading 
Company, managed by Jake Schwoob, and Dave Jones' store, the 
"Outfitter for Men and Boys." 

Seven saloons on Main Street supplied refreshments while Etta 
Feeley's night club provided entertainment. 

Things were flying high during the summer of 1908 until hard 
times struck. Money for public works became tight. The manage- 
ment of Wiley Project decided to try to raise more money to con- 
tinue the work by advertising a big land opening to prospective 

Special trains brought hundreds to view the lands. To carry 
the visitors over the area and to make a showing of prosperity, the 
company imported six big, red touring cars from Chicago. They 
were about the first cars of that size to hit the Basin. 

The young drivers of the cars, also imported from Chicago, had 
a lot of fun before the crowds arrived by racing the cars over dusty 
roads, scaring teams and killing farmers' chickens that wondered 
into their paths. 

The prospective settlers from the east looked over the sagebrush 
and salt-sage flats, dry as a bone and with promised water ditches 
far from complete. They shook their heads and returned home 
with their money in their pockets. The big land sale was a com- 
plete flop. 

Shortly after that all work on the irrigation project stopped. 
Creditors swarmed in, and by means of mechanic liens, salvaged 
what they could from the equipment. 

The workmen scattered to seek their fortunes elsewhere. Being 
footloose and free, I departed for my old home in Missouri for an 
extended vacation and to look over the new crop of girls. 

It was more than 50 years later when I again visited the old 
abandoned construction sites. That was in 1959 with one of those 
Missouri girls as my wife. 

Picking up Billy Edwards and his wife, Alice, at their Emblem, 
Wyoming home, we drove up to the old Wiley Project, tramped 
around the old campsites and tunnel mouths. 

With mixed emotions we viewed the old caved-in tunnels we had 


at one time been so proud of. Thoughts of bygone days haunted 
us as we viewed familiar landscape. 

What changes had taken place. 

The most impressive factor to indicate the lapse of time were 
six-inch pine trees growing in the bottom of the old canal! Nature 
had done its best to heal the scars by grassing over most of the 
slopes. But the ragged banks of the tunnel portals could not be 
healed so easily. Broken and rotten timbers hung from tunnel 
tops, piles of slacked shale all but blocked the tunnels once so 
spick and span. 

Bats and wild animals now shared the dark caverns with the 
tunnel ghosts. From the ridge above the camp, familiar land marks 
were pointed out to our wives. South, on the north face of Carter 
Mountain, I could spot where I had felled my first buck as he 
bounded across open sliderock. Northeasterly were the reddish, 
pink badlands of McCulloch Peaks bringing memories of thirst, 
sweat and toil as I surveyed that waste land. Northward was the 
dark grove of timber on the tip of Hart Mountain, pinpointing the 
spot where in 1911 I established an iron post section corner for the 
U.S. General Land Office. 

Leaving the tunnels and their ghostly inhabitants to their accus- 
tomed peace we drove to Cody where the hustle and bustle was a 
welcome change. 

Gone from the streets, however, were the 1 0-horse freight outfits 
with their jerk-line drivers, heading for such faraway places as 
Meeteetse, Thermopolis, or perhaps the Kirwin mines up on the 
shoulder of Frank's Peak. Gone were Tex Holm's four-horse Yel- 
lowstone Park stages. Missing also was the prancing buggy team 
sometimes seen in front of the Irma Hotel impatiently waiting to 
take Colonel W. F. (Buffalo Bill) Cody to his plush TE Ranch 
at the close of a show season. 

At end of our visit, Bill and I both agreed our experiences on the 
Wiley Project had been a valuable part of our education, and added 
to our stock of tall stories to tell our children and grandchildren. 



raac so. 16 

July 16 - 18, 1965 

1^9 Deadwood .... 

136 Cheyenne Crossing 

108 Pour Corners 

88 Newcastle 




ft _ Cold Springs in Dakota 
(* _ Canyon Springs 

Beaver Station Stockade 

Jenney Stockade 

Robber's Roost 

53 Cheyenne River 
Rest Stop 

Qi_ noDoer-s noost 
Oj _ Cheyenne River Station 
' .O ... Unit. Creek Juncrhii 

Hat Creek 

Lu£k . . . . '^ r>r -- ,**%£>& 
Lathrop - ujY" 7 -" * * **~ 

Monument-' / ' 

Mule Creek Junction 

Lance Creels or May's Ranch 

Old Woman Crossing 

Hat Creek Station, Junction of Indian 
Creek Route 

Water or Silver Cliff 

Stage Stations and 
Doadwocd Trail-O- 

Highvay 85 . 

County Roads >>>>*■ 


Ckeyenne-'Deadwood Zrail Zrek 

Trek No. 16 of the Historical Trail Treks 

Sponsored by 




Weston County Chapter, Wyoming State Historical Society 

in cooperation with 

Society of Black Hill's Pioneers, Deadwood Chamber of 

Commerce, Lead Chamber of Commerce and the South Dakota 

Historical Society 

under the direction of 

Dick Eklund, Lyle Hildebrand, Paul Henderson and 
Maurine Carley 

Compiled by 

Maurine Carley - Trek Historian 
July 16-18, 1965 

Caravan - 60 cars - 135 participants 


Captain Sergeant Carey, Wyoming Highway Patrol, 


Wagon Boss Paul Henderson 

Announcer Bill Dubois 

Guides Dick Eklund, Lyle Hildebrand, Ed Cook, 

Jim Griffith, Stanford Brewster, 

Lewis Darrow, Fred Sweet 

Historian Maurine Carley 

Topographer H. M. "Doc" Townsend, U.S. Geological 

Survey, Denver 
Photographers Pete LaBonte, Helen Henderson, 

Marguerite Martin 
Press The Lusk Herald, 

The Newcastle News Letter-Journal 

Registrars Meda Walker, Jane Houston 

Tickets Fran Boan 

Top Hand in Dakota.. Nell Perrigoue 



NOTE: Mileage will continue from Running Water Station 

This trek completed the Cheyenne — Deadwood trail north from 
Lusk to Deadwood. So many changes were made in the stage 
route north from Running Water that it is impossible to follow one 
direct trail to Deadwood. One route crossed Sage Creek and 
Horse Head Creek and entered the Black Hills through Red Can- 
yon; another went to Custer City by way of Indian Creek; another 
included Inyan Kara, Sundance and Spearfish. One interesting 
story tells that after the long, dusty trip from Cheyenne fresh, clean, 
light gray horses waited in Whitewood ready to make a spectacular 
dash into Deadwood. We followed the trail north from Hat Creek 
via Jenney Stockade. An account of Trek No. 15, covering the 
first half of the Cheyenne — Deadwood route, can be found in 
Annals of Wyoming, April, 1965. 

Friday - July 16, 1965 

The trek began Friday evening at 6:30 with registration and a 
picnic at the Pioneer Court Motel in Lusk. The rest of the evening 
was spent in the Lusk Opery House, an open air structure built by 
the actors, who had also written their own parts. Everyone thor- 
oughly enjoyed the clever Meller Drammer, "Woman Suffrage 
(Wyoming Style.)" A trio, comedy singers, can-can girls and folk 
songs rounded out the program. Gaity and hilarity abounded. 
Lusk will long be remembered for its generous hospitality. 

Saturday - July 17 

Guides: Dick Eklund, Jim Griffith, Stanford Brewster. 

7:30 A.M. The group assembled rather promptly at the La- 
throp Monument two miles west of Lusk on U.S. Highway 20. 
After introductions, Jim Griffith briefly told about George La- 
throp, the last stage driver on the Cheyenne-Deadwood run. (His 
full account of George Lathrop is in the April, 1965, Annals of 
Wyoming) . 

8:10 A.M. The long motorcade traveled from Lusk on High- 
way 85 for four miles then turned east on a county road for about 
three miles and got on a branch of the old trail which passed 
through pine-covered hills topped by castle-like formations of 
sandstone. Suddenly we were stopped for a real treat when a 
group of road agents held up a south-bound stage in a very realistic 
manner for our benefit. Ed Cook, son of a driver once in the 
same predicament, was the driver. The people of Lusk added this 
enactment of an historic incident to our trek. 

8:55 A.M. Reluctantly we departed from the exciting scene of 
the hold-up on our way through the breaks. Hat Rock could be 
seen in the distance to the left. It may have been that Hat Creek 
Stage Station (149.8 M.) received its name from this rock. 




By Mae Urbanek 

Ninety years ago it was prairie wilderness where we now stand. 
Only trails of buffalo and Indians bent the grasses of these mead- 
ows. Change came in 1875 when soldiers built a fort here. Fort 
Hat Creek, as it was called, was a mistake that made history. 

First a few words of background events. After gold was dis- 
covered in the Black Hills of South Dakota in 1 874, Captain Egan 
with a force of cavalry was sent out from Ft. Laramie to establish 
a fort on Hat Creek in Nebraska. His expedition met Indian 
opposition and wandered in the unmarked wilderness. When they 
came to a stream that answered the description of Hat Creek, they 
decided they had traveled far enough. On a bend of the creek, 
close to wood and water, they built Fort Hat Creek, a barrack of 
logs chinked with mud, having a dirt roof and floor. A horse 
corral of logs was a part of the building. A tunnel roofed with 
logs was built from the fort down to the creek, so in case of siege 
by Indians, the garrison could still obtain water. Later it was 
discovered that the fort was not built on Hat Creek in Nebraska, 
but on Sage Creek in Wyoming Territory. By coincidence a wind- 
carved, sandstone hill to the southwest resembles a hat and is 
locally known as Hat Rock. 

Stages loaded with passengers and mail were rolling north from 
Cheyenne in early spring of 1876. Where we now stand was the 
last outpost of safety — beyond to the north was the most dangerous 
section of the entire route from Cheyenne to Deadwood; first 
infested with roving bands of hostile Indians; later with road 

Courtesy of Lush Herald 
Hold-up of a southbound Cheyenne-Deadwood coach, staged in the breaks 

area near Lusk. 


agents, often disguised as Indians, who made a practice of holding 
up the stages, robbing them of gold being transported to Cheyenne. 
Among the thousands of passengers were New York promoters in 
tall silk hats, miners, prospectors, missionaries, gamblers, Chinese 
laborers, wives, mothers, adventurers, soldiers, Wild Bill Hickok, 
and not the least in notoriety — Calamity Jane disguised as a team- 
ster. Rumor has it that at Hat Creek she got drunk and was fired. 
A book could be written about the hundreds of incidents akin to 
the best in western movies. 

In the early 1880's John Storrie and Tom Swan erected this two- 
story building by which we now stand. Later they sold to Andrew 
Falconer, whose granddaughters, Katherine and Rosalie Fields, 
are the present owners. Present occupants are Mr. and Mrs. Durl 

I am going to close by reading a few lines from Songs of The Sage by 
Mae Urbanek. 

Change must come — it is a part of time. 

No red man's arrows and no dashing rain 

Can stop this surging drive of life, fighting 

To fill all vacancy — to build and wreck 

And build again, and dream of something better 

Beyond the blue-black hills that curtain off 

From view tomorrow's path. 

Now buildings stand and white man's children play 
Where herds of buffalo once had their day. 
Yet, every age of men who come and go 
Would like to mold all life and leave it so — 
Frozen in that pattern. But life is free! 
And pioneers will always live to say 
Tomorrow is another, different day. 

9:30 A.M. We left Hat Creek Station on the trail, then went 
two miles west to Hat Creek Store where we turned north on the 
pavement. At 163 M. we could see the trail again. At 170 M. it 
crossed to the west side of the highway. This was a pleasant ride 
in Old Woman Valley with Sage Creek to our right and Lance 
Creek off to the left. Fields of sun flowers and yellow sweet clover 
added to the beauty, with low hills in the background. 

10:15 A.M. We arrived at Mule Creek Junction (183 M.) 
where we caught the first glimpse of the Black Hills in the distance. 
Since we were unable to get to the next two stations — Old Woman 
Creek Station (148 M.) and May's Ranch (176.54 M.) — the two 
papers were read at the Junction. 

By Mrs. George Christian 
Read by Albert DeGering 

The north route of the Cheyenne-Black Hills stage route ran 
along the fork of Old Woman's Creek toward Jenney Stockade. 


Old Woman's Creek was so named because the ghost of an Indian 
squaw was supposed to be seen dancing in the moonlight on a 
rimrock above the creek. A road ranch was built on Old Woman's 
Creek in 1877 and Sourdough Dick was the stock tender. 

Since the stage carried mail, the Post Office Department depu- 
tized Scott Davis, D. Boone May and eight others and equipped 
them with good horses and ammunition to protect the stage. These 
men were paid $5 a day plus $200 bonus for every road agent they 
captured dead or alive. 

On September 13, 1878, six men robbed the mail on a north- 
bound coach about 1 1 o'clock at night at Old Woman's fork. 
After taking $10 from a passenger named Goldworthy, they re- 
turned it because he said he was a laboring man. They did not 
molest the other passenger, a woman. 

The coach went on and soon met the south bound coach and 
warned its driver that robbers were in the vicinity of Old Woman's 
fork. Boone May and John Zimmerman, who were riding about 
200 yards in the rear of the coach, dropped farther back and kept 
out of sight. When the coach reached the vicinity of Old Woman's 
fork and the recent robbery, it was stopped by a command from 
the outlaws. 

As soon as the robbers had "gone through" the passengers, they 
put the mail sacks on the ground. Suddenly they realized that the 
shotgun messengers were closing in on them. The outlaws opened 
fire. May and Zimmerman returned the fire instantly. A robber, 
afterwards identified as Frank Towle (or Toll) fell, fatally wound- 
ed. According to Boone May, he recognized one of the robbers 
as Frank James, alias Tom Reed. 

"Get in the coach and drive on," the robbers shouted to the 
passengers as they began to retreat. They kept up a steady fire 
in the direction of May and Zimmerman. Since these two men 
soon realized they could not dislodge so many outlaws, they mount- 
ed their horses and joined the retreating coach. The mail was left 
in the road near the body of the fallen robber. The next morning 
when the mail was recovered, there was a pool of blood in the road 
beside the rifled sacks. C. H. Brown, of Denver, a coach passen- 
ger, who was robbed of $10 and a satchel, praised the guards very 
highly for the way they conducted themselves during the attack. 


By Pauline Marchant 

In June of 1877 a new cutoff was opened on the Cheyenne- 
Deadwood Stage Route, which went north from Hat Creek. About 
28 miles north was May's ranch on Lance Creek, known as the 
Lance Creek Station. Here Jim May was stock tender and station 
keeper. The official survey made by Captain W. A. Stanton and 


his assistants was finished on August 25, 1877, and showed that 
Lance Creek Station was 176.54 miles from Cheyenne. 

About November 1, 1877, Dune Blackburn and James Wall 
stole eight horses from the Lance Creek Station. Scott Davis, a 
messenger, who was just recovered from a wound in his leg, asked 
authority to go after these thieves. With a detail of four men and 
a non-commissioned officer from Fort Laramie, Davis started out. 
They headed westward. Heavy snows had fallen and the soldiers 
refused to go on when they got to Sweetwater valley. Davis, 
thoroughly disgusted with the men, pushed on alone. When his 
horse gave out he exchanged it for another, found in a ranchman's 
barn one night. He traveled on to South Pass and left his horse, 
took his saddle and guns and boarded the south bound stage for 
Green River. He got off at Alkali stage station and inquired as to 
whether they had seen two men with eight horses. He found the 
men sleeping in a haystack. Shooting started and James Wall went 
down wounded in both legs but Blackburn escaped without his 
coat, shoes or hat. Wall was turned over to Charles Brown, a 
Deputy from Green River. Davis found the eight horses and head- 
ed for Green River. That night Blackburn also came into town to 
buy some clothes and he was arrested. When the Overland Ex- 
press of the Union Pacific thundered into Cheyenne, November 23, 
1877, it carried Davis, the two road agents and the eight recovered 
stage horses. A large crowd came to get a look at the man who 
had nerve enough to capture two road agents. 

When the soldiers came back to Fort Laramie they were court- 
martialed for neglect of duty and it is said they were sent to the 
Federal penitentiary in Leavenworth, Kansas. 

George Draper, a member of the Wyoming legislature, then in 
session, introduced a resolution of thanks that was adopted by the 
lawmakers. It read: "Resolved by the Council, the House of 
Representatives concurring, that the untiring efforts and signal 
bravery displayed by Mr. Scott Davis in his recent capture of the 
notorious 'road agents' Dune Blackburn and James Wall, deserves 
recognition by the Fifth Legislative Assembly of Wyoming Terri- 
tory, and that the thanks of the Assembly are hereby tendered him 
for his services in bringing these marauders to justice. 

"Resolved, that the Honorable G. W. French, Secretary of the 
Territory of Wyoming, be requested to furnish Mr. Scott Davis 
with a copy of this resolution." 

On January 12, 1878, Davis received $400 for the arrest and 
conviction of Blackburn and Wall. 

The coach that left Deadwood for Cheyenne on July 23, 1877, 
was detained at Jenney Stockade because of high water, making it 
arrive at Lance Creek late, about 2 o'clock in the morning. At 
Lance Creek it was held up by six masked men. Only one passen- 
ger, Rev. J. W. Picket, was on board. They did not molest him or 
the driver but robbed the mailsacks of registered letters and other 


valuable material. They broke open the treasure boxes but found 
them empty. After about half an hour they ordered the driver to 
go on. This was the first time on the Cheyenne to Deadwood route 
that the United States mails were robbed. 

In the latter part of August, 1877, a northbound coach was 
stopped between Cheyenne River and Lance Creek by three agents. 
After compelling the passengers to throw up their hands the rob- 
bers went through their pockets, took two watches and a small 
amount of money. They cut open the mail sacks and took the 
registered letters and left the balance of the mail strewn on the 
ground. After this, Postmaster General Key ordered that regis- 
tered mail going up to Deadwood should be carried only on the 
treasure coach. 

On September 10, 1878, three armed men stopped a southbound 
coach near Lance Creek. They robbed the four passengers and 
plundered the mail. Just then the northbound coach arrived. 
They stopped it, robbed the passengers, cut open the mail sacks 
and broke the treasure boxes and took their contents. One of 
these thieves wore no mask and was thought to be William Wallace 
(Lengthy) Johnson. When he was captured and taken in he 
was released because of lack of evidence. 

One time when Mrs. Charles Partridge, wife of the telegraph 
operator at the Hat Creek Station, was a coach passenger enroute 
from Deadwood to Hat Creek, the stage was held up by a lone road 
agent at the second crossing on Lance Creek, which was about one 
mile north of the Lance Creek Stage Station. The bandit made 
the driver cut the team loose. He then dynamited the safe and 
obtained one gold brick. The stage started off again, and as they 
were crossing Lance Creek near the station they saw the road agent 
watering his horse. The driver shot and killed him, but the gold 
brick had disappeared. It was presumed to have been buried or 
hidden somewhere between the two crossings. It is my under- 
standing that much hunting has been done for this gold brick. 

My grandfather, Henry Thompson, was a freighter between 
Cheyenne and the Black Hills in 1876, '77 and '78. He made one 
trip in 1878 over this Cheyenne-Deadwood trail, but the rest of the 
trips were made farther to the east of here. How I wish I had been 
older and could remember more of the stories he told of his trips 
as a freighter. 

In 1895, my husband's grandfather, John T. Hogg, and his fam- 
ily came from West Virginia, following a son, Will, who had come 
to Wyoming in 1888. They built the HOG ranch on Lance Creek, 
within a hundred yards of where the Lance Creek stage station 
stood. In 1896, while fencing the yard, Will uncovered a set of 
heavy white dishes, four plates, three cups, saucers, vegetable dish 
and pitcher, which had been buried many years before, as the 
ground was well packed around them. There are many supposi- 


tions as to what might have happened when these dishes were 

10:45 A.M. Ed Cook and Lewis Darrow led us to the Chey- 
enne River Rest Area, a shady spot on the Cheyenne River. It was 
impracticable to get to Robber's Roost Station (193 M.) so Mose 
Cooksey, owner of the site, gave its history while Mrs. Cooksey 
showed rocks with fossils embedded in them, cartridges and other 
relics found there. It is believed that watches were burned in a 
Dutch oven at Robber's Roost during the trail days, but these have 
never been found. In fact all fossils and artifacts are now under 
the grass. 

By C. R. (Mose) Cooksey 

Robber's Roost Station was located about three miles south of 
what was known as Robber's Roost Crossing where the Cheyenne- 
Deadwood stages crossed the creek on their many and dangerous 
trips. This bridge over the creek was one of the spots most dread- 
ed by the stage drivers in those days. 

The bluffs to the west and south afforded fine lookout posts for 
the road agents as they waited for the stages to come down from 
Deadwood or north from Cheyenne. The agents could see the 
stages on the trail for miles and still have time to hide under the 
bridge before the driver and guards could see them. 

The first time I was at the Crossing was in 1903 and all that was 
left of the old bridge were two pilings. These were carved with the 
names and initials of many of the early-day settlers. 

Now, what is left of Robber's Roost Station or Burnt Station, 
as some call it, is on my land down close to Cheyenne River. Its 
exact location is N.W., N.W; S. 29, 40, 61. While I was visiting 
with Fred Sullivan in Lusk about 20 years ago, he told me that 
Robber's Roost Station was located three miles south of the Roost 
bridge because they had to get down close to Cheyenne River in 
order to get a water well. A depression in the earth still marks the 
place where this well was located. Only a pile of rocks was found 
where the fireplace must have fallen when the station burned. 
Rumor tells us it was burned by the Indians in 1886, so it was in 
use by the stage line for only about nine or ten years. 

Chris Holly was another of the old stage drivers. He and a 
friend came back to the Robber's Roost country about 20 years 
ago in search of a treasure that Big Nose George Parrot had taken 
from one of the stage coaches. He was supposed to have buried 
it on Sheep Creek. Holly carried a map supposedly made by Big 
Nose George at the time he buried the gold, but the treasure was 
never found. Metal detectors have since been used and still no 
treasure has been located. 

The only road agent I ever knew was Doc Middleton, whose 


right name was James Riley. When I knew Doc he had settled 
down considerably and was a law-abiding citizen. He ran a saloon 
at Ardmore. When he made trips to Edgemont in the '90s he 
drove a team and stabled it at the livery barn. Several other small 
boys and I spent a lot of time at the livery barn listening to the 
exciting tales Doc told of his adventures on the old trail. 

It was in that barn that I first learned of Robber's Roost Bridge, 
the Creek and Station, and heard the story of the station being 
burned by the Indians in 1886. Little did I think that someday I 
would live so near this historic spot. I think a marker should be 
placed on the highway giving the history of this historic station. 

11:25 A.M. A short distance from Cheyenne River an old 
gnarled tree was pointed out. From its branches a road agent once 
hung. We continued on the highway to Newcastle where lunch 
was eaten on the lawn near the Chamber of Commerce which was 
built from the logs brought in from Jenney Stockade. Coffee and 
cold drinks were provided by the Weston County Historical So- 
ciety, while the group rested under the trees and listened to the 
history of Jenney Stockade. 

By Marie Graham 

According to history, a topographical engineering party, headed 
by Lt. G. K. Warren in company with Dr. F. V. Hayden, geologist, 
were the first to stop at the site of the Jenney Stockade. They 
camped on the east bank of Stockade Beaver Creek. After they 
built a log corral about 300 feet east of the present ranch house of 
the LAK Ranch they explored the Hills for gold, oil and minerals. 

Eighteen years later, on May 17, 1875, 75 geologists and miners 
headed by Professor Walter P. Jenney, left Cheyenne City (Chey- 
enne, Wyoming) for the Black Hills. At Fort Laramie they were 
joined by 432 soldiers under the command of Lt. Col. Richard 
Irving Dodge. Two ambulances also came along. They arrived 
at the Warren camp site June 3 and started building a log fort the 
next day. 

Construction was delayed because Henry Keets, the first boot- 
legger in the Black Hills, came driving up with his team of ponies 
hitched to a two-wheeled cart. He sold whiskey at fifty cents a cup 
but was soon escorted back to Fort Laramie. 

The building at Camp Jenney was finally completed in ten days. 
It was used as a supply depot for all the camps throughout the 
Hills. The men worked all summer from this camp but returned 
to Fort Laramie and Cheyenne on October 5. They left a supply 
of provisions with one man in charge. 

About this same time a man by the name of Keise was shot 
through the head by his partner. He is buried about two miles 


northeast of the LAK on the road going to Stonewall City, better 
known as Custer. 

Camp Jenney, later known as Jenney Stockade, was used as a 
stage coach station for several years. The Cheyenne-Deadwood 
stage coaches made regular stops here. Besides gold, salt was 
mined from the salt springs located about ten miles above the camp, 
near the Flying V Ranch. This salt was sold to the people of the 
Black Hills as late as 1884. The first oil locations were made 
about two miles above the Stockade. Soon about 100 oil wells 
were located. 

On June 22, 1877, the land on which the Stockade was located 
became the property of Flarida, Burrougs (Burrows) and Spencer. 
That winter, Spencer secured Flarida's interest and organized the 
LAK Cattle Company. (Lake, Allerton and Spencer). 

The stockade building, in the shape of a large "L", served in turn 
as a stockade, stage station, hostlery, dwelling house, store house 
and blacksmith shop. For fifty years it served thus but when the 
modern buildings of the LAK were built it became necessary to 
move the old stockade. The Twentieth Century Club of Newcastle 
decided to salvage at least part of it. Three men, Ben Hilton, 
Frank Hilton and Jack Cross, dismantled it log by log and num- 
bered each one so they could be reassembled properly. It was 
erected on the Court House lawn and is now used as the Chamber 
of Commerce office in Newcastle. This building still has the 
original port holes. 

1:10 P.M. We left Newcastle on Highway 16 for the site of 
Jenney Stockade (221 M.) where we stopped to read the marker: 


1/2 miles east of this spot was a supply depot for army units con- 
voying the Professor W. P. Jenney party, which in 1875, surveyed 
mineral and other resources of the Black Hills for the United States. 
In 1876 it was a station of the Cheyenne-Deadwood Stage Line. 

One reference mentions that in February, 1878, an early thaw 
melted the snow in the gulches and the sleighs had to be taken off 
the run between Jenney Stockade and Deadwood, the coaches 
travelling hub-deep in water-filled ruts, but they were put on again 
during a five-day blizzard early in March. 

On September 26, 1878, Beaver Station played a minor role in 
the well-known Canyon Springs treasure coach robbery. Jesse 
Brown, Boone May and Billy Sample, three of the regular "shotgun 
messenger" guards, waited there to be ready to pick up the loaded 
coach on its down journey and to accompany it on horseback from 
Beaver Station to Hat Creek. When the coach didn't arrive on 
schedule the three started up the road to look for it and thus met 
Scott Davis, who had escaped the bandits and was headed for 
Beaver Station on a horse he had obtained at the Eager ranch. 


Other than this, there was apparently no excitement at this station 
during the time it was in use. 

The next month, October, 1878, the route was changed to avoid 
the hilly roads north of Jenney Stockade and Beaver Station was 
abandoned after 1 6 months. 

When the Edward Thomson family arrived on Beaver Creek in 
September, 1886, they moved into the only available building on 
the Creek — abandoned stage station on the Eager ranch. They 
lived there during the winter of 1886-87. At that time the Thomas 
P. Sweets were the only other family on the Creek. 

Today all that remains to mark the place where the station stood 
is a deep depression in the grassy slope of the west side of the 
valley where the cellar was. A few stones still imbedded in the 
ground indicate the position of the fireplace. Down the valley a 
few hundred feet a faint trail can be seen as it comes over a hill 
between scattered boulders. 


Brown, Jess, and Willard, A.M. 
The Black Hills Trails 
Ed. by John T. Milek 

Rapid City, So. Dakota Rapid City Journal Co., 1924 

Lee, Bob and Williams, Dick 
Last Grass Frontier 

Sponsored by South Dakota Stockgrowers Assoc. 

Black Hills Publishers, Inc. Sturgie. So. Dak. 1964 

Copyrighted by S. D. Stockgrowers Assoc. 
Spring, Agnes Wright 

The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express Routes 
Glendale, Calif., The Arthur H. Clark Co., 1949 
Interview with Sarah Thomson McCoy, pioneer. 

2:00 P.M. We returned to Newcastle with its winding, hilly 
streets and immediately entered the Black Hills. Soon we passed 
a red butte with a flat top called Fanny's Peak. Mrs. Graham said 
that this peak was used by both Indians and whites as a lookout. 
In the 1 850's, Sir George Gore, of Iligo, Ireland and 75 men 
slaughtered a large number of buffalo near here. He is the one 
who named the peak for his friend, the astronomer, W. A. F. 
Fitzwilliams. A large telescope was mounted there to study and 
observe the stars. 

2:15 P.M. We continued to the crossroad from Four Corners 
to Mallo Camp Ground. Since it was impossible to turn such a 
long motorcade around at Canyon Springs (241 M.) we stopped at 
the marker. 


By Mabel Brown 

We cannot see the location of the old Canyon Springs Station 
from here, but if we were to go on down the road about three and 


one half miles to the east, we could see it back there in the timber. 
It was located on upper Beaver Creek, about 37 miles south of 
Deadwood and 20 miles north of Jenney Stockade, on the Wyo- 
ming side of the line. Old maps place it a short distance southeast 
of the present Four Corners store. 

The old station was built of logs, with quarters for the stock 
tender in one end, and a stable and feed storage in the other. It 
was known as a relay station, where teams were changed quickly 
before going on to the next stop. The structure was torn down 
many years ago. 

Perhaps we would never have heard of Canyon Springs Station 
had it not been the site of the daring robbery of the bullet-proof 
treasure coach, the Monitor. This coach had steel-plated walls, a 
chest bolted to the floor and a combination safe lock. The builders 
claimed that it was robber-proof for twenty-four hours. Holdups 
along the Cheyenne-Deadwood trail occurred so frequently that 
Hills residents paid them little heed but their attention was caught 
that 25th day of September in 1878. 

Scott Davis, Galen Hill and Cap Smith were riding shotgun on 
the treasure coach. Gene Barnett was driving and, contrary to 
the rules, Hugh Campbell was a passenger. He was a telegraph 
operator on his way to a job at Camp Jenney. The Superintendent, 
W. H. Ward, had started out with the coach but for some unex- 
plained reason had turned back after the noon stop at Cold 
Springs, three miles north. 

About three o'clock in the afternoon, the treasure coach pulled 
up in front of the Canyon Springs Station. Things seemed pretty 
much the same as usual except that Bill Miner, the stock-tender, 
was nowhere in sight. Hill yelled for the tender, then jumped 
down and put a chock block under the wheel of the coach. As he 
raised up he was met by gunfire from the stable. Although badly 
injured, he managed to wound one of the road agents but received 
another bullet through the arm. He fell, but dragged himself out 
of range into the edge of the brush. One of the bullets in the 
barrage hit Campbell, who died almost instantly. 

Cap Smith was hit by a splinter from the top of the coach and 
knocked unconscious. Scott Davis thought that Smith was killed 
and realizing he must do something mighty fast, jumped out on the 
opposite site of the coach from the robber's position and made a 
run for a big pine tree. He signaled Barnett to whip up the horses 
and get out of there. Barnett had remained in his place as he was 
supposed to do and tried to carry out Davis' orders but one of the 
outlaws grabbed the horses. Davis dropped the outlaw. Another 
agent had maneuvered his way to the barn where he could catch 
Davis in a cross fire and drive him out. Hill, half-dazed by pain, 
was able to raise his gun and fire. The robber fell dead. 

The leader of the gang ordered Barnett down from the coach and 
used him as a shield as he advanced toward Davis, shouting for 


him to surrender. Davis told the bandit if he came an inch closer 
he would shoot. He probably would have done so but saw that he 
would also kill Barnett. Davis leaped back into the deep brush 
and managed to get away. He proceeded down Beaver Creek 
where he met Jesse Brown, Boone May and Billy Sample coming to 
see what had delayed the coach. Less than two hours later when 
the men arrived at Canyon Springs, the treasure box had been 
broken open and the valuables taken. The gang had divided the 
loot and split up to make their escape. 

Eventually most of the treasure was recovered but a portion of 
it was never found and is believed to be buried somewhere in the 
vicinity. Youngsters and oldsters alike have searched for the 
buried loot, but all in vain. 

I recently heard a tale which may account for the gold remaining 
undiscovered. A long-time resident of the Canyon Springs prairie 
told me that he had heard of a man who was believed to have found 
the gold. The man lived near Red Butte. One day as he was 
digging potatoes in the field near where the treasure was supposedly 
cached, he suddenly picked up something, dumped the potatoes, 
threw the sack over his shoulder and walked out of the field, out 
of the country and out of the lives of his family. He has never 
been heard from since. 

The Canyon Springs Station continued but a short time after the 
robbery. It was abandoned when a new route out of the timber 
was established. 

By Joe Koller 

In 1964 Will Robinson, South Dakota State Historian, Sam 
Hooks and I made a field trip to locate the site of Cold Springs 
Stage Station on the Cheyenne-Deadwood line. Sam had been 
raised in that area, and he knew where the station had been 
located from what the old timers told him as a boy. 

He led off the highway, in a left turn, a short distance south from 
the South Dakota — Wyoming highway marker on U. S. 85. We 
drove up a little grassy draw in a southeasterly direction and soon 
came to a good flowing stream of clear water, Cold Springs Creek. 
We followed up the creek and came to the old log stage barn that 
Sam said was built and used after the old Cold Springs facility had 
been destroyed by fire. 

Presently the draw bent to the south and jack pine timber crowd- 
ed the hilltops. The creek seemed to grow narrower and shallower 
and soon there was no creek at all. In a washed gully centering 
the grassy draw we found a group of springs that boiled out of the 
ground and gave the creek its flow. A guess as to the distance 
traveled from the take off point on the highway to the springs area 
might be two miles, more or less. A survey stake with an engraved 


brass cap on it was found near the springs site. Mr. Robinson 
took its number and information and upon examining topographic 
maps declared that the Cold Springs were located on Section 8 and 
9, Township 2, North; Range 1, East. The station site was about 
an eighth of a mile farther up this gulch. The location was near 
the state line, perhaps on the Wyoming side. 

Sam Hooks led on foot up the draw and after examining the sur- 
roundings, pointed to a scattering of limestone rock on the east side 
of the draw, near its grassed-over bottom, and said that was the 
original location of Cold Springs Stage Station. There was no 
evidence of a building ever having been there. Jack pines surround 
the area now and grass covers the region. Hooks and Robinson 
scouted over hill tops for some sign of the old trail but could not 
locate it. After 86 years, time has erased such route markings. 

Before coming to the log barn Sam pointed out a ridge along a 
flanking hillside to our north and said it was the old ditch that 
miners had dug in early days in an effort to run the Cold Springs 
water from the creek across the hills country to Tinton District, 
south of Spearfish Canyon, for sluicing purposes. The project 
failed because too much water was lost enroute by seepage and 

Cold Spring Stage Station was located on Charley W. Snow's 
1878 ranch, according to historical research, and was likely built 
of logs. It was an important station on the Deadwood — Cheyenne 
line because it was the only junction station in the northern Black 
Hills on the system. South of Cold Springs lay Canyon Springs 
Station in the forested hills. Northward the line advanced toward 
Deadwood via Ten Mile, Cheyenne Crossing and the Whitewood 
Gulch route. A branch line ran east from Cold Springs Station to 
Mountain City (now Deerfield) where it forked; its upper branch 
leading on to the Rochford mines, and its lower branch proceeding 
to Tigerville and Hill City where it connected with the Telegraph 
Road to Custer. 

These feeder lines brought traffic to Cold Springs. It was a 
station of services. The treasure coach that left Deadwood in the 
morning made Cold Springs its dinner stop while the teams were 
changed for the run south. Here in September, 1878, it is said, 
William Ward, the stage line's superintendent at Deadwood, who 
was supposed to ride the treasure coach all the way to Hat Creek 
Station that day, gave his seat in the Monitor to Hugh Campbell, a 
passenger, and taking a company horse rode back to Deadwood 
the fateful day of the robbery. 

Cold Springs was used as a station only a few months. After 
the treasure coach robbery a new route was laid out that kept more 
in the open, and both the forest-bound Cold Springs and Canyon 
Springs stations were abandoned. Later the facility was somehow 
destroyed by fire. That is when the big log barn was built farther 
down the draw for stage line use. It is one of the few buildings 


left that were once associated with the coach travel era. From the 
barn, the trail, so Hooks pointed out, headed straight east keeping 
to high ground in its routing on to the head of Whitewood Canyon 
and Deadwood. 

Highway 85 crosses Cold Springs Creek so anyone trying to find 
the barn and station site can do so by following the creek up to its 
source and beyond to the white rocks designated as the old station's 

3:00 P.M. At the Canyon Springs stop we were delighted to 
meet the South Dakotans who had come to welcome us to their 
state. They were Fred Borsch, president of the Society of Black 
Hill's Pioneers, Mr. and Mrs. Cushman Clark and Mrs. Margaret 
Furois. At the border of Wyoming our patrolman turned us over 
to Earl Engebretson, Deputy Sheriff of Lawrence County. He led 
us over Oneill Pass (6700 ft.) and down beautiful Spearfish Can- 
yon. The canyons were shrouded in clouds. From 256 M. High- 
way 85 followed the stage road to Deadwood. 

4:00 P.M. We stopped at Cheyenne Crossing (270 M.) where 
the Deadwood trail crossed Spearfish Creek. Here Mr. Walter 
Daniels, president of the Lead Chamber of Commerce, and Mrs. 
Daniels welcomed us. John Moody distributed an attractive 
booklet of The Homestake Story and we listened to a paper in the 

By Cushman Clark 

The Cheyenne Crossing Station on the Cheyenne-Deadwood 
route had probably the shortest life - about 12 months - of any 
major station on the system. According to Agnes Wright Spring's 
book on the stage lines, a new route was started in June, '77, 
bypassing Custer and avoiding Red Canyon, a worrisome spot 
along the early run. This new location was through Jenney Stock- 
ade and Cold Springs and came from there to Deadwood via 
Whitewood Creek, as did the earlier route from Custer. Coaches 
came into Deadwood from Pluma and crossed the Lee Street 
bridge to get to the stage station on Main Street. 

It was in the fall of 1877 that the route was changed to come in 
from Cold Springs by way of Spearfish and Ice Box Canyons, 
evidently a snorter or easier location, and it is at the juncture of 
the two canyons that this Cheyenne Crossing Station was located. 
After going up Ice Box Canyon, the road goes down what we now 
call Aztec Hill (or it may have been in the adjoining gully to the 
south), then to Whitetail, Lead, Poorman Gulch to Deadwood 
Creek (location of the richest placer deposits) and then through 
Central City to Deadwood, coming in on upper Main Street. 

Two weeks after the Monitor treasure coach was robbed at 
Canyon Springs in late September '78, the route was drastically 


changed, to come into Deadwood on the east side of the Hills, by 
way of Buffalo Gap and Rapid City. This change had been under 
consideration for some time, and the robbery no doubt hurried the 
change-over along. This new way exposed the coaches to the 
fewest steep grades and densely-forested roads, and was in open 
country, allowing few chances for road agents to take cover. 

For some time, Sidney, Nebraska, gained at the expense of 
Cheyenne, for the new route was shorter to that point on the rail- 
road. Thus, Cheyenne Crossing had about a year's exciting life 
on the early bandit-infested run from the gold camps to the 

When he was nine years old, my father, Horace Clark, came in 
on this route with his parents on July 4th, 1878, and distinctly 
remembers Spearfish Canyon and Cheyenne Crossing. My mother, 
Charlotte Clark, came in with her family when she was three. 
From what her mother often told her, she remembers that they 
came in on the run from the east. It was in late October, 1878, 
probably after the October 10th change in the stage route. Her 
memory is that they came directly into Deadwood down a steep 
hill, which would have been the Spearfish Hill run from Crook City. 

5:00 P.M. Ice Box Canyon seemed appropriately named as we 
traveled up, only to go down Aztec Hill. In Lead we stopped for a 
moment to see the huge scar in the mountain cut away by miners 
at the famous Homestake Mine. 

5:30 P.M. We arrived in Deadwood (282 M.). 


6:30 P.M. Nell Perrigoue, the very capable secretary for the 
Deadwood Chamber of Commerce, had arranged a Miner's Dinner 
at the Franklin Hotel. The tables were gay with red plaid table- 
cloths and candles in beer bottles. The food, served family style, 
was huge platters of corned beef, cabbage, boiled potatoes with the 
skins on, beans, corn bread with syrup and gingerbread. 

Mr. George Hunter, the past president of the Society of Black 
Hill's Pioneers, was the toastmaster and raconteur of lively tales of 
historic Deadwood. Greetings from Wyoming's Governor Cliff 
Hansen were read: 

Howdy, neighbors! 

Our Wyoming travelers carry greetings from us to you 
history buffs of South Dakota. Your hospitable reception is 
warmly appreciated. 

These treks across the very spots where history was made 
bring our great Western heritage clearly to life. All of you 
are to be congratulated for taking part in reliving a bit of our 
two states' exciting past. 

I know our Wyoming people will welcome the opportunity, 
especially during this Diamond Jubilee year, to return the fine 



hospitality of South Dakota. In the meantime, accept our 
thanks for making their trip more pleasant and interesting. 

With best wishes, Sincerely, Cliff Hansen 


8:00 P.M. We all went out on the street to see the capture of 
Jack McCall, then followed to see "The Trial of Jack McCall for 
the Killing of Wild Bill Hickok". Two members of our party, 
Verne Mokler and Robert Larson, served capably on the jury. 

Sunday - July 18 

After breakfast our group toured the Wax Museum and the 
Adams Museum. The patrol then escorted us to the cemetery 
where Wild Bill Hickok and Calamity Jane are buried, and onto 
Highway 385 which led us toward home. This road roughly fol- 
lows one of the other trails used by the stages. It wound through 
beautiful hills covered with aspens and pines. 

We passed the site of Sheridan Stage Station, now completely 
submerged under sixteen feet of water. We saw in the distance 
the mountain where the statue of Crazy Horse is being carved, 
then drove through Custer where once stood a stage station. 

Mr. Carey, our Wyoming patrolman, was waiting for us at the 
Wyoming line. He escorted us safely back to Lusk where Trek 
No. 16 ended. 


Howard S. Watts 


Mrs. T. Wesley Bastian 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Fletcher Youtz 


Richard A. Eklund 

Marian Haseas 

Mr. and Mrs. Bert Jones 

Hazel M. McGinley 

Mr. and Mrs. Verne Mokler 

Mrs. Irene Patterson 

Joseph P. Snowden 

Edness Kimball Wilkins 


Rosalind Bealey 

Winifred S. Bergren 

Mr. and Mrs. James Boan and 

Maurine Carley 

Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Carlile 

Virginia Carlisle 

William Dubois 

Paul Edwards 

Jane Houston 

Mary Hutchinson 

Robert Larson 

Marguerite Martin 

Vera Ritter 

Dorris Sander 

Loretta Strande 

Meda Walker 

Grant Willson 


Mr. and Mrs. Harold Carson 

Lyle Hildebrand 

Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Stevens 


Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Stout 


Louis Hellervell 




Mr. and Mrs. Albert DeGering 
Leonard DeGering 


Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Towns 


Mr. and Mrs. Phil Kundz 


Grace Vandel 


L. E. Carey 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Cook 

Mr. and Mrs. lim Griffith 

M. C. Kaan 

Nick Kaan 

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Kuhn 

Jerry Urbanek 

Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Watson 

Mr. and Mrs. Glen Willson 

Dale Windom 


Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Spencer 


Mable E. Brown 

Julie Clark 

Mr. and Mrs. C. R. Cooksey 

Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Darrow 

Debbie Dumbrill 

Mr. and Mrs. James Fletcher 

Mrs. Hugh Graham 

Judge and Mrs. Rodney Guthrie 

Pauline Marchant 

Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Mikesell 

Elizabeth Thorpe and Stacy 

Mildred W. Fann 
Mrs. Esther Schacher 


Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Hertzler 
Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Peterson 
Mr. and Mrs. Warren Russell 


Mr. and Mrs. J. A. LeMay 


Sidney Miller 
Ruth Petty 

H. M. Townsend 

Pierre LaBonte 


Christine Williams 


H. H. Dodd 

Mr. and Mrs. 

Mr. and Mrs. 

Mr. and Mrs. 

Mr. and Mrs. 

Mr. and Mrs. 

John Mador 

Vance Nelson 

Mr. and Mrs. John Waitman 

Sterling Enlow 
George Ellis 
Franklin Heady 
Paul Henderson 
William Lenley 


Harry Anderson 

Fred Borsch 

Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Brigham 

Mr. and Mrs. Cushman Clark 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Eklund 

Margaret Furois 

Will Robinson 

Cawille Yuill 


Marilyn Schenk 


David Geddes 
Richard Peters 

Pony 8k press 

Leeland U. Grieve 

Last night as I stood dreaming 
All alone in a hotel door 
An aeroplane flew over me 
With that humming drumming roar. 

Like an eagle in the sky it was 
So strong, so light, so frail 
It was headed toward the setting sun 
And carrying the western mail. 

Let's turn back a page in history 
To another age and day 
It's still a tale of carrying the mail 
But it's told in another way. 

Across a bleak and bare prairie 
A calm and lonely wilderness 
They ruled alone on a galloping throne 
And they called it the Pony Express. 

There was a kind of lonely silence 
In this silent, lonely land 
Where success hung on the trigger 
And the staff of life was sand. 

They rode a half-breed mustang 
Of a true and tried-out breed 
They sacrificed the comfort 
And put it all in speed. 

For they could not stop to argue 
The subject pro or con 
The mail must be delivered 
The rider must go on. 

The horse is long forgotten 
Their guns have turned to rust 
The riders in the grave yards 
Have moldered into dust. 

That sight tonight was progress 
It proves that they were right 
Their spirits may be flying 
With that drumming plane tonight. 

Wyoming State Mis tor tea I Society 


Violet Hord 

In 1953 a little news note came out in Wyoming newspapers 
stating that all interested persons were invited to meet in Casper 
for the purpose of forming an historical society. Many came from 
all over the state and a society was started. 

Miss Lola Homsher, director of the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department, felt people throughout the State could be 
very helpful in collecting history and took this means of bringing 
them together. 

In looking back at the annual state meetings many interesting 
and delightful occassions are brought to mind. 

Casper held the first meeting and the group visited old Fort 
Caspar but most of the time was devoted to organization. 

Lander hosted the next meeting and the group laid more plans 
and toured historical sites. 

Everyone who attended well remembers the Gillette meeting and 
the trip to Devils Tower, where the members had arranged a buf- 
falo and beef barbecue. Several thousand people attended on that 
day. Passing tourists saw cars and people and came down and 
joined them. Many members were strangers to each other and the 
tourists just mingled with the crowd, probably thinking that Wyo- 
ming people were most hospitable — which they are. 

There was the meeting in Cody where the John Colter pageant 
was presented — and the luncheon at Valley Ranch given by Larry 
Larome. I hope he knows how much it was enjoyed. 

Many had never heard of the Grand Canyon of Southeastern 
Wyoming until the convention in Cheyenne. There the group 
stood on the rim of the canyon and looked far south — down to the 
smoke rising from Fort Collins — many miles away. Cheyenne 
members cooked and served the breakfast in a Cheyenne park on 
Sunday morning while the costumed Cheyenne Ki-Ann Indian 
dancers performed authentic Indian dances. 

At the annual meeting in Rawlins the breakfast was held on the 
river by old Fort Steele. Mr. A. H. MacDougall, president of the 
State Society at that time, had killed the antelope that supplied the 
sausage for the breakfast. He said it was the last time he would 
ever go hunting. 

In some ways the Sunday morning breakfasts are the most 
friendly time of the meeting. Everyone circulates around and gets 


In Buffalo trips were made to many points of historical interest. 
Members breakfasted on the beautiful lawn of the Wyoming State 
Soldiers and Sailors Home, west of Buffalo, with the residents of 
the home. Here in the fresh fall air, with the Big Horn Mountains 
in the background, a group performed Basque dances much to the 
enjoyment of the visitors. 

Torrington has many historical sites. The group visited old 
Fort Laramie — now being restored and well worth the trip to see it. 
They viewed Register Cliff with its hundreds of pioneer names 
carved on its surface. The old wagon trails cut deep down into 
solid rock and the paths worn by the feet of the drivers beside the 
ruts are a moving sight. The late Pat Flannery spoke at the site 
of the Grattan Massacre. 

The members toured the many beautiful new buildings at the 
University of Wyoming in Laramie. On Sunday morning the 
group visited the site of old Fort Sanders. One of the buildings 
has been moved into Laramie and is being restored for a Com- 
munity Center by the Albany County Chapter. 

In Sheridan the Sheridan Inn was of special interest. On Sunday 
morning there was a trek to Custer Battlefield with many stops 
along the way at historic sites. 

There was Rawlins in 1964 with breakfast at old Fort Steele 
again. A fine trip was held later to the Platte River Crossing on 
the Overland Stage Trail. Here Mr. Edward McAuslan read a 
paper on that historic spot. The trip ended here with lunch served 
by the efficient cooks. 

The Cody meeting was last year. The Irma Hotel, Buffalo Bill 
Museum and the Whitney Gallery of Western Art were special 
attractions. Hours can be spent looking at the Museum and Gal- 
lery exhibits. 

These are Just the highlights of the social side of the meetings. 
Of most importance are the business meetings and the speakers. 

Members and interested persons are urged to attend these An- 
nual meetings. In 1966 Fremont County will host the society in 
Riverton. There is no nicer way to meet people and see different 
sections of the state. 

Cody, Wyoming September 11-12, 1965 

As the members of the Wyoming State Historical Society regis- 
tered in the Cody Auditorium on Friday evening, they greeted old 
friends and enjoyed the display of beautiful paintings by Nick 
Eggenhofer, Cody artist. 

At 9:45 on Saturday morning. President Neal Miller introduced 
Dr. Harold McCracken, Director of the Buffalo Bill Historical 
Center and the Whitney Museum of Western Art, who gave an 


illuminating and instructive talk on archaeology in the Cody area. 

By means of a chart showing excavations made in Mummy Cave, 
he paralleled the 16 culture layers found there with events in his- 
tory which made clearer the times involved. Twenty-one radio 
carbon datings have been made which show cultures back to 9,000 
B.C. For centuries Mummy Cave had been preserved under fan- 
tastically ideal conditions with no seepage. "Mummy Joe" and 
over 25,000 artifacts have been taken from this cave. This is the 
first time anyone has been able to see what a cave man in the 
Rockies looked like. Speculation is that he came up to the moun- 
tains sometime during the tropical period which lasted 3.000 years. 

Dr. McCracken asked the Society to help stop the vandalizing 
of important sites and discoveries. He stated it was much more 
important to gather the information that could be obtained by 
proper methods of digging than to merely collect artifacts. 

After the Auditing Committee, composed of Rev. Stuart Frazier, 
Gene Brown and Robert Larson, was appointed, time was taken for 
a coffee break. 

Paul Edwards, Chief, Museum Division, State Archives and His- 
torical Department, spoke on "Setting Up and Maintaining Small 
Museums." He stated there is no history that is not local history. 
A local museum has a job to perform in interpreting the local story 
which a state museum cannot do. He offered several suggestions 
for operating a successful small museum : ( 1 ) Decide first of all 
what is to be portrayed; then preserve only significant historical 
items which contribute to the desired interpretation. (2) Have 
revolving displays. Storage space and "think" space are also 
essential. (3) One good article well displayed means more than a 
filled case. (4) People who direct museums should have a funda- 
mental knowledge of history. (5) Remember that artifacts are 
living, tangible evidences of living people. (6) Don't forget the 
objective and stay within it. Be honest. 

Katherine Halverson, Chief, Historical Division, State Archives 
and Historical Department, spoke on "Oral Interviews and Tape 
Techniques." She stressed several points: (1) Less-known 
people are sources of authentic and valuable information, often 
more so than well-known people. (2) Do not edit or polish up 
tapes. The real value is often lost by so doing. (3) The person 
conducting the interview should have some knowledge of the sub- 
ject. (4) Relationship between both parties should be informal 
and friendly. Better interviews often result if they know each 
other. (5) Pioneer contributions are completely irreplaceable. 
(6) Tapes are invaluable and unique research tools. 

At eleven o'clock, following the workshop, President Miller 
called the meeting to order and began the first phase of the annual 
business meeting, requesting the annual reports of county chapters. 
The reports were enjoyed by all members, and have been filed with 
the Executive Secretary at the Wyoming State Archives and His- 


torical Department. Only thumbnail sketches of unusual activities 
are given here. 

Fremont County (read by Mrs. Emma Martin) The Chapter 
celebrated its eleventh birthday on November 8, 1964. Interesting 
papers presented included one on the work accomplished under 
each of the past presidents and another on "Christmas in Wyoming 
Around the Turn of the Century." 

Campbell County - No report. 

Goshen County - No report. 

Laramie County (read by William Dubois) Members have re- 
paired the monument on the grave of Portugee Phillips, entertained 
the Pioneer Club at a tea, made preparations to move an old coun- 
try schoolhouse into Cheyenne, and arranged to place a plaque at 
the site of the old Cheyenne Club. 

Albany County (read by Mr. B. W. Marston ) The group has 
worked hard to re-establish the Albany County Museum. The 
Junior Historical Society contributed $11 to the special museum 
fund. Gowns in the Museum collection were modeled at one 
meeting by the daughters of Laramie pioneers. A handsomely 
illustrated volume, Book of the American West, was presented to 
the Albany County Carnegie Library as the Chapter's memorial 
to their late president, Henry Jones. 

Natrona County (read by Mrs. Charles Hord) $20 was donated 
to help the Wind River Mountain Men go to Washington, D.C., 
for the inauguration of President L. B. Johnson. One meeting 
was devoted to "Personal Experiences" of members of the Chapter. 
At another Robert Evans displayed his sculptured articles and 
lectured on the art. 

Carbon County (report mailed in) Letters of appreciation and 
thanks regarding the state meeting held in Rawlins in 1964 were 
read at one meeting. Two new cases were purchased for the 
Carbon County Museum. Most meetings followed carry-in din- 
ners. A goal of 125 members for 1965 was set. 

Johnson County (read by Rev. Stuart Frazier) Members saved 
lids and bands from coffee cans and secured a coffee maker for 
their social hour. New attractive stationery has been printed for 
the chapter. Students from the new Big Horn School were invited 
guests at one meeting. 

Washakie County - No report. 

Park County (read by Mrs. Lucille Patrick) The chapter has 
spent most of its time planning and preparing for the 12th Annual 
Meeting. Reports of past presidents were entertaining. A scrap- 
book has been begun which will be invaluable to future officers. 


Members hope to encourage more Powell neighbors to join the 
Park Chapter. 

Sweetwater County (read by Henry Chadey) Two interesting 
treks were taken and a dinner celebrating the ninth birthday of the 
chapter was held. Terms of officers have been extended to two 
years. One hold-over officer always serves. The members are 
working to save Point of Rocks Stage Station, and they had a 
pioneer grave moved from the route of the new Interstate High- 
way 80. 

Uinta County - No report. 

Sheridan County (read by Florence J. Hamm) Orman Pratt, 
winner of the state seal contest last year, was honored by presenta- 
tion of a special certificate from the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. The chapter instigated the organization of the corpora- 
tion, Sheridan Inn, Inc., the purpose of which is to purchase the 
historic Sheridan Inn and be responsible for its preservation and 
use. $8,000 has been raised. A marker in memory of the Sawyer 
Expedition was dedicated. 

Weston County - No report. 

Platte County (read by George Grant) Members are continuing 
their writer's sessions at which they contribute papers on local 
history. The chapter sponsored a historical display at the county 

Big Horn County - No report. 

Teton County - This chapter was organized in May and made no 

The meeting was recessed from 12:00 noon to 1:30 p.m. 


Mr. Miller called the annual business meeting to order and 
asked the members to observe a short period of silence as a tribute 
to the members of the State Society who had passed away during 
the year. 

Mr. Miller announced that only paid members would have the 
privilege of voting during this meeting. He then asked members 
present to stand by counties. Laramie County and Park County 
had the largest representations. 

It was moved by Rev. Frazier to dispense with the reading of the 
minutes of the Eleventh Annual Meeting since they were printed in 
the Annals of Wyoming. The motion was seconded and carried. 
However, portions of the minutes of two Executive Committee 
meetings were read and approved. These executive minutes had 
previously been sent to all county chapters. 

The Treasurer gave the following report : 




September 12, 1964-September 11. 1965 

Cash and investments on hand September 12, 1964 


Hunton Diaries 

Cheyenne Sun 


Teton Charter 



Annals of Wyoming 

Eleventh Annual Meeting 

Officers' Expenses 





Bond and Secretary of State 


Historic Trek 

Committees: Standing 

Awards: Scholarship 
Junior Historians 

For Resale: Hunton Diaries 
Cheyenne Sun 


























September 11, 


First National Bank and Trust Company, Cheyenne 
Federal Building and Loan Association, Cheyenne 
Cheyenne Federal Savings and Loan 
Federal Building and Loan, Life Memberships 
Federal Building and Loan, Bishop Memorial Fund 




$ 1,756.74 







Neal E. Miller 

I wish to thank the membership for permitting me to continue in 
office a second year. In the course of this second year most of 
our accomplishments have been administrative and they are not 
mine alone but the result of a joint effort by your other officers, the 
State Archives and Historical Department, and others. 

We completed the Chapter Handbook. We sincerely hope you 
will consult its pages for the answers to your questions and for ideas 
and pass it on to your successor. As a contribution to the 75th 


Anniversary of Wyoming's Statehood, we sold almost all of our 
order of 5,000 of the facsimile copies of the July 24, 1890, Chey- 
enne Daily Sun. We ordered and have for distribution membership 
or recognition pins which I am sure you will be proud to have and 

We had only two Executive Committee meetings this year and 
attempted to settle other matters by means of correspondence to 
save both travel time and costs. I have visited two chapters and 
had invitations to two others which unfortunately conflicted with 
previous plans. I attended a museum discussion meeting in Lara- 
mie to assist in planning for an Albany County Museum. 

Thank you again for permitting me to serve as your Society 
president for two most interesting and rewarding years. 



Mrs. Charles Hord 

Reporting on the Projects Committee, of which the first vice 
president is Chairman, two markers are in the process of being 
finished and set up, one for the original Boysen Dam and the other 
for the city of Casper. There are others which have also been fur- 
nished by the Archives and Historical Department that did not go 
through the Projects Committee. 

Some method of raising money for projects will be discussed in 
the coming year. 

The committee is attempting to increase interest in the State 
Archives and Historical Department and State Museum Building 
needed in Cheyenne. 

Encouraging young people to become members in a Junior 
Society is always an aim of the Projects Committee. 



Glenn E. Sweem 

The second vice president is chairman of the Historical Awards 
Committee. I submit the following report and, in addition, several 
recommendations for consideration at the next Executive meeting: 

The Historical Awards Committee composed of Mrs. Howard 
Bundy, of Gillette, John Banks, of Cody, Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, 
of Sheridan, and Glenn Sweem, Chairman, of Sheridan, met on 
August 9, 1965, at Sheridan and selected eight awards winners and 
one honorable mention from 19 nominations. Awards will be 
presented at the annual banquet this evening and will be announced 
at that time. 

The Historical Awards Committee makes the following recom- 


mendations to be taken under consideration at the next Executive 
Committee meeting: 

Through Executive Committee action or through an appointed 
committee that the following additions or changes be incorporated 
into the rules of the Historical Awards Program: 


Books - Page 15 

Procedure: Under this subtitle it is thought that a book review, 
book report, or book outline, would help the Awards Committee 
to make a more intelligent award selection, as some of the nom- 
inations for awards are on books that none of the committee had 
read. Therefore, it is recommended that a book report or review 
be submitted with the nomination. 

Special Fields - Page 1 8 

Archaeology: Under this category we believe some specific 
rules should be made, so that not every one who is a collector of 
artifacts, or the infamous "pothunter/ 1 can qualify under this cate- 
gory. Therefore, we recommend that this subtitle rule read thus: 
An individual or group making outstanding contributions in the 
field of archaeology to Wyoming history, by preserving the arti- 
facts, and/or presenting a completed scientific paper or report 
acceptable to the Department of Anthropology, University of 
Wyoming, or any other recognized authority in the science of 
anthropology, to the Awards Committee. Judging will be contin- 
gent upon the completed work, no matter how long the work was in 

Paleontology: Rule same as written above, only substituting 
the word paleontology for the word archaeology. 

Photography: Substitute in place of last sentence: To be eli- 
gible, copies of photographs should be made available for the files 
of the Executive Headquarters by submitting copyable pictures if 
they so desire and request same. 



Miss Maurine Carley 

The duties of the Secretary-Treasurer of this organization are 
varied. The minutes of each annual meeting are written, filed and 
read at the following meeting. The minutes of the Executive 
Committee meetings are mailed to the State Officers and to presi- 
dents and secretaries of each of the 17 organized chapters of the 

Each year income tax reports are filed with the Internal Revenue 
Department and an incorporation annual report with one dollar is 
sent to the Secretary of State. Monies for dues sent into the 


Archives and Historical Department office are deposited in the 
checking account or in the proper savings. Records of sale of 
Hunton Diaries are kept, as well as payments made to people 
taking advantage of our Scholarship and Grant-in-Aid programs. 
This year a separate record was also kept of sales of the Cheyenne 
Daily Sun newspaper reprints. 

For several years I have been responsible for planning the trek 
which is sponsored by the State Archives and Historical Depart- 
ment and the State Historical Society. This year we successfully 
completed the Cheyenne-Deadwood Trail with the fine cooperation 
of the Weston County Chapter and South Dakota historical organ- 
izations. This trek was especially a fun one because of the many 
extras such as the "Meller Drammer" and stage holdup arranged by 
the Lusk people, the coffee and cold drinks donated by Weston 
County members, and exciting entertainment in Deadwood. 

Questions arise constantly which require conferences at the 
Archives and Historical Department which is Executive Headquar- 
ters of the Society. An elaborate set of books is kept showing the 
receipts and disbursements in their proper place. President Miller 
set up these books and I invite you to look at them. Bills are paid 
and letters written. 

1964-65 Members Top Five Counties 

37 Life Laramie 138 

16 Joint Life Carbon 102 

714 Annual Goshen 92 

426 Joint Annual Sheridan 7 1 

Sweetwater 59 




Lola M. Homsher 

Mention has already been made by other officers of activities in 
which the office of the Executive Secretary and the Archives and 
Historical Department also participated, such as the sponsoring of 
the historic trek and the compilation, editing, organizing, printing 
and mailing of the Handbook of the State Historical Society, a tool 
which should become of great value to all officers on both the 
state and county levels. Since the Handbooks were mailed, addi- 
tions and corrections to the Handbook have also been mailed. 

My office and staff have worked with the various committees of 
the Society requesting aid; have edited, published and issued the 
Annals of Wyoming and "History News" to all members; have 
continued maintaining membership listings and issuing receipts for 
memberships paid; have had an official stamp made of the newly- 



adopted state seal of the Society for use on documents, and have 
had cuts of two sizes made of the seal for uses which may arise for 
it, samples of which are found in the Chapter Handbook. These 
latter items were paid for by the Society. 

The Executive Secretary has called upon the chapters in counties 
through which the Pony Express ran to work with the department 
in placing some Pony Express plaques which can be obtained for 
the State. 

A conference was held with Dr. Cecil Shaw, State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, and members of his staff regarding coopera- 
tion in the awards program, particularly in the junior historians 
area and Teacher-of-the-Year Award. Dr. Paul Graves, newly- 
appointed head of the Division of Social Studies of the Department 
of Education, is attending the meeting today, and we welcome him 
here. A conference was also held with Karl Winchell, editor of the 
Wyoming Educational Association Journal, who will publicize the 
program in that bulletin. 

The price of the Annals of Wyoming is to be raised through 
action of the State Library, Archives and Historical Board, under 
which the Annals is published. To cover costs of printing and 

Courtesy of John Banks 

Members of the Albany County Junior Historical Society visiting with Dr. 

Harold McCracken, Director of the Buffalo Bill Historical Center and the 

Whitney Museum of Western Art. Left to right are Sheila McCoy, Jim 

Nottage, Dr. McCracken, Mike Corsberg and Bari Benson. 


mailing, the price starting January 1, 1966, will be $1.25 to the 
Society, raised from $1.00 each. The Board further ruled that 
single copies of the Annals will be priced at $1.50 each, and that 
subscriptions to the Annals of Wyoming will be discontinued. In 
the future, memberships to the State Historical Society will replace 
such subscriptions, which are, in general, used only by institutions 
such as libraries throughout the country. This membership will 
entitle them to the "History News" as well as the Annals of Wyo- 
ming and simplify record-keeping in the Department. 

In view of the present financial standing of the Society, no rec- 
ommendation is made at this time regarding an increase in dues. 
If, in the future, the Society finds this increase in the charge for the 
magazine a drain on finances, a raise in dues can be considered. 

The Archives and Historical Department aided the counties and 
the state 75th Anniversary Commission in the celebration of 75 
years of statehood in all ways possible and whenever called upon. 

The Executive Secretary, as a member of the Grant-in-Aid and 
Scholarship Awards Committees, assisted in these areas of activity 
by accepting applications, circulating them to the membership of 
the committees, and obtaining the approval of the committee of the 
manuscript submitted by Gerald Nelson, and of the Executive 
Committee of the State Historical Society for the final payment of 
the Grant-in-Aid which he held for 1964-65. Two copies of this 
work were received and properly placed, one in the permanent file 
of the archives of the Wyoming State Historical Society and one in 
the Historical Division of the Department. 

In regard to the proposed building to house the State Archives 
and Historical Department and State Museum, the Legislative 
Committee of the Society worked with the members of the legis- 
lature to secure their consideration of the proposal. The final plan, 
copies of which were sent to all chapters, called for an expenditure 
of $2 million dollars, which was introduced in the House of Repre- 
sentatives but was never reported out of the Ways and Means Com- 
mittee. A brief act, however, was passed which requires that the 
Capitol Building Commission look into the needs of the Archives 
and Historical Department and State Museum, as well as of other 
departments of state, and report back with recommendations to the 
legislature in 1967. Meanwhile, resolutions for the building, in 
addition to that passed by this Society, have also been passed by the 
Wyoming Press Association, the Wyoming Federation of Womens 
Clubs and the Wyoming Motel Association. 

Membership in the Society since its founding in 1953 has steadily 
increased. I am happy to report that this year for the first time it 
has exceeded 1200. This number slightly exceeds that given by 
the Secretary-Treasurer since some memberships have been re- 
ceived in the Department since the books were closed for this 
annual meeting. 




Dr. T. A. Larson 

William Barnhart is presently writing on Carbon County under 
the 1964-65 Scholarship grant. To date he has received the initial 
payment of $200. Several prospective applicants are considering 
applying, one to write on the history of Platte County and one on 
Natrona County. 

Robert Murray, who is writing under the Society's Grant-in-Aid 
program on a two-year basis, reported that he has about 80% of 
his documented material now and hopes to complete his project by 
the due date in March. 


Rev. Frazier reported that the treasurer's books were found in 
good order and correct. 

A few small donations have been given to the Society as memor- 
ials. Mr. Chadey moved that with such gifts the Society purchase 
books or manuscripts to be placed in the Archives and Historical 
Department's permanent historical library and that they be marked 
by using special bookplates made for the purpose, selection of 
books to be made by the Historical Division personnel. The 
motion was seconded and carried. 

Robert Murray suggested that the Legislative Committee should 
keep alive the interest in legislation during non-legislative years. 
Mr. Frost stated that $863,000 is now available for outdoor recrea- 
tion work including historic sites in Wyoming. The state must 
match this and use it in two years or it will be lost to Wyoming. 

The postage on "History News" has been paid by the Archives 
and Historical Department in the past. Since the Society now has 
adequate funds it was proposed that the Society pay this postage. 
Mr. Marchant moved that the Society pay the postage, roughly 
$218, on the six yearly issues. The motion was seconded and 

Mrs. Adolph Spohr of Cody suggested that several changes be 
made on the registration forms for the Annual Meeting. These 
suggestions will be sent to the Executive Headquarters office so 
they can be considered for 1966. 

Rev. Frazier moved that the following resolution be placed in 
the minutes of the meeting: 

WHEREAS the Park County Chapter has extended fine hos- 
pitality to the Wyoming State Historical Society, in recognition of 
their efforts, 

BE IT THEN RESOLVED: that we give the members of said 
chapter a standing vote of thanks. 

William Dubois, president of Laramie County Chapter, invited 


the Society to hold the 1967 state meeting in Cheyenne, the year in 
which the city will be observing its centennial. 

Mr. Sweem suggested that a committee be appointed to study 
the advisability of collecting funds to match federal funds given to 
the State. 

The meeting was adjourned at 4:30 p. m. 


At seven o'clock on Saturday evening a banquet was enjoyed in 
the Cody Auditorium. Gay 1890 costumes worn by many men 
and women made the affair quite festive. 

President Miller introduced the past presidents who were in 
attendance, Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins and Dr. T. A. Larson. 


Junior Historians. Mr. Miller presented checks to winners in the 
Junior Historical Essay Contest, all of whom were present. They 
were: Senior High School: First Award, $25, Billie Cooper, 
Worland. Junior High School: First Award, $25, Sheila McCoy, 
Laramie; Second Award, $10, Joann Hinkel, Worland, Third 
Award, book, The Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rockies, Mike Cors- 
berg, Laramie. Their teachers, Gene Brown from Laramie and 
Hattie Burnstad and Virginia D. Lovelady from Worland, were 
introduced and thanked for their interest and cooperation. 

General Awards. Mr. Sweem, Chairman of the Awards Com- 
mittee presented the following awards: 

Maurine Carley and Virginia Cole Trenholm. For The Sho- 
shonis: Sentinels of the Rockies. 

John G. Langen. For authoring outstanding historical articles 
in Wyoming newspapers. 

Mabel E. Brown. For historical magazine, "Bits and Pieces.' 1 

Robert Edgar. For discovery and preservation of Mummy 

Payroll Development Committee, Casper Chamber of Com- 
merce. For television series called "Wyoming History Series" and 
"See and Know Wyoming." 

Elizabeth Thorpe and Mabel Brown. For historical production, 
"Coals of Newcastle." 

Nick Eggenhofer. For recording the historical West through 
documentary painting. 

Jack Richard. For recording the history of Wyoming in photo- 

Francis Crossfield. Honorable Mention. For historical ballet, 
"Red Deer Ballet." 



J. K. Moore. Cumulative Awards (Posthumous) For his 
continued effort to preserve the history of Wyoming. Received by 
his daughter, Mrs. Ronald Bell. 

Mr. Chadey, chairman of the Nominating Committee, an- 
nounced that the following officers had been elected for the 
coming year: 

President Mrs. Charles Hord 

First Vice President Glenn Sweem 

Second Vice President John Banks 

Secretary-Treasurer ..Miss Maurine Carley 

Mr. Miller turned over the gavel to Mrs. Hord with wishes for a 
successful year. 

The speaker of the evening, Dr. William T. Alderson, Director of 
the American Association for State and Local History, Nashville, 
Tennessee, gave a most informative talk entitled, "Local History — 
The Feeder Roots," in which he stressed the importance of the 
individual and local historical organizations. There are now 3,000 
historical societies in the United States - 200 more than two years 
ago. He said that our responsibility is to take care of these roots, 

Courtesy of John Banks 

Officers of the Wyoming State Historical Society for 1965-1966. From left 
to right they are Glenn Sweem, Sheridan, first vice president; John Banks, 
Cody, second vice-president; Miss Lola M. Homsher, Cheyenne, former 
executive secretary; Mrs. Charles Hord, Casper, president; Miss Maurine 
Carley, Cheyenne, secretary-treasurer. 


but we must have knowledge and methods for doing it the right 

He listed several factors which help make a successful historical 
society. (1) Motivation. (2) Preservation of history by means 
of tape, photos, films. (3) Active selling of history to "non- 
believers." (4) Having fun through tours, treks, dressing in cos- 
tume on occasion, social hours. (5) Persuading people to par- 
ticipate through good leadership. (6) Planning a strong and var- 
ied program. (7) Exchanging ideas with other societies and other 
states. (8) Dedication to the importance of history. Take care 
of it and pass it on to the next generation unchanged. 

Rev. Stuart Frazier gave the benediction. 


After a breakfast at the Canyon Cafeteria the members visited 
the Whitney Gallery of Western Art and the Buffalo Bill Museum, 
where time seemed all too short. 

Everyone declared this was a fine annual meeting and they sin- 
cerely thank the Park County Chapter for two interesting days. 

Maurine Carley 

Book Kcviews 

History of Wyoming. By T. A. Larson (Lincoln: University of 
Nebraska Press, 1965. Illus., Index. 619 pp. $6.95.) 

Wyoming has lacked a good one-volume adult history of the 
state, and Dr. Larson has ably filled this gap. For the first time 
here is a comprehensive critical history of Wyoming written in a 
professional manner. It is not a text book for school use but a 
history for all interested in Wyoming. 

Dr. Larson has brought into perspective Wyoming's origins and 
growth, and into focus the forces which have formed the state into 
its present political, economic and social structure. An analysis of 
his presentation brings an understanding of the weaknesses and 
strength of the state and its people and the possibilities of what can 
lie ahead, provided the lessons of history are understood and 

Because Wyoming is one of the last "frontier states" and because 
so much legend has grown up surrounding a few events — enlarged 
upon by fiction and more recently by T. V. — too much attention 
has been concentrated upon the lurid and spectacular. Dr. Larson 
is not concerned with these elements but deals with the fundamen- 
tals, and focus is on the men and women and events which shaped 
the history of the state during the past century: from 1865 when 
the name Wyoming was first proposed for a new territory then 
under consideration (and which became an actuality by act of 
Congress in 1868) through 1965, the state's 75th Anniversary of 

Since much has been written on the period of the fur trade and 
the Indians, the author deals with these only briefly in the first 
two chapters. In the remaining sixteen chapters he concentrates 
on the significant developments which occurred and shaped the 
state's destiny. 

The main thread of the history is carried by the actions and 
messages of the governors and the various legislatures. Interwoven 
with the progression of time through political action are the other 
aspects of the history and events in the State, and touching on 
national affairs when they had special impact on Wyoming. Al- 
though packed with facts, the book is not dull reading, but is an 
interesting, continually moving story interspersed with humor 
through the use of quotations and by the author's own occasional 
spicy comments. 

Dr. Larson has researched extensively in newspapers of Wyo- 
ming, in private papers, state and federal governmental publica- 
tions, unpublished theses and, in addition to his searches in Wyo- 


ming, he has also used the resources of other libraries outside Wyo- 
ming such as the Bancroft, Henry E. Huntington and New York 
Public libraries, the Library of Congress and the National Archives. 

Because Wyoming is a young state and has only in recent years 
lost her earliest pioneers, and because daily problems occupied 
first place in the minds of her citizens, Wyoming's history has been 
too much a part of daily life and not viewed as real history. The 
past decade and a half have changed this outlook. Dr. Larson's 
book points further the way to numerous studies which need to be 
made. To go into greater depth into some of the facets of Wyo- 
ming's story, one will want to follow up with additional reading of 
many of the books and sources noted in his source notes at the 
end of the book. 

For anyone interested in Wyoming history, this book should be 
required reading. The serious writer needs it as a background, 
and Wyoming citizens should peruse it for a better understanding 
of the state, of its past and present economic, social and political 
problems, and of its future prospects. It should be in the home as 
well as in all libraries. 

The book is especially recommended for all persons who are 
planning for the future of the State. Whether working in the 
political, economic or social fields, they cannot ignore it in good 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 

Old Jules Country, By Mari Sandoz. (New York: Hastings House, 
Publishers, 1965. 316 pp. $4.95) 

To commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of the original publi- 
cation of Old Jules, Hastings House honored Mari Sandoz by 
issuing a volume of selections which represent the best of her non- 
fiction writing to date. 

If, like this reviewer, you have read everything available from 
the pen of Miss Sandoz, yet found yourself returning, over and 
over, to her biography of her father, your heart will leap when first 
you see the dust jacket on this new book, Old Jules Country. 

New, did we say? Actually, only two brief selections — "Snakes" 
and "Coyotes and Eagles" — were hitherto unpublished. The back- 
bone of the volume consists of samplings from all six books in- 
cluded in the Sandoz Great Plains series — Old Jules (1935), Crazy 
Horse (1942), Cheyenne Autumn (1953), The Buffalo Hunters 
(1954), The Cattlemen (1958) and The Beaver Men (1964) — 
plus excerpts from her incisive study entitled, These Were the 
Sioux (1961). 

But that is not all! Also included are two essays concerning 


"The Lost Sitting Bull" and "The Homestead in Perspective," as 
well as one version of the poignant "Evening Song," chanted daily 
by a Southern Cheyenne chief imprisoned at old Fort Marion, 
Florida, during the winter of 1876-77. Each evening he faced 
westward toward the setting sun as he stood in chains on the 
highest wall. 

For all newcomers to the Sandoz reading circle, this book will 
provide, through a long-range lens, a broad panoramic view of life 
on the Great Plains long before and immediately following the turn 
of this century. 

This is not a dull narration of familiar dramatic happenings in 
the lives of the Indians, the mountain men, the hide hunters, the 
cavalrymen, the cattlemen and the homesteaders. Instead, the 
material here is new, as well as old. It could be written only by 
an author who is acquainted with her subject at firsthand, as well 
as vicariously; who is willing to spend long innumerable hours in 
visiting specific locales and in doing supplemental research; who is 
not averse to writing painstakingly, and re-writing, then writing 

Her imagery is superb. One experiences, with her, events and 
scenes which remain etched on one's memory long after the book 
has been laid aside. Sights — such as "the vapor rising from the 
breath of the buffalo" in the morning sun; sounds — such as mocca- 
sins which are just "a whisper on the buffalo grass" or the Indian 
women's "keening for a strong man dying." The author speaks of 
the wild young warriors who "went away like dogs caught at the 
meat racks, some looking back;" of "the littls Frenchman" (Bor- 
deaux ) , who shouted, "sputtering like wet buffalo fat thrown on the 
fire;" of the interpreter (Wyuse), who "called out insulting words 
as though they were green buffalo chips he was throwing at them." 

The reader may feel not only acute discomfort, but even inward 
grief and sheer pain, because of the broken promises the white men 
made, "thin as the morning fog along the creek bottoms, gone with 
one look from the sun." 

Mari Sandoz always has championed the underdog, whether a 
band of Northern Cheyennes, humiliated by being thrust upon the 
bounty of their faraway, albeit gracious, southern relatives whose 
own subsistence had dwindled, or a group of struggling home- 
steaders in cattlemen's country. 

Naturally, many of her books are controversial in nature and 
they sometimes incite cries of "Prejudice! Narrow prejudice!" 
One wonders, however, how many of her critics can look back on a 
childhood as bleak as hers, or upon experiences involving gunfire 
in the lives of immediate relatives. 

Old Jules denied her many pleasures most children of every 
generation take for granted and he never failed to spare the rod, 
but he gave her a lasting heritage — an appreciation for nature's 


gifts and a philosophy which has served her well during long years 
of adversity. 

At a writers convention in Portland, Oregon two years ago, this 
reviewer remarked to Miss Sandoz, "I've read Old Jules again and 
again, trying to discover how any daughter could write about her 
father as objectively as you did!" She answered simply, "It took 
five years." 

Invaluable to any reader of Old Jules Country, is the complete 
bibliography of Miss Sandoz' writings to date, fiction and non- 

Sadly lacking is a map which could pinpoint for the reader, new 
or old, the exact locales of many dramatic episodes, described in 
detail, but scattered over a wide expanse of the Great Plains. 
Ham's Fork, Wind River, Grattan Massacre, Beecher Island, Fort 
Robinson, just to name a few! 

Laramie Clarice Whittenburg 

The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest. By 
Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. (Yale University Press, 1965. Illus. 
Index. 705 pp. $12.50) 

Mr. Josephy opens this important and comprehensive historical 
study of the Nez Perce tribe with a current description of the 
"Inland Empire of the Northwest" and a commentary on how its 
Indian inhabitants now live. The innocence, the fortitude, the 
opposing forces influencing the tribe, and the ultimate tragedy of 
this much-admired people are super-imposed on this magnificent 
geographical setting. 

The highly detailed narrative begins with the visit of the Lewis 
and Clark expedition in 1805, recounts the many contacts of the 
tribe with non-Indians, and ends with the war of 1877. A moving 
epilogue on Chief Joseph closes the story. 

In a footnote to the fur trade chapter, the author indicates that 
additional research might prove rewarding on the travels of John 
Colter, the implication being that he did not travel alone on his 
journey through Idaho, Wyoming and Montana. 

The narrative contains sections of interest to Wyoming readers 
relative to the fur trade, the passage through the state of mission- 
aries, emigrants, and pathfinders but only as they relate ultimately 
to the Nez Perce. The author disclaims that this work is an anthro- 
pological study but the careful reader will learn much of the eth- 
nology of the Nez Perce and related tribes. 

Extensive chapter notes, an excellent bibliography, and eleven 
sketch maps assist the reader immeasurably. This is Volume 10 
in the Yale Western Americana Series. 

Cheyenne Neal E. Miller 


The Valley of the Upper Yellowstone. By Charles W. Cook, David 
E. Folsom, and William Peterson. Edited and with an intro- 
duction by Aubrey L. Haines. (Norman: University of 
Oklahoma Press, 1965. Illus. Index. 70 pp. $3.75) 

Aubrey Haines performs a real service to the Western History 
student in bringing together this fine account of the first definitive 
exploration of the Yellowstone Region. He has skilfully woven 
the assortment of narratives, narrative fragments and reminiscences 
of the 1 869 Cook, Folsom, Peterson party into a coherent chron- 
ological account of the trip. 

Charles W. Cook, David E. Folsom and William Peterson in 
1869 were men skilled in assorted frontier occupations, through 
experiences ranging from wagon trains and the high seas to the 
mining camps of Montana. They were also literate men, with a 
good general understanding of scientific phenomena for their day. 
None of them took their surroundings for granted as did many 
westerners of the period. Thus their accounts are focused on the 
country, the natural phenomena and their reactions to these things, 
rather than on the minor mishaps the more romantic might have 
swelled into "adventure," as so frequently happened in western 
writing of the period. 

Throughout the narrative Haines preserves the identity of sourc- 
es for each passage. His introduction sets the expedition in historic 
context. An abundance of good explanatory footnotes identify 
places and explain changes in phenomena occuring since the 
expedition. Biographical sketches and a useful bibliography com- 
plete this fine account. 

Mr. Haines is well schooled for the work undertaken in preparing 
the accounts for publication. A long-time resident of Yellowstone 
National Park, a trained and experienced engineer and historian, 
and an active associate of historians and historical groups in the 
region, he understands the country and the source materials as well 
as the general history of the period. 

Students of Wyoming, Montana and the West will welcome this 
useful addition to their libraries. Visitors to the park will find that 
this book will sharpen their interest and perception, and markedly 
enhance their appreciation of the geography, natural phenomena 
and rich human history that are Yellowstone National Park. 

Fort Laramie National Historic Site Robert A. Murray 

Old Forts of the Far West. By Herbert M. Hart. (Seattle, Super- 
ior Publishing Co., 1963. Index. Illus., 192 pp. $12.50) 

Closely following the style of the preceding two volumes, Old 
Forts of the Far West continues the series with pictures and com- 


ments of posts that developed as America pushed for final occu- 
pancy and control of the west. Major Herbert M. Hart deals with 
some sixty forts, cantonments, camps, and headquarters areas 
ranging from the very primitive White River Cantonment in Colo- 
rado to the sophisticated establishment at Presidio, San Francisco. 
His book is organized into topics as: The Texas Line, the Civil 
War in the West, California Trails, Defensive Establishment for 
San Francisco, the Road Across the Mojave, The Mild Mister 
Meeker, Pathfinders and Settlers of the Far West, and Campaign- 
ing with Crook. 

Everyone to whom the old west has an appeal will find them- 
selves drawn by this work as the ghosts of old adventures, and the 
symbols of old glories are revisited. Yet the author-photographer 
manages to capture something of the nature of the forts, as well as 
the remains of them, and one feels something of the dirt, isolation 
and the hardships that was life at these posts. Like the captain of a 
ship, local commanders at these military establishments stood as 
the arbitrator of comfort or hardship, life or death, and the life of 
the trooper was less than glamorous. 

In this day of global strategy it is sometimes hard to realize that 
posts of the American west, which seem to be haphazardly placed, 
were located as part of a general plan of protection and occupancy, 
or as the base for further penetration. The Texas line was devel- 
oped for the protection of the American settlers from marauding 
Mexicans and Indians that sought refuge across the border. But 
these forts were later, perhaps not all by coincidence, to provide 
protection and supplies for the movement of troops to the Mexican 
War. The Civil War, fought in the east and middle west, is often 
considered to have been little more than a political exercise in the 
far west. But this is not true, for the preservation of the West for 
the union was a matter of considerable concern and required the 
creation and manning of numerous outposts. California figured 
predominantly in this "cold war" effort and both the area itself and 
the routes linking it with the states, needed to be guarded. 

Major Hart has done a good job in providing an illustrative sur- 
vey of the far west through his projection of the military, but he has 
also provided an excellent guide book for those who would prefer 
to do their reminiscing of an earlier day in person. In many areas 
all that can be pictured is the ground that once housed the post, 
for time and weather has not been kind and all that remains is the 
memory that half-crumpled walls and crushed adobe once rose to 
house and protect fighting men of an earlier era. 

It would be most difficult to pick a particular set of photographs 
and pronounce them as the best. However, Hart's photographic 
treatment of Fort Point, California is very impressive. Fort Point, 
built in 1878 to stand lookout over San Francisco Bay, rests on the 
site of old Castlilo de San Joaquin which was built in 1794. Fort 
Point was a massive structure considered impregnable in its time. 


The pictures indicate a feeling of power remaining, though it 
would not stand momentarily against the weapons of today. Hart's 
pictures give you a fascinating introduction to the area, and like all 
his accounts, lure the reader from his chair to the open road that 
he, too, might walk where once trod the soldier of the west. 

Cheyenne Paul W. Edwards 

Newspapering in the Old West — A Pictorial History of Journalism 
and Printing on the Frontier. Robert F. Karolevitz. (Seattle: 
Superior Publishing Co. Illus. Index. 191pp. $12.95) 

The men with printer's ink in their veins, and a seeming com- 
pulsion to publish newspapers, in spite of every kind of handicap, 
were a significant part of America's western frontier population 
of a century ago. 

Their story is told in this account of early western journalism in 
seventeen states from Kansas to the Pacific coast. While this pro- 
fusely illustrated volume might have been only another album of 
interesting pictures with good, descriptive cutlines, it actually is 
considerably more. The author has interpreted the story of the 
individual publishers and their journals in relation to each state's 
history, and the unique circumstances in which these early news- 
papers either flourished Or ceased to exist. 

The impetus behind the publication of the papers varied as 
greatly as the personalities of the editors and publishers themselves. 
Some devoted their energies mostly to local or national political 
issues, others chose to crusade for assorted favorite causes, while a 
good many apparently edited newspapers for the sheer joy of 
indulging in self expression. In an era when libel laws to inhibit 
an editor were few, personal journalism was at an all-time high, 
and many a paper was characterized by its colorful and vitriolic 
attacks on rival editors, community leaders and politicians as well 
as any other appealing target. 

Wyoming is well represented, with good coverage of numerous 
publications and their editors from Hiram Brundage, who brought 
forth Wyoming's first newspaper at Fort Bridger; the famous Fron- 
tier Index — the "press on wheels" published from the end-of-track 
railroad towns across the present state, from Laramie to Bear River 
City, where the plant was destroyed in a riot brought on by Free- 
man's rousing editorials, through Nathan Baker; Bill Nye; Asa 
Mercer; Bill Barlow; Grant Jones; George Caldwell, the "Lurid 
Liar of Lander"; and E. A. Slack. 

The illustrations are excellent, and depict every phase of the 
profession. They include editors, their staffs or helpers, shops and 
offices, sketches and photographs of early equipment, and repro- 
ductions of dozens of early day newspaper front pages. 


In addition the general index, an especially useful additional 
index lists the papers published within each state covered in the 

Cheyenne Katherine Halverson 

Photographer on an Army Mule. By Maurice Frink and Casey 
Barthelmess. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 
1965. Illus., Index. 150 pp. $6.95.) 

This volumn contains more than 100 photographs, part of the 
life work of Christian Barthelmess, a naturalized German, who 
experienced 30 years service, in the frontier army. Shortly after 
immigrating to this country, he enlisted in the 6th U. S. Cavalry in 
1876, and continued his service, reenlisting in the 13th, 22nd and 
2nd regiments of infantry, even serving in Cuba (1898-99) and 
the Philippines ( 1 900-03 ) . 

While Christian Barthelmess was a fine soldier, an accomplished 
musician and well read, his chief interest was devoted to photog- 
raphy. He probably produced over a thousand pictures, some of 
which would class him with the greatest of the famed photographers 
of frontier days. The pictures in the book cover all phases of army 
life, such as family pictures, officers' wives skating on the parade 
ground at Fort Keogh, church services and social events, as well as 
close-up pictures of famous Indians, mostly Cheyennes, who played 
outstanding roles in the history of Wyoming and Montana. He 
opened a studio at Fort Keogh, to augment his soldier pay, which 
the beneficent government, at the time, set at thirteen dollars 

He was a great admirer of Lieutenant E. W. Casey, who organ- 
ized and commanded the first Cheyenne Indian scouts at Fort 
Keogh, Montana. He named his son, Casey, after this famed 
officer, who was killed by a Sioux, Plenty Horses, during the ghost 
dance troubles. The son, Casey, is one of the authors. Fort 
Keogh, the birthplace of the son, where he spent his boyhood, was 
established by General Nelson A. Miles, in 1877, and was named 
after one of Custer's officers who was killed at the battle of the 
Big Horn. Casey knew personally many of the enlisted men, offi- 
cers and Indians who were frontier characters, and was able to 
identify many of the likenesses pictured in the book. 

The text was written by Maurice Frink, formerly director of the 
Colorado Historical Society, and a newspaper man of long stand- 
ing. It is well written and interesting. Both of the authors did an 
outstanding bit of research, traveled many miles, and made great 
efforts to authenticate all of the statements made. Documentation 


is ample. Practically all of the individuals pictured are now gone 
to greener fields. 

There is an error in the description accompanying an illustration 
of four Cheyenne Indian women and their babies. While the pic- 
ture itself is of no little interest, it is evident that the caption belongs 
with some other photo. 

The typography throughout is very well done and makes for easy 
reading. History buffs will value the book as an adjunct to their 
frontier libraries. The portrayal of costumes of the period, the 
uniforms, and particularly the ladies' dresses is historic. There is 
an extensive bibliography and the work is well indexed. It is un- 
fortunate that the publisher could not use more of Christian Bar- 
thelmess' photographs, as there were many more illustrations of 
equal value and interest. 

Sheridan F. H. Sinclair 

Wild Bill and Deadwood. By Mildred Fielder. (Seattle: Super- 
ior Publishing Company, 1965. Illus. Index. 190 pp. 

Mildred Fielder took a pair of old topics and produced good 
western literature. 

Living in the Black Hills and researching the gulches in which 
Dakota's history was cradled, the authoress spent dedicated years 
gathering and verifying material on Wild Bill and Deadwood. 

Her album, a hard-back book of conventional size, contains 160 
pages of condensed reading matter elaborately illustrated by 31 
pictures of Wild Bill (James Butler Hickok), 20 views of the 
Hickok family and home scenes, 65 prints of frontier and military 
characters linked with the Wild Bill career, and 87 assorted scenes 
of life and activities in early day Deadwood Gulch. If the album 
contained only the collection of pictures with their informative 
captions, many of which are copies of rare originals, the book 
would be worth the money. The Wild Bill and Deadwood story, 
being added interest, makes the Fielder album a source of historic 

She treated Wild Bill objectively. To most boys raised on the 
Illinois frontier, as he was, the Indian-fighting and buffalo-hunting 
West offered promise of adventure. Bill experienced slave-freeing 
hazards before the issue came to war. The story is condensed but 
well done in eight chapters titled as follows: "Young Wild Bill", 
"The War Years", "Peace Officer and Showman", "Wild Bill's 
Wedding", "Wild Bill in Deadwood", "The Trial of Jack McCall", 
"They Buried Wild Bill", and "Wild Bill Turns to Stone". 


The pictorial pages give chapters provocative appeal. The cap- 
tions, references, and documentations are commendable. Young 
readers, the generation of fact-questioning urge, will compare 
Fielder's book with other published matter being revived to exploit 
Wild Bill. It invites questions : How many men did Wild Bill kill? 
Was he a war spy? Did he shoot his deputy? What about Calam- 
ity Jane? 

Fielder gives accepted versions and supports them with referenc- 
es, as well as versions to the contrary. 

Wild Bill's clashes might be open to question but not his appear- 
ance. He was a much photographed personality of the West. His 
pictures fixed his appearance and established his identity. 

The story elaborates on Bill's romantic moments. He wooed 
and won the circus queen and of this marriage there is evidence. 
No doubt there were other affairs. Bill was handsome, well 
garbed, and could act the gentleman as well as the gunman and 
gambler. Fielder discounts the charmless Jane as one of his 

The book's title is a natural. All the fame Wild Bill had when he 
reached the Black Hills camp was superceded by his dastardly 
assassination. Death wedded Wild Bill to Deadwood for all time 
to come. Here he was killed, buried, and turned to stone. 

Pictures tell the story of Deadwood's struggle from a lawless 
camp in isolated Indian country to its peak as the largest city in 
Dakota Territory. Like Wild Bill, the Trial of Jack McCall, that 
defeated justice, has become a part of Deadwood's glamorous past. 

Belle Fourche, South Dakota Joe Koller 

Photographers of the Frontier West. By Ralph W. Andrews. 
(Seattle: Superior Publishing Co. 1965. Illus. Index. 184 
pp. $12.95") 

This is the second volume by this author of the story of the lives 
and work of the early-day photographers during the 1875 to 1910 

A brief biographical sketch of each photographer is given. Over 
240 excellent photographs enhance the volume, depicting the fine 
ability of ten different photographers. 

For example, 28 pages are devoted to a pioneer Colorado pho- 
tographer, Thomas M. McKee, and his very early pictures of his- 
toric Mesa Verde, the San Juan region during the mining boom, 
and Ute Indian scenes. Many photographs taken by Frank H. 
Nowell in the Yukon country of Alaska present interesting views 
of a land with which we are not so familiar. 

Many other fine photographs are included in this book, from 


magnificent views of the early logging camps in the Pacific North- 
west and California, glaciers in British Columbia, the Grand Can- 
yon of Arizona, San Francisco during its tragic earthquake and 
fire, the fabulous Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915 to quaint old 
Chinatown long before it became commercialized. Also in this 
unique collection are scenes of sailing vessels, railroads, Indians 
and desperados. 

The book contains reproductions of high quality photographs, 
and many of the originals are, no doubt, the only ones in existence. 
The layout of the pages is good, no pictures appear to be cropped, 
and the text is quite informative and interesting. 

It is too bad that even more photographs could not have been 
added to this book for the coverage of each photographer is brief 
and I feel that more pictures, showing some of their other work, 
would better have done justice to them. Also there were many 
other photographers active during this same period of time who 
merit coverage in a volume such as this. 

Cheyenne James L. Ehernberger 

Wyoming Wonderland. By Mae Urbanek. (Denver, Sage Books. 
Illus. Index. 120 pp. $3.00) 

This most recent publication of Wyoming writer Mae Urbanek 
is a small historical handbook planned primarily as an inexpensive, 
easily available guide to the state, and is one of a series of state 
histories published by Sage Books, the others being on Colorado 
and New Mexico. The numerous pictures are reduced to a mini- 
mum size to be accommodated in the digest-size volume. It should 
be especially useful to travelers in the state. 


John Dishon McDermott. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 34, 
No. 2, October, 1962, pp. 261-262. Mr. McDermott is now 
assigned to the Division of Historical Studies, National Park Serv- 
ice, Washington, D. C. 

Gordon Chappell. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 34, No. 2, 
October, 1962, p. 261. Mr. Chappell is currently attending the 
University of Colorado graduate school, at Boulder, Colorado. 

Herbert R. Dieterich, Jr., professor of history and American 
studies at the University of Wyoming since 1958, has previously 
taught at Adams State College, Alamosa, Colorado. He earned 
his B.A. and M.A. degrees at the University of Kansas, and his 
Ph.D. at the University of New Mexico. His teaching and research 
interests are in 19th century American history, particularly in the 
areas of intellectual and cultural history. Dr. Dieterich and his 
family live in Laramie. 

Paul M. Edwards, Chief, Museum Division, Wyoming State 
Archives and Historical Department, came to Wyoming last June 
from Graceland College, Iowa, where he was assistant professor of 
history and philosophy since 1960. He holds a bachelor's degree 
from Washburn University and a master's degree from the Univer- 
sity of South Dakota. He has served as museum assistant with the 
Kansas Historical Society. Mr. and Mrs. Edwards and their two 
children make their home in Cheyenne. 

Robert A. Murray. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 36, No. 1, 
April, 1964, p. 124. 

William R. Bandy for many years was an engineer and sur- 
veyor in Montana and Wyoming. Upon his retirement in 1954, 
when he terminated nearly 44 years of continuous service with the 
Department of the Interior, he was awarded a citation for distin- 
guished service in recognition of his valuable contributions in the 
field of cadastral survey for nearly a half century. He is now a 
practicing consultant engineer in Helena. Mr. Bandy has written 
many of his experiences as an engineer for publication in news- 
papers in Montana and Wyoming. 

L^LAK Tt€ o^Ol/y 

■ L I n R fl g w 

*0V 7 1966 

""• nj-p 





Courtesy of Frank Meyers Studio, Rawlins 

EARLY I920's 

October J 966 




Fred W. Marble, Chairman 



Mrs. Leonard Stensaas 

Rock Springs 


Mrs. R. Dwight Wallace 



Mrs. Cecil Lucas 



Richard I. Frost 
Mrs. Virgil L. Thorpe 




Mrs. Frank Mockler 


Member at 


Mrs. Dudley Hayden 



Attorney General John F. Raper 




Neal E. Miller Director 

William R. Barnhart Administrative Assistant 

Mrs. Katherine Halverson Chief, Historical Division 

Mrs. Julia A. Yelvington Chief, Archives and Records Division 

Kermit M. Edmonds Acting Chief, Museum Division 


The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and October 
and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical Society. 
Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.50 each. Available copies 
of earlier issues are also for sale. A price list may be obtained by writing 
to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyright, 1966, by the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department 

iAmmoIs of Wyoming 

Volume 38 

October, 1966 

Number 2 

Neal E. Miller 

{Catherine Halverson 
Associate Editor 

Published biannually by the 


Official Publication of the Wyoming State Historical Society 


OFFICERS 1966-1967 

President, Glenn Sweem Sheridan 

First Vice President, Adrian Reynolds Green River 

Second Vice President, Curtiss Root Torrington 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Neal E. Miller Cheyenne 

Past Presidents 

Frank L. Bowron, Casper 1953-1955 

William L. Marion, Lander 1955-1956 

Dr. DeWitt Dominick, Cody 1956-1957 

Dr. T. A. Larson, Laramie 1957-1958 

A. H. MacDougall, Rawlins 1958-1959 

Mrs. Thelma G. Condit, Buffalo 1959-1960 

E. A. Littleton, Gillette 1960-1961 

Edness Kimball Wilkins, Casper 1961-1962 

Charles Ritter, Cheyenne 1962-1963 

Neal E. Miller, Rawlins 1963-1965 

Mrs. Charles Hord 1965-1966 

The Wyoming State Historical Society was organized in October, 1953. 
Membership is open to anyone interested in history. County Historical 
Society Chapters have been organized in Albany, Big Horn, Campbell, 
Carbon, Fremont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Platte, Sheri- 
dan, Sweetwater, Teton, Washakie, Weston and Uinta Counties. 

State Dues: 

Life Membership $50.00 

Joint Life Membership (Husband and wife) 75.00 

Annual Membership 3.50 

Joint Annual Membership (Two persons of same family at 

same address) 5.00 

County dues are in addition to state dues and are set by county organ- 

Send State membership dues to: 

Wyoming State Historical Society 
Executive Headquarters 
State Office Building 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 82001 

Zable of Contents 


Robert A. Murray 




Daniel Y. Meschter 


Burton S. Hill 


Francis A. Barrett 


Gressley, Bankers and Cattlemen 229 

Smith, The War on Powder River 230 

Burns, The Jesuits and the Indian Wars of the Far Northwest 231 

Hundley, Dividing the Waters 232 

Jackson, Custer's Gold 233 

Underhill, Red Man's Religion 235 

Kratville, Golden Rails 236 

Clark, Indian Legends of the Northern Rockies 237 

Cushman, The Great North Trail 239 

Kennedy, The Red Man's West 240 

Settle, War Drums and Wagon Wheels 241 

Ehernberger and Gschwind, Smoke Down the Canyons 242 




France Memorial Presbyterian Church Cover 

Sheridan Inn, 1902 136 

The Geodetic Survey Crew 142 

Geodetic Survey Camp 142 

Franklin Luther Arnold 196 

James France 202 

The First Christmas Tree in Wyoming 214 

Mission Station at Deer Creek 217 

Missionary Braeuninger 218 

Reverend Krebs and the Indian Boys 220 

"Portugee" Phillips at Horseshoe Station 224 

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Robert A. Murray 

Many problems faced veteran Lt. Col. Henry W. Wessells, 18th 
U. S. Infantry, when he took command of Fort Philip Kearny, and 
of the Mountain District, Department of the Platte at his brevet 
rank (Brigadier General) on January 18, 1867. * Food supplies 
were short, forage nearly exhausted, and morale low. He found 
an unfinished post and a nearly untrained garrison. Among his 
many immediate problems was the need to reopen communications 
with Fort C. F. Smith, about ninety miles away. 

No word had come from that post in over a month, nor had any 
communications been sent there.-' The Montana Road (Bozeman 
Trail) from Fort Philip Kearny to Fort C. F. Smith crossed the 
principal streams of the region not far above favorite winter camp 
sites of many hostile Sioux and Cheyenne bands, whose warriors 
had recently wiped out the Fetterman command. To the east of 
the Indian wintering country lay a land of few trails, and badly 
drifted snow. To the west of the trail lay the forested foothills and 
spurs of the Big Horns, difficult to traverse, and deep with snow. 
Wessells sent out a total of five parties along the road in the next 
three weeks. The largest ones were one led by Captain D. S. 
Gordon, Company D, 2d U. S. Cavalry on January 23d; and the 
one led by Major James Van Voast, 18th U. S. Infantry on January 
29th. All turned back due to the weather, the presence of numer- 
ous Indians, or both. 3 

Wessells then tried to recruit couriers from the many citizens 
residing at Fort Philip Kearny, including such proven messengers 
as Post Guide Robert Bailey, and mail carriers Montgomery Van 
Valzah and John "Portugee" Phillips. These worthies, who regu- 

1. General Order #4, Headquarters, Fort Philip Kearny, January 18. 

2. Post Records, both posts for the period; also: letter, Wessells to 
Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, February 14, 1867. 

3. Special Order # 17, Headquarters, Fort Philip Kearny, January 22, 
1867. Special Order # 22, Headquarters, Fort Philip Kearny, January 28, 
1867. "Record of Events," Post Return, Fort Philip Kearny, February, 
1867; letter, Wessells to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1867. 


larly made the trip to Fort Reno, Bridger's Ferry, and Horseshoe 
Station for $10 per day, wanted no part of the Fort C. F. Smith 
trip, and refused to go for less than $1,000 each! 4 At length, two 
soldiers, Sergeant George Grant of Company E, 18th U. S. Infan- 
try, and Sergeant Joseph Graham of Company G, 18th U. S. 
Infantry, volunteered to make the trip. 5 

Grant and Graham set out about sunrise on the morning of 
February 4, 1867. 6 They rode on mules as far as the Pinery, 
accompanied by two men who took the mules back to the post. 7 
From this point, they struck out along the foot of the Big Horns on 
snowshoes. s By noon they reached the north end of what Sergeant 
Grant called the "Burial Mountains," and he estimated that they 
had traveled some 20 miles over deep snow since leaving the post. 9 

Here they came upon a stretch of country with little snow, so 
they walked on all night, going due north until first light, thence 
northeast to strike the "Government Road," (Bozeman Trail) 
at sunrise. After a cold breakfast of hard bread and lard, they 
traveled along the road all day, wading many creeks, and crossing 
the Little Horn early in the afternoon. By 3:00 p.m. they again 
found the road badly drifted, so they sought the shelter of a deep 
ravine, and made a cold camp for their first night's rest. 10 

The sergeants took to the road again on the morning of the 6th, 
and again traveled along it all day. Sleet and snow began to fall 
heavily by 4:00 p.m. Grant and Graham pushed on through the 
storm until they lost the road about 8:00 p.m. They camped that 
night on the open prairie without a fire. 11 

Starting early the morning of the 7th, they stopped at 6:00 a.m. 

4. Letter, Wessells to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1867. Post Return, Fort Philip Kearny, for January, February 
and March, 1867. Special Orders # 28, Headquarters, Fort Philip Kearny, 
February 5, 1867. 

5. Letter, Wessells to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1867. 

6. Letter, Sergeant George Grant to 1st Lieutenant Thomas L. Brent, 
Commanding Company E, 18th U. S. Infantry (both at Fort Philip Kearny), 
February 14, 1867. 

7. F. M. Fessenden, "Personal Experiences in and Around Fort Philip 
Kearny," The Bozeman Trail, Grace R. Hebard and E. A. Brininstool, 
Arthur H. Clark Co., Vol. II, p. 106. 

8. Letter, Wessells to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, Febru- 
ary 14, 1867. William Murphy, "The Forgotten Battalion," Annals of Wyo- 
ming, Volume 7, No. 2; letter of 1st Lt. Thomas L. Brent to unidentified 
officer, February 16, 1867, printed anonymously in The History of the 
United States Army, by William A. Ganoe, Appleton, N. Y., 1932, pp. 

9. Letter Sergeant Grant to Lt. Brent, February 14, 1867. 

10. Ibid; also: their rations are identified in the Brent letter of February 
16, 1867, reprinted in Ganoe. 

11. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867. 


and built a fire for the first time. 12 This was probably near the 
Big Horn River, some ten miles below Fort C. F. Smith. 13 They 
arrived at Fort C. F. Smith about 4:00 p.m. that same day, and 
were "warmly welcomed . . ," 14 They brought the first official 
news of the Fetterman Fight of December 21, 1866, though Crow 
Indians visiting the post had been reporting the disaster in varying 
tales for some time. 15 

Grant and Graham rested that night and on through the 8th 
and 9th, of February, while the Post Headquarters prepared its 
first outgoing official mail in nearly two months. 16 

For the return trip, they were given horses to ride, along with 
two pack mules to carry mail and forage. The well-known half- 
breed guide Mich Bouyer accompanied them, and the command- 
ing officer of Fort C. F. Smith placed him in charge of the party. 17 
They left Fort C. F. Smith at tattoo (about 9:00 p.m.) on the 9th 
of February, and traveled until 4:00 a.m. on the 10th. They rested 
for about five hours. Traveling briskly from about 9:00 a.m. 
until 1:00 p.m., they reached the Little Horn about four miles 
North of its Bozeman Trail crossing, their horses quite tired. 18 

Here they found a fresh-killed buffalo, sure Indian sign. 19 Grant 
proposed that they make for the timber along the foothills of the 
Big Horns. At this Bouyer stripped his own horse and the pack 
mules of their saddles and loads, and rode up on a hill to scout the 
country. There were Indians in view, pursuing the couriers. The 
three struck out southwest directly for the mountains, and ran their 
horses for fifteen miles without interruption. 20 

The fifteen pursuing Indians were closing the gap fast by 3:30 
p.m. when Grant's horse gave out. He quickly fell behind and took 
refuge on a ledge in a partially snow-covered ravine, while most of 
the Indians continued on in pursuit of Graham and Bouyer. Soon 
two of the Indians discovered Grant's hiding place. Grant quickly 
killed one with his Spencer carbine, and retreived the Indian's 
Henry rifle which fell near him. As the second Indian came in 

12. Ibid. 

13. E. S. Topping, Chronicles of the Yellowstone, St. Paul, Minnesota. 
1888, p. 56. 

14. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867; also: "Record of 
Events," Post Return, Fort C. F. Smith, February 1867. 

15. Topping, Chronicles of the Yellowstone, p. 56. 

16. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867. "Record of Events," Post 
Return, Fort C. F. Smith, February, 1867; letters sent and letters received. 
Fort C. F. Smith, January and February, 1867. 

17. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867. Brent letter of February 
16, 1867, in Ganoe, History of the United States Army, pp. 315-316. 

18. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867. 

19. Brent letter of February 16, 1867, in Ganoe, pp. 315-316. 

20. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867. 


view, Grant killed him also, and this Indian fell down the ravine, 
landing in the branches of a pine tree. 21 

A fog soon settled over the area, and Grant slipped out under its 
cover and traveled on all night. By morning on the 11th, his 
moccasins gave out from wading icy creeks, and he threw them 
away. He then found a dry brush patch, made a bed of bushes, 
and slept until sundown.-- Then Grant replaced his moccasins 
with strips torn from his overcoat-'' and traveled all night and all 
day the 12th. At midnight on the 12th, he stopped and slept in a 
snowdrift until morning. 24 

Sergeant Graham and Mich Bouyer in the meantime eluded their 
Indian pursuers, abandoned their worn-out horses and trudged on 
in to Fort Philip Kearny early on February 1 3th. 25 

Around mid-afternoon on the 1 3th, Sergeant Grant reached the 
shore of Lake De Smet. Recognizing his surroundings, he made 
straight for the Fort, arriving there about 8:30 p.m., still carrying 
his own arms and his captured Henry rifle. 2fi He was at once 
placed in the hospital, suffering from exposure, exhaustion and 
pleuresy, but nonetheless wrote his report on the trip the next 
day. 27 

Brevet Brigadier General Wessells wrote a strong commendation 
of these men to the Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, 
and they were cited for the feat in General Orders # 26, Head- 
quarters, Department of the Platte on May 25, 1867. They did 
not, however, receive the "liberal compensation in money," which 
Wessells had suggested they be awarded. 28 

Sergeant Graham distinguished himself several times in combat 
against hostile Indians around Fort Reno later that same year. 29 
Sergeant Grant remained in the service many years, serving in a 
cavalry regiment in the 1870's. He tried to reopen the issue of a 
monetary compensation for the Fort Philip Kearny-to-Fort C. F. 

21. Ibid. 

22. Ibid. 

23. Brent letter of February 16, 1867, in Ganoe, pp. 315-316. 

24. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867. 

25. Brent letter of February 16, 1867, in Ganoe, pp. 315-316; letter. 
Wessells to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, February 14, 1867. 

26. Brent letter of February 16, 1867, in Ganoe, pp. 315-316. 

27. Letter, Grant to Brent, February 14, 1867; Brent letter of February 
16, 1867, in Ganoe, pp. 315-316; letter, Wessells to Adjutant General, De- 
partment of the Platte, February 14, 1867. 

28. Letter, Wessells to Adjutant General, Department of the Platte, Feb- 
ruary 14, 1867; General Order #36, Headquarters, Fort Reno, December 
25, 1867; General Order #26, Headquarters, Department of the Platte, 
May 25, 1867. 

29. General Order #36, Headquarters, Fort Reno, December 25, 1867; 
also: other correspondence and orders at Fort Reno indicating the fre- 
quency with which Graham was placed in charge of important parties, and 
describing their skirmishes. 


Smith walk in 1871, but instead of money, he was awarded the 
Congressional Medal of Honor. 30 

Two good soldiers, then, certainly deserve remembrance in Wyo- 
ming and the nation as the centennial of their long, cold, harrowing 
walk draws near. 

30. Medal of Honor File, 1871, Adjutant General's Office, Record Group 
94; also: W. F. Beyer and O. F. Keydel, Deeds of Valor, Perrien-Keydel 
Company, Detroit, 1905, Volume 2, p. 133. 

Note on sources: 

Books are fully cited above. Government documents cited will be found in 
the post records of Fort C. F. Smith and Fort Philip Kearny, in Record 
Group 98 National Archives, as will the records of the Department of the 
Platte. The records of the Adjutant Generals office are in Record Group 94 
of that office. 

The photograph of the Sheridan Inn on page 136 of this issue of 
the Annals of Wyoming under the heading "The Days That Are No 
More . . ." is the first in a series. Each future issue of the Annals 
will include an historic picture or other pictorial material from the 
files of the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department. 

Our regular fall installments of terrific wind storms have begun 
their arrival. Last night very high winds prevailed hereabouts to 
the infinite discomfort of timid folk in frail tenements. We urge 
upon our people attention to the oft repeated caution to look out 
for fires. One commencing upon such a night as last night could 
hardly fail to destroy a large portion of our town. Let all be on 
the watch of the stoves, pipes, ashes &c, resolving ourselves into a 
sort of general fire warden committee of the whole for mutual 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, October 17, 1868. 



Courtesy of Mrs. Alcott Farrar Ehveh 
"Dad" Beekly, Alcott Elwell, Carroll Wegerman, Doane Gardiner, 
Hoyt S. Gale 

Courtesy of Mrs. Alcott Farrar Elwell 
JULY 8, 1908 

A Icott Jarrar Slwell 





Alcott Farrar Elwell, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1886, re- 
ceived his early education in Cambridge, France and Germany, and entered 
Harvard in 1906, class of 1910. Due to financial reversals, he left college 
in 1907, and for the next eleven years he attended Harvard irregularly 
because of periods of employment to provide funds for the continuation of 
his college work. 

In 1917 he received from Harvard the S.B. degree, cum laude, "as of the 
class of 1910," and later completed work at Harvard for the M.E. degree 
and doctor of education degree. 

Colonel Elwell was commissioned captain of infantry, United States 
Army, in 1917, resigned as a lieutenant colonel from the infantry reserve in 
1928, returned to active service during World War II, was commissioned a 
captain, A. U.S., and resigned from the army in 1948. 

The great interest of Colonel Elwell's life was Mowglis, School-of-the- 
Open, East Hebron, New Hampshire, a summer camp for boys. As a young 
man he served as counsellor and assistant director of the camp, and was 
owner and director from 1925 until 1953, when he sold Mowglis. Almost 
immediately after his death in 1962, some of the Mowglis alumni, in seeking 
to establish "a living memorial to the Colonel," formed the Holt-Elwell 
Foundation, bought back the property and reactivated Mowglis in order that 
it might continue to accomplish for other boys what it had done for them. 

The Geodetic Survey crew for which Alcott Elwell was cook in 1908 was 
headed by Hoyt S. Gale, chief. A Harvard graduate, Gale was with the 
United States Geological Survey from 1902 to 1920, and later founded the 
Western Gulf Oil Company in California. Other crew members included 
Carrol Wegerman, Doane Gardiner and "Dad" Beekly, teamster. 

Colonel Elwell's "Wyoming Diary" has been placed with the Wyoming 
State Archives and Historical Department by Mrs. Elwell, and portions of it 
are published here with her permission. 

July 2: 9:45 a.m. left Weehawken with Dad on the front steps, 
the Hudson dull blue in the heat haze beyond. Left Mother at 23rd 
St. and now turn my face West, where what I go to meet - I face 
alone. Parting can be made hard or easy without regard to time 
and place by having the character to leave abruptly. Mother went 
absolutely flat when leaving D.L. & W. Ferry at 23rd St. At Jersey 
City failed to locate sleeping bag. Train ride hot, but very inter- 
esting from New England with the country more and more rolling, 
the farm houses large and comfortable, the trees individual and 

Gradually the country flattens as we enter N.Y. and then a 
change occurs in the earth, which becomes the red of Virginia; in 


fact, N.J. and Virginia look much alike and there is the same feel- 
ing to the country (except for the girls! ) 

Philadelphia and Baltimore dwarf after the sky-scrapers of N.Y., 
so that they look like [a] city of small mushroom houses. The 
train pulled into Washington on time and stopped at the new 
Station. This station is a huge affair and most successfully de- 
signed. There are two floors, the lower one in which the cars 
come, the other a station. Stopping at the Hamilton. Supper at 
Portland. Raining. Had a gorgeous gorge! Saw Hoyt at 9 p.m. 
Bed 11. Hot as Hell! 

July 3: 7 a.m. Went to Union Station where I found my sleep- 
ing bag. Checked both things to Sheridan, Wyo. Bought sleeper; 
had a haircut, and got breakfast. On the breakfast I got stung. 
Gee! Me money does flee!x!x! 

Went to Congressional Library. Was especially interested in 
the war bulletins, a Bible of George Washington's, and the exhibit 
of illustrations. Went up to the Ontario and helped Hoyt pack. 
Off at 5:45 sharp. 

As we rolled through Maryland there had just been a shower. 
The trees and the fields were very green, while the little white- 
washed houses cuddled comfortably into the landscape. After 
reaching Baltimore we turned west and are excitedly rushing to- 
wards the West. Over. the fields I saw a great rainbow in the 
evening twilight, its eastern end lost halfway down among the rain 
clouds, but the western end reaching almost to the "pot of gold," 
and hidden only by the mist on the countryside. Hoyt had to wait 
until 1 1 p.m. as a lady had the lower berth. He had an exciting 
game of peekaboo as only one curtain twixt him and her! 

July 4: Slept until 10 a.m. After dressing before the assembled 
car and eating some sweet chocolate I went to the observation car 
and wrote two letters. After becoming quite sick from trying to 
write with the car at 60 per — I went in and spent the remaining 
time until one, sleeping. During lunch rain through to storms. 
The country of Ohio and Indiana are flat with little patches of 
woodland surrounded with wheat and grass fields. The houses 
are tall, wooden affairs with a forlorn look to them, and over all 
there is a certain sameness. Along the railroads the depots need 
paint. The track from Pittsburgh is very straight with so few 
turns that it is quite remarkable. Reached Chicago on time, 
having had my first glimpse of Lake Michigan just after the Chi- 
cago Portland Cement Works. Chicago lake front, saw the Con- 
gress Hotel, took supper there. Walked through lower Chicago. 
For men only - boys under 21 not allowed .... Balloon race 
over the lake. People look Western; women not as well dressed 
as New York nor as smart-looking. Train West 1 1 p.m. Oppo- 
site Union Station book and cigar store: "Three Weeks"; "$10 


Worth" - rich, rare and racy; "Secrets of Matrimony," "The White 
Woman Slave" etc. all displayed in the window. 

July 5: After waking up watched the country. Iowa stretched 
away in long rolling fields with clumps of trees and brooks cut 
deep in the soil. The houses are very small, especially in com- 
parison to the acreage. The barns are more in proportion. Long 
fields of corn were broken by pasture land, where the cattle, horses 
and black pigs were everywhere to be seen. The pigs dotting the 
hillsides are in general tone complementary to the earth which is a 
black, muddy consistency. 

The brooks are deeply imbedded in the land, gulley and winding 
among the hillocks. 

The train is heavy loaded. One Western feature is the Chair car, 
consisting of individual chairs placed four in a line across the car, 
allowing an aisle in the middle. In this way everyone had a seat to 
themselves. The car is a regular passenger. All is green grass and 
trees with muddy-looking water in pools and bogs outside. No 
stones seen to interrupt the even nature of the rolling fields. 

Omaha, (the City of the No Head). Not a person knew any- 
thing about our train. If you were not going to the Democratic 
Convention at Denver you ought to be! Tourist sleeper with Har- 
vard men. 

Exceptionally heavy thunderstorm with hailing and brilliant 
lightning, lasting from Lincoln, Neb. (5 p.m.) until 10 p.m. This 
heavy rain at Lincoln carried a flood in which seven or eight people 
were drowned and no trains entered Lincoln for two days. 

July 6: Mountain time. So as I had bought my ticket to Edge- 
mont I got up at 7:30 (in reality it was 6:30 a.m.) The night was 
cool and the air outside clear and fresh. Beyond Alliance we 
began to come into the long, rolling prairie, grass-covered, with 
hills beyond scattered with some few evergreens. Great tall towers 
and castle of hard rock jet out from these hills and often from the 
low country itself. The streams are deeply channeled with brown 
muddy water. 

Out across the prairie are one or two small houses and black 
cattle grazing. Along the track prairie dogs everywhere sit up like 
drum majors. They sit so straight, and tucking their paws in front 
of them they look as if presenting arms. By the excitement caused 
from the train, it must be quite an event in the village! 

Edgemont is a town in the very midst of the prairie. Coming 
towards the town new houses are scattered. On the hill is a fine 
school house. Around this is the station with a long street with 
low buildings. 

Saw three prairie chickens sitting on wire fence as train passed. 
Have changed to regular chair car for Sheridan. Arrived Sheridan 
3:10. As I was fixing my return ticket girl asked if I were Alcott 
Elwell. The girl was at Roger Hall Camp. After train left . . . 


went uptown, bought a hat and shoes. The town faces N and S; 
to the west 10 miles away are the Big Horns. The farthest peaks 
snow-capped. To the south lies our route and Buffalo. 

Sheridan is a town of 8000, sporting a whole line of stores, 
hotels, etc. Met the outfit at supper. Bed 10:30. 

July 7: Started from Sheridan 11:30 after packing the outfit. 
After some six miles near Little Big Horn we stopped for lunch; 
rode from lunch to Banner on horseback. Banner 6 p.m. Trouble 
at starting with the lead horses. Supper at the ranch. The ranch 
was a grove of cotton trees. Everyone helped themselves, and 
the women did not eat until after the men had finished. 

Slept in the field beyond barn. Expected a rough house by the 
fellows, but nothing happened except the stock gathered by my 
bedside. Half moon until 12 o'clock. 

July 8: Up at 5. Found Hoyt and Wegerman had spent a most 
uncomfortable night in the barn. 

Hoyt found he had to sleep in a comforter into which someone 
had left his lunch. This must have loosened the color for it all 
came off on his hands and face. The house, the surroundings were 
filthy, but typical. 

(Massacre ground where nearly 200 soldiers were massacred by 
Sioux Indians under Red Cloud, Dec. 21, 1866. No man survived. 
It is said that 1 86 arrows were taken from the body of one soldier. 
W. J. Fetterman, 4 civilians, 18th infantry (76-3) 2d Cavalry. 
The Indians were armed only with arrows, but their number was so 
overwhelming that resistance was impossible.) 

(As I heard later, the party of soldiers that were massacred were 
sent to escort home to the Fort a wood train. The lieutenant dis- 
obeyed orders and followed a body of Sioux. At the Fort the 
Commanding Officer heard the firing, pop pop, far across the hills. 
He sent out another relief party and in 28 minutes, as he watched, 
all firing ceased. Two days later the bodies were recovered 
scalped, mutilated, and frozen.) 

Lunch before Lake DeSmet beside an irrigation ditch. Three 
autos (2 Buicks and a 2-cyl. Rambler) caused variation and 
excitement. Lake DeSmet is said to be a bottomless lake and 
whosoever rows or goes on the surface is always drowned. 

It is a powerful alkali water, mixed with sulphur and the gaseous 
vapor arising from it may cause the superstition. At any rate, it is 
exceedingly effective — deep, deep blue among the red hills and 
pillow country of green grass. 

Struck some genuine alkali near Buffalo. Hills steep, and the 
sun scorching hot. Reached Buffalo and camped on an island 1/4 
from town on the Sweetwater. Opened the outfit and began work. 
3 trees and the house corraled about us. Hoyt had a sore throat 
and has escaped to the hotel. Had visitors and a letter from 


July 9: 4:30 a.m. cut wood, built fire, and got breakfast. 
Pretty poor first attempt. Coffee bad, scrambled eggs and bacon. 
Dinner at 1 p.m. Steak, peas, corn, and chocolate. Supper, soda 
biscuit and grapenut — good. Made bread and cleaned stove. 
Gardener came. Saw sand peep. 

July 10: 5 : 30-Breakfast, 6: 30. Coffee too strong. Chopped 
wood, cleaned camp. 1 1 soldiers came to the creek — "Clar 

19th Infantry, K.L.M. Fort McKenzie to Cheyenne, fat head 
officers. Cooked meals, etc. 

Made 3 loaves of bread, but squashed one. Pretty good. Went 
into town on "Kid". Cooked supper. Went to hotel and fixed up 
Hoyt. Girls outside; marriage service, etc. Rain, thunder shower. 

July 11: 5:30 breakfast. Corn bread, turned out well. Hoyt 
not at camp. Soldiers all gone at 4 a.m. 

My hands are blistered in contact with hot things; my face is too. 
I wear a complexion like a pickled beet. Let me say honestly God 
help the man who has to burn cotton wood in this country. 

After lunch Hoyt did not come up so put the whisky barrels to 
soak. Supper, and made bread. Went to see Hoyt at hotel. Only 
one spoon was allowed at a meal; rotten food. 16 year old girl 
married in opposite room. 

July 12: Sunday, 4:45 a.m. Breakfast 7 a.m. Hoyt arrived, 
seems better although not entirely over his sore throat. Dinner, 
had roast veal, corn, potatoes, and tomatoes, with tomato soup. 
Bread should have risen a bit more. Biscuit, fine. Took a short 
lesson at the plane table. Signed Government accident policy; off 
tomorrow . . . 

July 13: Breakfast 6:30 a.m., after which I washed the dishes 
while the rest "struck the tents," and got things in readiness for the 

At 10 we left camp, I standing on the team, holding on to whisky 
barrels and my dress suitcase. 

At Buffalo we stopped until 12:45 while "Dad" got supplies. I 
sharpened two axes and then loafed with Gardiner. In a saloon 
near the center of town I saw a stuffed calf with four pairs of legs, 
two on top of its back, two to the side, and the rest normally placed; 
also a lamb with two heads. The calf lived a half hour after it 
was born, but the lamb was born dead. 

After leaving town we followed the Clear Creek in its general 
course, rising into the low hills, and having a grand view of the 
"snow tops" with Buffalo hidden below us. 

The hills are all covered with great coal clinks from the burning 
of great coal beds in the hills. These clinks make the red effect 
so picturesque in the landscape. Beside [this] the black jagged 


pieces of melted rock and iron with burnt coal, form fantastic 
figures among the hills. 

As we wind among the hills the fences grow less away from the 
river and long valleys, and slide off into the hills. These valleys 
are all green, and sink away, winding in behind the shoulders of 
yet other rises. In these sometimes cattle or horses graze in herds, 
while others are solitary except for the prairie dog, sitting erect on 
his hole. 

Among the thicker sage we saw several "sage hens". These 
birds will often allow you to follow them, shooting them one by one 
until all are dead, and will only walk and cluck and walk on. 

Doves and little blackbirds were very numerous especially in the 
new cut grass fields and tall sweet clover. The hay is being cut on 
the river valleys and it is stacked in great mounds in the open fields. 
Reaching Watts Ranch we looked about for camping ground. The 
choice was to go through 4 gates and across a bridge to be near its 
creek or the camp on the road. The road was decided upon 
although all the water has to be carried from the pump at the 
Ranch, 200 yards away. 

Looked at a bluff opposite, the first camping idea, but we should 
have had to go half a mile for water, and the creek was 30 ft. 
straight down. Saw a cotton-tail rabbit. Arrived at camp 5:30. 
Supper at 8:30 and bed 10:00. This morning especially the un- 
packing and getting something to eat, beside the confusion other- 
wise, is certainly Hell. A most wonderful full moon, pale, very 
pale, and white, over the prairie and the river bottom. The tents 
shone in it, and the wind seemed to be accompanying it through 
the night for as the moon rose into the sky the wind became strong- 
er and fresher. 

Early next morning, at 4:30, it still hung on the edge of the 
sagebrush over beyond the hills even while crimson was deep on 
the east. I wondered whether Bruce and Mother had seen it pass- 
ing them two hours before, but it kept on its way into the West 
without answering. 

July 14: 3:30 a.m. instead of 4:30 by mistake. Breakfast at 
6. At 7:00 Wegerman and I went into pasture opposite (600 
acres) while Hoyt went to "Piney" Creek. "Dad" and I were left 
alone all day. After fixing the cook tent I slept, so did "Dad". 
Read "De Profundis" and he "The Merry Men." 
Got some soft coal from the Ranch and started using it. The 
coal looks, is, part of ossified wood, cracks terribly, and will 
powder if wet, and then dried. It burns pretty well, almost like 
wood, it is so soft. It is better than having to chase through forlorn 
country in search of a piece of wood to burn. At 6:00 p.m. the 
"boys" all got back, and I had a full-course dinner, - 2 vegetables, 
jelly omelet, etc. The French fried potatoes were very sad indeed. 


During supper there was a muttering of thunder and the north- 
east became a heavy yellow. 

Just before the boys came in "Brownie", one horse we had 
tethered, ran off down the road when "Dad" let him loose to get 
some grass. He must have had a ticket straight through because 
he didn't stop once when he had started, just whooped off to the 

After supper "Dad" said he would wipe my dishes if I would 
chase up "Brownie." I took "Kid" and rode east until I reached 
the range, unfenced, to the north. Up among the hills it started to 
come in torrents with almost constant lightning and heavy thunder. 
At times "Kid" would turn his tail to the rain, it came so strong. 
By letting "Kid" take his course I located eight or ten horses, but 
"Brownie" was not there. Passing over the ridges I struck the 
road one mile before. By this time the whole hillside was awash, 
and rivers pounding among the sage. Following the road until I 
reached "Piney" I took the left bank and followed a gulley until I 
reached a high stand. Beyond was a deep valley and other hills, 
and back of me "Piney" rushing below. The smell of sage under- 
foot, the spattering of the rain and a weird yellow glow just enough 
to make the thing indistinct. 

The clouds flying close overhead seemed to vibrate lightning for 
it cracked in long fingers, spread out into sparks and flew farther 
across the hills. It became so dark that I dared go no further, as 
each hill looked alike in the dimness. Turning I climbed slowly 
down the hillside, slipping and sliding in the mud. Reaching the 
road, I found it a running river in places, at one point over my 
boots when on the horse. 

At camp matters were sad indeed. The spot we are on is a bit 
low, but drained by a ditch. Such a flood descended that the ditch 
overflowed and the tents swam. 

Hoyt got the worst dose for it was a regular puddle underneath 
his cot. All hands were digging ditches when I arrived. They 
thought I had been lost in the hills. Oh! it is sweet to get into bed 
with two inches of mud below! I piled all my belongings in a 
pyramid on the grain sack and got into bed naked, as towel and 
pyjamas were somewhere in the moisty pile. 

July 15: But sweeter than going to bed wet is getting up and 
stepping into the mire at 4:30 a.m. to hunt for a damp pair of 
pants in a cool chill and yank on a pair of boots while mud jellies 
about you. Again it is no dream to pull water 300 yards in pails 
with the mud up to your ankles — but that's what I'm paid for. 

Damn the house fly! When the Lord made these he certainly 
slipped up, or more probably it was one of the best inventions of 
the Devil. 

All the men are off. Hoyt and Wegerman surveying. "Dad" 
and Gardiner after "Brownie." I have to be in sight of the tents 


all the time, and the flies are thick as a man's sin on Judgment Day, 
and quite as aggravating! 

July 16: Broke camp at Watts at 9:30 a.m. after a scrabble. 
The team went first, the horsemen staying to look after a fire we 
had built to clean up the papers. From Watts to Piney Creek the 
road was bad, and on the east slope of the hills it was hotter than 
Hell. "Blaze" was pretty near out before we reached the river. 
Lunch at Piney 12:30. Gardiner with "Brownie" caught up with 
us on the second ford across Clear Creek. I rode "Brownie" ahead 
into Clearmont. Fired unsuccessfully at prairie dogs all day. Saw 
an owl. It is said the prairie dogs, ground owls and rattle snakes 
live in the same holes. But I'm from Missouri! 

At Clearmont, which consists of a couple of saloons, two stores 
and a railroad station, we stopped while Gardiner hit a quart 
bottle of Anhoyser Busch. 

Dead sheep coming into Clearmont; dead horses all along the 
line. Today they do not smell much. Heavy wind out of a clear 
sky. Bunch of sheep. Went back to Clearmont for gloves. 
Camped 5 miles below Clearmont in a water hole beside an irri- 
gation ditch. The cook tent was all . . . Gale and Wegerman 
arrived at 7:00, supper 7:30. Went up to a Ranch for water. A 
great many use melted ice where there is no well. The irrigation 
was filthy. 

July 17: 4:30 a.m. Woke with the wide open prairie all about. 
Washed dishes in the ditch, which was a slow and dirty operation. 
Got mixed up at breakfast and did not get off until 8:00. Made a 
mess of things, and was told so. Better next time; all right, I will 
know better what is up. 

Went into Ranch and down old road. Struck Arvada road, and 
forded Clear Creek. Up river from the old ford. Road's bad, and 
gullied terribly in places. Came to a round-up of cattle. From our 
lunch place we watched them run them into the pens. A bunch 
of stock are driven in before them as a decoy. Then come the 
cattle with a great dust, the cowboys following close behind, and 
heading off any stragglers. One steer got loose and broke into the 
Range with a "boy" after him. We could watch them as they 
galloped across the Range. 

Hoyt and the others cut across lots for Powder River and Stone's 
outfit. "Dad" and I had to keep the road. Near our camp ground 
on Powder River is the largest prairie dog city that I ever saw. 
"Dad" either. It certainly is New York a la Prairie Dog! 

We camped about 1/2 m. from the road in a bend of the river. 
Holmes, the other cook, an Iowa college fellow, and I are going to 
cook together in combination for the outfit. We have to ford the 
river for all our alkali drinking water. 

Yesterday the water rose 6 inches. It is just a long ribbon of 


mud so thick you can almost cut it. Stone's gang is all right. We 
got a rattle snake after leaving the first Ranch today. 
(Notes: Cattle milling — Cyclone; Mexican pony — Pinto, a calico 
pony, or a "poker-dotted" horse.) 

July 18: 4:45 a.m. Breakfast 6:00. Fired 4 barrels at a rabbit; 
hit him behind, but he crawled into a hole. Railroad side tracks 
and stations, 2/3 are rolling prairie or alfalfa fields. Joined cook- 
ing combination. Put tents in line, and generally sweat for it. 
Made cinnamon rolls, but bread was spoiled having to move the 
tent. Fisher came. 

July 19: Breakfast 6:30. Changed cook tent to my outfit, and 
also mess wagons. Took a mud bath in the Powder River, nearly 
clear mud. Smith (head of U.S.G.S. ) arrived at 6:00. Bread 
and bed at 9:30. Worked hard all day. Had two hour nap be- 
tween 2 and 4. 

July 20: 4:30, breakfast 6:00. Taking down outfit for the 
trip tomorrow. Nothing doing, the Secretary of the Interior is not 
coming, so back we go. At 10:30 killed a big rattle snake with 8 
rattles. Shot his head off with the 38. 

(Note for July 19th: Mulpton shot 3 rabbits; Gardiner 1 rabbit, 
2 prairie dogs. Stone killed sheep with 22 W. Special Repeater. 
Stone's crowd: R. W. Stone, Mulpton, Fred Morrison, Charles 
Holmes, Dr. Smith Fiske.) 

Hell let loose. Everything wrong. Dinner poor. Meat, little 
and scant. Holmes sick. Bed 10 p.m. 

July 21: Left Powder River at 8:45; coming over the divide 
between Powder and Clear Creek it was terribly hot. Took a swim 
in Clear Creek. Got on the wrong trail before getting there. 
Camped at Clearmont 5 : 30, putting up cook and office tents. 

Woman barber. 

Wegerman was rolled on by his horse. 

July 22: Broke camp at 9:30. Wegerman and Gardiner left 
before. Received letters from Dad and Gladys at Clearmont. 
Left town at 12:00. Struck Clear Creek ford and camped. About 
6 p.m., after an extremely hot, muggy day and mosquitoes began 
work. Around the cook tent and the fly they gather in black 
blotches and make dish-washing a torment. As the night grew 
they became more ravenous, entering the tents and pervading the 
darkness. Only too true, as the old Indian said, "De mosquito it is 
not 'is bite but 'is sing!' 

On going to bed I thoughtlessly sat on the ground, whereupon 
my pyjama pants became coated with "stick tights." Between mos- 
quitoes outside, burrs inside, and the heat, sleep was a matter of 
small account. The next morning I found comfort in learning that 
all the rest had suffered during the night. 


("Stuttering Dick": "Out here, do you fellows ever get broke? 
W-w-well no, we never get broke; but we-we sometimes get pretty 
badly b-b-bent.") 

July 23: 4:30, breakfast 6:00. Hoyt starts for the Big Horn 
Mts. Stage refused to take him, it was so full. "Dad" and he went 
in big wagon leaving me alone with the outfit, all balled up. It 
took until 2:00 to straighten up, then I baked bread. The boys 
got back at 6:00. Shower at 7, with double rainbow. The creek 
and the hills with the storm behind them and across the sky 2 
rainbows, one perfect, the other lost in the middle, but clear at 
both ends. 

July 24: Breakfast 6:00. Wegerman and Gardiner are off, 
and I am alone in camp. While writing to Dad the darned stock 
forded the river and hobbled they fled away. 1 followed in chase 
across the river, up to my waist in water. The water was that swift 
it took uttermost precaution not to slide on a pebble and be carried 
down stream. 

Skirting a hill I followed upon the ridge over the ups and downs 
to head off the stock. Then tried to ride "Tanglefoot" home bare- 
back. After several unsuccessful attempts to get on his tall back, 
I led him across the ford the same way I came and reached camp. 
Was preparing to saddle up and follow "Kid" when he turned up. 
Western horses are the biggest fools, they lack even horse sense! 
The only senses they have are for getting into trouble. 

It was 2:00 when I returned so I went over for some coal at the 
Ranch (Whorton's Ranch). I have to collect the coal in bags, tie 
them together, and then fling them over the horse. This is no 
joke when the horse is shying sideways. When I reach the river 
then I clamber on their back and cross the ford. 

"Dad" returned from Buffalo with supplies. Boys got back at 
6:30. They are working the N.E. corner of the township. Darn 
the mosquitoes. When I am washing the dishes at night they eat 
me alive. 

July 25: Went to Clearmont bareback on "Brownie." Coming 
back the fools at the store packed the butter in thin paper; it 
speedily melted in the hot sun and ran out of the saddle bag. With 
a saddle bag full of truck, four dozen eggs and myself, all on a 
slippery back, as it dripped fast at 300 a pound, I descended and, 
clothed in the saddle bag cover, took the saddle bags in hand, the 
eggs, the reins, and dragged the accursed "Brownie" for several 

What I forgot to say on the way in I hope may never be laid to 
my credit in the big Black Book though I do have a satisfied feeling 
that it must have come into Headquarters pretty steadily and kept 
the Angels busy with their India ink. 

Reaching the brook I put the butter in, and came to camp. 


Went for vegetables at the Ranch. Henry and I dug them. 
Gardiner in early, Wegerman late. Mosquitoes!! 

July 26: (Sunday.) Breakfast / thank the Lord! 

Went for coal; dinner at noon, - Campbell's Condensed ox-tail; 
dried beef with gravy, small creamed onions, stewed potatoes, and 
bread pudding with maple sauce. 

Fixed up Wegerman, and slept from 4 to 6. 

July 27 : Made bread, cleaned up camp, and at 11:15 started 
for Clearmont on "Brownie." Returning at 1:15, it was most ter- 
ribly hot; in fact, one of the hottest days we have had. While 
baking bread "Dad" saw a flock of chickens. With Gardiner's 
double I knocked a double and a single, a bird at every shot. The 
long double bird we could not trace! These chickens rise very 
much like pheasant. #3 1-1/8 b. DuPont Winchester. 

Evening I steamed Wegerman's shoulder. 

On my returning way from Clearmont, #41 passed me just as 
my road led off into the hills at right angles to the track. I waved 
my hat, and the people craned their necks out the window to see 
"the cowboy"? What a bump they would have had if they had but 
known! It is nevertheless an obvious fact that the sight of a train 
loaded with people coming from the East gives me a strange plea- 
sure just to watch it pass, and to wonder where the people are 
going — it seems like a letter or anything else from home! 

"Dad" and Wegerman came almost to blows on the question of 
hobbling "Brownie." Wegerman said "Dad" was cruel and started 
to take them off, and "Dad" shoved him aside. There were 5 or 
10 minutes of fireworks! 

Evening. There was a most splendid sun glow over the western 
hills. The color was of a most intense, marvelous crimson, like 
some gigantic fire beyond the prairie. The green of the near hills 
and the faint illusive purples and greens of a few more distant 
points seen between the others made the spectacle gorgeous beyond 
all words; for color is so minute and syllables cannot but portray it 
crudely — for they are but a crude instrument themselves. 

As the night deepened the foot and shoulders of a rainbow shone 
in the east for a few moments backed by the dark rain behind and 
the colorless prairie from which the light had fled. During the 
night the hills were very black, but to the east lightning winked 
like some great eye, opening and shutting across the night. The 
tents and the flats lay as silent as the darkness around about. 
Packrats collect everything and carry it home. 

July 28: Shot hawk and 5 turtle doves in the morning. Back 
on the rising ground beyond the tents hawk and two doves were 
flying. Dreamed: A man came into the tent and hung a live 
rattler over "Dad" just enough so that when "Dad" rose the snake 


could bite. The man decided to kill me too so that the job would 
be clean. But the 38 turned the trick! 

July 29-30: Went out after doves but failed to connect with a 
single one after 6 shots. "Old Bill" and "Tanglefoot" led the 
horses into the range, and I chased them in the broiling sun. 
Finally I headed them homeward and returned to camp. 

Hoyt arrived from his visit to the Big Horns. My beans turned 
out splendidly; besides this we had pigeon, new peas and little 
onions, custard and cocoa. 

Signed my first payroll for $50.00 - from the 6th to the 31st. 

July 31: Man from Buffalo with cattle for Omaha - stayed 
around all day. 

The Old Stone Ranch just across the ford seems to have conflict- 
ing stories. 1st, that the man who built it homesteaded there. The 
"Big Red" above tried to get him out, then his wife died, and 
finally in a freshet his twin girls fell into the creek and were 
drowned. Finally, Big Red fixed up a deal and sent him to jail 
for 2 years. 2d, that the world's rough rider lived there, but that 
at what is now Whorton's Ranch the "Big Red" had trouble with a 
man. The foreman offered $2000 to a man to fix up evidence of 
cattle stealing on the other fellow. So after a time the accomplice 
brought cattle from miles away and put them in the yards with the 
man's own cattle, and he branded the bunch! By false oaths and 
misstatements he got 2 years. The foreman became so ashamed 
of his act that he took to drink, and went to the man's wife and 
confessed. She made him write a letter to the Governor which 
released her husband. The husband and wife moved to Colorado. 
The foreman took to drink. 

Interesting to see them corral the horses with ropes to the wagon. 
"Tanglefoot" ran away with me twice. The bridle was broken and 
I couldn't hold him. Of all the darned beasts in the bunch 
"Tanglefoot" beats all. He came across the river on the run and 
up into the fields [where] I put him. He stopped when he reached 
the other horses. 

It has been very hot. 

Hoyt and "the boys" killed a rattler on the rise below camp. 
Dug him up. Wegerman 3 rattlers. 

August 1: The Devil died of sunstroke today! It was the hot- 
test we've had, and that is saying something. Made bread in 3 hrs. 
it was so warm. Boys were nearly dead. Hoyt got caught in 
brook by bunch of "vimens" in a carriage. 

August 2: (Sunday) Breakfast 7 a.m., dinner 1:30. Flies and 
heat predominate in the tents. Fired Hoyt's 22, the 38 S&W and 
the 32 Special at 600 and 1/2 mile. 

Bunch went in swimming over by the cliff. First place I could 


swim in I have struck since I left the East. The mosquitoes were 
thick in the evening. 

August 3: After breakfast I had to drive the old stray horse 
away. In leaning to unhitch him the saddle slipped with Kid and 
around it went. I got kicked in the stomach, and the horse ran 
1/2 mile. The oil slicker is nowhere to be found. "Dad" said I 
might consider myself resurrected the 3rd of August! 

Made doughnuts. Fine! 

August 4: Made bread. "Dad" at Clearmont. 

August 5: Shot 9 doves, but lost 3 in the sagebrush. They set 
in cotton woods. Deep gullies, water courses. Prepared for more. 

August 6: Breakfast 6:00. Moved from Double Crossing 
8:30. "Dad" and I did all the loading. I rode ahead to Piney 
Ranch with Bob for oats. Ranch buildings of stone beside Piney 
Creek, 1/2 mile from fork in the road. Rained part way to Watts. 
Rode Bob the last part of the way as he broke the halter several 
times. Arrived 1 p.m., put up tents. Like Eden. The camp 
flowing with milk and honey - and flies! 

August 7 : Hotter than Slept and cooked. 

August 8: Baked beans. Made a lemon pie after instruction by 
Mrs. Watts. The pie plate outgrew the crust, but otherwise it 
was good. Wonderful Northern Lights over the northeast sky. 
Pigs and black cats infest the tents at night. 

August 9: (Sunday). Breakfast 7:00. Dinner, baked bean 
soup, roast beef, potatoes, tomatoes, chocolate ice cream, raisin 
bread. Very hot in the middle of the day. The ice cream and the 
iced water were civilized indeed. I got all the mail. Took a swim 
in the creek with Hoyt, Wegerman and Gardiner. 

August 10: Afternoon it rained. Did the washing, bringing 
water from the irrigation ditch. Rained at night. Talked to Mr. 
Watts about sheep-herding for Bruce and I. 3300 sheep went by 
at noon. Raised tremendous dust. Wegerman killed 3 rattlers and 
saw a coyote. 

August 11: Morning overcast and cold. Made bread and put 
it in what sun there was to rise. By noon it was growing cold and 
I had to put it in my bed! The stage driver had a buggy top for 
Elwell. Wanted to know whether I was the man. "Dad" replied, 
"No, he can't be the man, he has a 'buggy top' already and a hat 
to cover it." Stung! 

Read "De Profundis." 

Baked bread in a howling wind with rain. At 6:00 the men 
were all in and it was nasty outside. As the night grew it got 


worse. When we crawled into bed the rain had stopped, but the 
wind was rising and it was getting cold. 

August 12: 4:45 seemed like Swedenborg's lowest Hell. All 
day thick. The tent is closed and a fire going, but still it is dis- 

Behind Watts on the river bottom there was a most magnificent 
set of two rainbows, — the smaller was perfect, the other a little 
less distinct but unbroken. The small bow was wide and rich in 
color, ending on one side in a field of yellow ripe wheat, and in the 
other against the shattered framework of a hill whose bowels had 
been burnt by fire. With the black-grey storm retreating over the 
southeast line of hills the hills themselves were filled with clear 
color unmixed with the dust that accumulated during the day. All 
the intense wonder of faint color was present, completing the 
blazing rainbow by its relief to eye and mind, and bringing into 
complete harmony the shadow of the storm behind the darker hills. 

The entire valley seemed breathing color — the deep green alfalfa 
grass, the uncut oats yellow in the last sunlight, and the blue water 
swinging gently from side to side on the bottom land. God must 
have smiled when He made this picture out of such barren material. 

The day was bitter cold, wet, overcast and windy. "Dad" and I 
had the tent closed up, the fire going, but yet shivered. At 11:30 
Mr. Gale came to camp on account of the rain and snow. He 
brought with him a fish from the irrigation ditch. The ditch broke 
down and all the water was run out. This left suckers in small 
puddles. I went up to the ditch and succeeded in getting seven, 
four from one puddle and three from along the ditch. It was a 
slimy job as the fish went overland across the mud pretty fast. I 
dammed up one pool and chased the four into shallow water. The 
fish were about 1 inches to 1 2 inches, and were "suckers" whitish 
grey with red on the tail. After dinner I went downstream, but 
the blue heron had done the picking. 

Mr. Gale shot a rabbit. We had doughnuts. Mr. Watts' son 
was run over by a load of 5500' of lumber. Pa and Ma went down 
to him at Buffalo. He is not hurt badly. The doctors around 
Buffalo must be pretty poor. Postcard from Dotty Downer, friend 
Pearl Burns, Sheridan, Wyo. Her father has a sheep and cattle 

August 13: Mist and rain. Cold, damp sogginess. Cleaned 
guns; got vegetables, and packed for the move to Hamilton. Gar- 
diner and Hoyt came in afternoon, and towards evening it settled 
down to soggy mist, with occasional rain. A most miserable feel- 
ing — damp clothes, chilly winds, slipping about the tent, and a 
general stomach trouble from the change of temperature. "Dad" 
arrived from Buffalo with supplies and the slicker lost the 3rd of 
August in the Kid fracas. 

Bread went on the Hell! 


August 14: Drizzling at 4:45, raining at 6:00. After a period 
of waiting order came to stay in camp until tomorrow. With 
everything packed this makes it rotten. 

Received letters from Mother and two corkers from Bruce. One 
letter from Vida from Bozeman, Montana, where she is in the 
hospital having been under an upturned coach coming out of the 
Yellowstone. She was thrown 30 feet. Uncle Tom was cut. She 
was taken to the Grand Basin Hotel, and from there to Bozeman 
Hospital. There at Bozeman she underwent an electric storm of 
some violence. 

Toward evening it began to rain hard, and as we turned in the 
water was running over the breastworks into the cook tent. 

August 15: At 10 a.m. the sun began to break through the 
clouds and life once again resumed its peaceful attitude. Prepared 
for the coming move. 

August 16: (Sunday) Left Watts Ranch at 9:15 a.m., Hoyt 
and Wegerman having left beforehand. Gardiner stayed to help. 
Met the outgoing stage at 11:30 where the Clearmont/Buffalo 
road and Piney branch meet. Beyond here we found the Piney 
road for several miles very hilly as it kept to the hills instead of the 
valley. In places the cuts were badly gullied, while one had to be 
repaired with rocks and gravel before the team could cross. Al- 
most without exception the ditch bridges and culverts were broken 
and useless. After passing William's Ranch the road was good. 
The camp is 300 yds. from Hamilton's Ranch on a steep bank 
above Piney. The tents face the running water, and the deep, rich 
meadows with the hills beyond; up the valley the snow-capped Big 

It is called 10 miles from Hamilton to where Piney and Clear 
join, therefore about 9 l A to the road crossing. Gardiner and I 
rode "Tanglefoot" and "Kid." G. showed me coal deposits at Box 
Elder Creek. 

Cooked heavy meal. Mr. Gale and Wegerman in on time. 
Made bread and bed 9:30. All night when I half woke the noise 
of the water came, while early in the morning the moon half shone. 

August 17: 4 a.m., made bread and got breakfast. After 
washing dishes I rode "Kid" to Wegel's Ranch, and met the incom- 
ing mail from Clearmont 10:10 and the outgonig at 1 1 :20. Home 
1 p.m. I took the 38. 

Wrote to Bruce lying on the ground with my hat as a shield. 
Made doughnuts and bread. Bed 9:30 p.m. 

August 18: 5 a.m. After breakfast went with "Dad" for coal. 
We climbed into the hills about 300 ft. above the creek. Loaded 
"Kid" and made 2 trips, the last one I brought down about 1000i£. 
When we came down it was about 45°. Started at 11 (directly 


after getting coal) for Wegel's Ranch for the mail. Arrived at the 
post box 12:30; camp 2:45, allowing 30 mins. at the box. "Kid" 
went slowly and the riding was hard, but the sky was overcast, while 
coming home there was a breeze. 

Had chicken for dinner. The damned fire would not get started, 
and I had nothing ready at 6. Supper, however, was on time. 
Bread and bed at 10, making 17 hrs. of work, including 18 miles of 
it horseback. 

I remember getting my boots off, then it was 5 a.m. this morn- 
ing (August 19th). Old man Hamilton is a stinker - shooed me 
from the coal pile and has a grouch 1/2 mile wide. You bump 
against it when you pass him on the roadside. 

August 19: 5 a.m. "Dad" 's gone for the mail. I bet he'll be 
tired when he gets home and sore. "Kid" has a very hard trot, and 
the saddle is ! Washing and baking for me. 

A rancher came along today who asked me about coal land. In 
talking said he had been a U.S. Marine, was in the San Francisco 
quake; shot a policeman who was cutting a ring from a woman's 
finger. He had five fingers in his pocket. The woman was not 
dead, only speechless. Orders were that no one should touch their 
hand to the ground without permission. 

The Hamiltons had a party last night, and the countryside came 
in farm wagons, dump carts, and hayricks. 

"Dad" rode to Wegel's Ranch for mail 9 to 12. I did the wash- 
ing and baked bread. 

August 20: Mailman from Ulm came by. $30 per month, 3 
days a week (6 to 10- 10 to 2). 

Drew some postal cards for the men: 

The Geologist 

Brownie's Leading Features 

Plain Table Talk 

Wyoming Breakfast Call 

Charmed, I Assure You 

What We See of Doane Gardiner 

The Cook's Busy Day 

Try Angulation 

Local Color 

Our Beloved Cook 
The boys were highly delighted. "The Geologist" was the winner. 

August 21: Heavy, cool rain. Tent all closed up and the fire 
going hard. Hoyt and Wegerman drew on their maps. I drew 
postal cards. "Dad" sewed saddle bags. 

About 12 it stopped raining, and Doane went out on "Kid." 
Hoyt was sick with a headache and stomach upset. 

On Thursday night, the 20th, "Dad" woke me because some 
animal had scared "Brownie." We went down the road, but 


caught only a glimpse of something white in the distant darkness. 
We traced "Brownie" to the other horses, and then came home. 
Every night "Dad" heard light foot beats on the road which stop 
at the tents, and then go on. 

Brownie was free from the rope and the hobbles when he was 
found. The night before he was only tied, but returned to camp 

August 22: "Dad" went to Kearny to get mail and look up next 
camping place. I finished "Ebb Tide," and sat watching the rain 
on the mountains, the variations of lighting with the many colors 
between me and those hills. 

"Dad" returned about 3 : 30. Letter from Mr. Butz. 

August 23: (Sunday) From 6 a.m. until 9 p.m. I worked all 
day. Breakfast first, then dinner (with roast ducks, green beans, 
cabbage, and lemon pudding). I had to pack for the move, and 
then supper. Went for eggs, and coming home saw a large owl on 
a telegraph pole. 

August 24: The team left Hamilton's at 8:45 a.m., and went up 
Piney Creek to Kearny (a trip of 12 miles). The trip was the most 
effective of any we shall have. The snowcaps of the Big Horns 
just in front, their shoulders sloping off into the timbered tops, and 
down nearer and nearer until the trees ceased and the sage began. 
Every interval of change has its peculiar tone and shade, like dabs 
on a great palette. 

Everywhere we passed there were several pines standing on an 
eminence to deepen the contrast between it and the sage. 

We came upon the Sheridan-Buffalo road through a cut among 
the narrow hills, where some stream had cut a way. Great piles of 
black clinkers hung over us in places, while the hills showed deep 
red wounds of old fires. Kearny was struck at 12. 

We are on the south bank with the post office and store about 
100 yds. on the opposite bank. The automobile route and mail 
line make the road quite busy compared to any we have struck. It 
was 1 1 o'clock before I got a chance to open a single letter. 

August 25: The hell of a day! Only got 5 hours sleep. Cut 
firewood, made bread, drew a map for Hoyt, cooked supper. Just 
as supper was finished a heavy wind struck us. It was a good sand 
and dust storm. The kitchen table was turned over, the dishes 
floated away on the wind, tablecloth, etc. For about 2 hrs. it blew 
as if it had plenty more from where that came. The tent was a 
mess. Tables all over; food on the ground, stovepipe down, and 
dirty 1/4" of everything. 

It was surprising there was no rain; otherwise, it would have 
been worse! As there was no knowing when it would stop blow- 
ing, I cussed everything in general, and went to bed 8 : 30. 


August 26: 3:30 a.m. The freighters opposite us were up, 
when I turned out. The tent was worse than ever, and the plates 
all upside down in the dirt. After the sun came up I found my hat 
and the tablecloth 25 yds. away. Washed all the dishes, and 
cleaned the tent, then got breakfast. I say — rats! 

At 1 p.m. I went to the store with William and the bait. We 
went down Piney fishing. We used grasshoppers, and 1 had a 
leader. William caught 3 between camp and 1 down. Finally I 
caught 2. He broke the barb off and bent the hook, but I landed 
him before he dropped off. It was a close call, however, until I 
got my fingers into his gills. He was not 6" from the water! 

Piney Creek here at Kearny is clear from fresh melted snows, 
and runs joyously over boulders, whirling down rapids into sheets 
of silver below. Its banks are hung with willow, cotton (and 
"elder"? ) in such a thicket that it is quite impassable in places. In 
fact, it seemed like getting home in New Hampshire. 

The sound of running water over steep places or among the 
rocks is the same in all places. It speaks the same language in one 
as the other — and in it is the faint, far murmur of the sea. Uncon- 
scious of distance it echoes the impulse of the waves, and when one 
knows the rhythm of an ocean the beating of swift water is but a 
different key with the same motif. 

We had fresh trout, popovers, and honey for supper. 

August 27: "Dad" went to Sheridan for the greys, starting at 
6:30 with a rancher who was taking in a load of hogs. 

Left to myself I started to write Bruce when there appeared a 
"human being" who claimed to be a stone cutter. I know he was a 
throat cutter when he got the chance. From 10 till 2 he talked - 
sometimes I think he was "batty." He almost wept when he told 
me I looked like a fellow from New York named Billy Barnum. 
who got wild and ran West. He took to low life and women. I 
wonder which particular reminded him of me. Finally, after tell- 
ing me about rose agates and trying to sell me one, about rubies in 
Montana, nearly shooting a man, the "stinkers" in this State, Jack 
London - he came from Arizona and was going to Montana — he 
wanted me to give him a bunch of Government supplies. I refused. 
He departed. 

August 28: After breakfast tried to wash dishes in a heavy 
wind. Every time I put down a dish it would blow away. Then 
ditched all three tents and cut firewood. Washed Hoyt's stockings. 
Sally Lunn biscuits were a success, also French toast. 

August 29: Everyone coming home from Sheridan Fair. "Dad" 
arrived at 4:30 with the greys. Gardiner sick with a cold. 

August 30: (Sunday) It turned cold with overcast sky. In the 
afternoon it began to pour, with a bitter cold wind. I had to pack, 
and the boys sat around and shivered. 


August 31: Broke camp at 12:30, after getting the greys into 
the four-horse outfit. The buggy and "Tanglefoot" came behind. 
Met Hoyt en route. Received word from Bruce in Southwest 
Harbor, Maine. Camped in the Ranch ground,-Barkey,3 p.m. 
Had chicken and mince pie given by Mrs. Ned Sensel — Kearny, 

The boys thought we were on Stony Creek and went almost to 
Buffalo. Supper 7:30. Bread was spoiled. Bed 10:30 p.m. 

September 1: Mrs. Barkey showed me about potato yeast. Cut 
kindling with a small wood saw. Wrote Mother and Mr. Butz. 
The water is from a 1/2 inch pipe behind the Ranch — it takes time 
and patience, and there is Alcott. 

September 2: 5 a.m. Drew map before I got any breakfast. 
Washed dishes 11 a.m. Made bread 11:30 to 12:30. Packed 
12:30 to 2:00. Fixed cake 2 to 3. Slept 4 to 4:30. Supper 
7:00. Packed 8 to 9. Washed dishes 9:30 to 10:00. 

September 3: Left Barkey 's Ranch 8:45. Killed small rattler. 
Arrived at Camp Buffalo 11:30 after having buggy breakdown, 
stovepipe dropoff and so forth. Water very low on this side. 
School teachers' convention. I was sick - done out. Bed 8 p.m. 

September 4: Cut wood, did the washing, drew out a map, 
made doughnuts, and got supper. It was very hot. 

September 5: Muggy and hot. Mr. Kennedy U.S. Land Office 
came to lunch. Told me about Oregon, Bakers City - R.G.& N. to 
Austin, by stage to Canyon City 36/m, look at Bear Valley 20/m 
beyond, or Fox, Oregon . . . Beans for supper, and sweet potatoes. 

September 6: (Sunday) Pot roast for dinner, ate under tree, it 
was so hot in the camp. Went with Gardiner and Wegerman to 
Clear Creek Canyon, Wegerman went to Horns. Doane and I 
went past Forestry Camp 1 m. up canyon. Climbed needle, about 
6000 ft. 100 foot drop off. Back 7:30 p.m. 

September 7: Hoyt and Wegerman took the greys and buggy. 
I made bread, and when "Dad" got back from town I went in with 
Wegerman's things. As it was Labor Day I had trouble in getting 
into the Land Office. Went up and sharpened the axes at the 
blacksmith's shop. Had two sodas, and I tell you they were good 
for it was terribly hot all day. Packed for the move tomorrow. 

That evening the moon was three-quarters full, the night sultry, 
warm, with perfect stillness. Across the mountains the sky died 
away into a yellow-green, and then became that lightly "colored 
blue," the effervescent blue which comes sometimes over the plains. 
The sea's blue is rich in color, deep, forboding, or childlike, to 
almost somber, even like the eyes of a thoughtful child or of a 


powerful man - the prairie has blue of its own, a light, fantastic 
color, full of magic that hovers over the poison springs, surrounds 
the blood-tipped, shattered hills, and the white still bones beside 

All night it remained warm, but toward morning a faint wind 
began like the choke of a baby sleeping. 

September 8: Just 2 months ago we staked here for the first 
time on this trip. 

Off the island 8:45 a.m., town 9:30 a.m. 

Behind, the rain was coming so "Dad" hurried, cursing at the 
delay he himself caused. About 6 miles from town we struck the 
divide, and slid rattling into the Dry Creek Valley. We passed 
several mines and two deserted cabins - murder! The camp is in 
an open flat where Dry Creek comes to the surface - for before this 
it flows in the sands. There is a corral where the sheep are penned. 
Hoyt located a spring, and we are tented down close to the bank 
of the creek. 

It began to rain as we struck camp, but we had things under 
cover before any great harm, except my sleeping bag, which rolled 
down the bank into the muddy slime - thanks to "Dad"! We 
arrived about 12 midday. Gardiner arrived almost when we did - 
he had stayed at Buffalo to do some geodetic work. Wegerman 
about 2 p.m. Camp at T.W. - 12/m Buffalo. 

Cooking supper I used the new spring which Hoyt dug. The 
cocoa curdled, and after standing the cocoa and milk went to the 
bottom leaving a brownish water on top. Everything tasted vile 
except the meat, so on the whole it was pretty rotten. 

September 9: After breakfast, at which the same nasty taste 
occurred except in the cocoa, which was boiled water. "Dad" 
made a pole and flag at the quarter corner, Doane on one butte and 
I on another. 

Picturesque old hills, red with the blistered stone, and crowned 
like castles with towers and portholes. 

After putting up my flag of gunnysack I tied the Sign of the 
Sagebrush on top. Among the sage I found a bird, gray back, 
black head with red eyes, and 1/2 web feet. It "froze" while I 
walked and pushed my hand within 3". 

Came back to find that a rancher had just told Hoyt that his 
water killed 50 horses. No danger if not hot, but when warm it 
played the deuce. I got the greys for "Dad" and he left for town 
at 10 a.m. Two men came by who were to meet a band of sheep. 
It is said the water is so bad because it contains alum, also arsenic, 
etc. The wind has been high all day, and the tents getting pegs 
loose. I made a fence for our spring with boards and 2x4's from 
the old house by the corral, labeled "U.S. Geodetic Water Works. 
After using, remember 'A straight line is the shortest distance be- 
tween two points.' " 


September 10: Warm. Made bread. Washed clothes — lye, 
Gold Dust soap and it burned my hands all up dry. This water is 
Hell! It makes a greasy deposit over the plate, if any kind of soap 
is used. Received a letter from Aunty Beth about "Cleanliness is 
next to godliness"! 

September 11: "Dad" went to Buffalo at 11. I made a map 
and postal cards; everyone wants them. 

September 12: 8:30 started on Brownie for Buffalo and the 

Met a N.J. man from Powder River (40 m. above Arvada) - 
shepherding. Met Hoyt at blacksmith's shop. Sodas, apples; 
washed our feet in Clear Creek. Started for the Fair at 2, price 
500 in, 250 outer circle. Bananas 50 each. Fare each way to fair- 
grounds 250; 1/2 m. race, walk, trot and run. Consolation race 
and bucking. 

A fellow in black chaps was thrown and his shoulder broken, 
but got on and rode again. 

Gardiner (at Buffalo Bill Show) did riding and rope exhibition. 
He rode the only bad horse who "sun fished", and then bolted into 
the other man's saddle and to the ground, smoking a cigar all the 

One horse turned a somersault and had to be blind-folded to get 
the saddle on. Another kicked and reared upon the other horse 
(Webber). Good band. The girl on a black pony; she had light 
yellow hair, looked like Teddy. In the women's race a girl got 
thrown and broke her collar bone. 

Hoyt and I left at 5:30 and town at 6: 15. It began to rain, and 
we cut through Foot's Ranch. On the main road we got off twice; 
if "Dad" had not had the lanterns out we could not have found 

Gardiner and Wegerman came in at 1 1 p.m. 

September 13 : ( Sunday ) Sheep wagons by corral, and sheep all 
about. Breakfast 7:30 a.m. Had our pictures taken by herder. 
Dinner delayed for Hoyt and Wegerman to swim in puddle of the 
creek (full of sheep, berries, etc.) Dust and windstorm just as we 
were sitting down to dinner. Within five minutes everything was 
black with dust. The cook tent was choking with the fly dust. A 
canvas was thrown over the table, and after the wind went down 
we ate outside in front of the tents. 

At 3:30 Wegerman, Doane and I started for an Indian grave 
from which Wegerman had taken a skull. We rode to the west 
about 6 miles passing 5 herders with large flocks from the moun- 
tains. High on a long hog-back ridge we could see the stones of 
the grave a long way away. There was a heavy storm coming, and 
that prairie was wild, desolate, but full of those mysterious colors. 
Behind the grave in front of us the Big Horns with the lightning 


and clouds made a perfect frame for the grave before us. Reaching 
the grave we soon dug up a skeleton's ribs, when suddenly the 
storm was upon us. Just for the moment before I clambered down 
the hill to get clear of the lightning I saw 75 miles away the Pump- 
kin Buttes shine out like gold among the dark country of smaller 
hills. These Pumpkin Buttes rise from the shaggy hill country 
6-7000 ft. above the plain of limestone construction. 

During the rain we squatted on the ground and let our raincoats 
cover us. The wind here was like that in some parts of the country. 
Very sticky so after a rain it is almost impossible to ride the range. 
Below us to the northeast was a deserted ranch — one of the most 
disconsolate, lonely, ghastly places I have ever seen. In some 
ways the place haunts me! There, where no human sign can be 
seen, sunk in the bottom land with flaming buttes and the grave 
topped hill shadowing it always — 

After the storm, in which we had the benefit of some exceedingly 
loud thunder, we continued our digging. 3 skeletons were dug up, 
all in a condition of much decay. Evidently the bodies had not 
been buried until the decay had set in, because they were in 
positions impossible under ordinary fleshly condiitons. In the 
grave was nothing except ashes of a long-ago fire. Stones were 
laid upon the shallow trough under which was but a scarce sheet of 
earth. The Indians bury their dead in high places that "they may 
see the good hunting." In Montana they are often buried under 
some lime or sandstone ledge and pickets driven in front, thus 
making an open tomb. 

Wegerman saw one in the snow with one shriveled hand laid 
bare upon the snow just within the fence of stakes. 

After it became dark we gathered the bones in our saddlebags 
and started home. The night was black, and the lightning, with 
faint thunder seemed almost to breathe at our depravity, while the 
Great Spirit must certainly have riven the hillsides in anger at our 
breaking the rest of those who had slept so long. 
Reached camp at 9 p.m. After that we had supper and I turned in 
at 10. 

September 14: "Dad" went to Buffalo with his and Hoyt's 
washing. Had visitors to lunch — two ranchers from Crazy Wom- 
an. Smith at Trabing. probably where we will stop when he gets 
there. Also had a herder from Indiana, camp mover and sheep. 

Made some genuine "sinkers" as testified by the whole outfit. 
Darn that potato yeast, it spoiled my bread - 3 loaves! Gardiner 
home late. 10:30 bed. 

September 15: "Dad" went to Buffalo with the washing, and 
was gone all day. Returned with some Dew Berries (blackber- 
ries). Gardiner brought in two rattle snakes on a pole. 

September 16: 5 a.m. Started on Kid for Buffalo and to do 


some washing. Found our ranch and the irrigation ditch; 2d house 
toward Buffalo (10 m.) Borrowed tub and washboard - hung 
clothes on the line. Went to Buffalo, rode in with a shepherd's 
camp mover — wolf and antelope. Buffalo 3:45 — the two girls in 
khaki washing — 4:45; camp 5:45 p.m. My tail was sore and 
bruised. Supper 6:30. 

September 17: Gardiner left in the rain at 10 a.m. 
Kennedy and teamster arrived, ate lunch, and waited for "the 
boys." Supper at 6. Sat around in the cook tent until 9:30. 

September 18: Breakfast 6:30 on account of cloudy weather 
and Kennedy. About 7:30 the 41 and Pitcher "round up" turned 
up with Mrs. Smith at Hazelton on the mountain beyond Klondike 
and a girl in tow. Camped beyond us. 9 cowboys and the cook 
and night ranger. Branded calves. Roping — dragging — bellow- 
ing — round-up in the afternoon. Cutting the spring steers, brands, 
ear marks - shoulder marks. Went down and had a chat with the 
cook. New man — the "Kid" quit because the old man wouldn't 
come to dinner after he had ordered it at 4 p.m. The old man 
was up in beer, and flashed a gun,- the Kid came back that morning 
with his and followed the old man into the range. Old man backed 
down. Sheep-herders came through with 4 or 5 bunches. 2 girls 
and a fellow called and spent 1 hr. Then Mrs. Smith and her 
prodigy turned up. (Anderson girls and their brother quite well- 
to-do — were running their cattle out of the bunch. ) Watched the 
branding and cutting. 

Cook and cowboy came up and sat with us at supper. Shooting 
a man instead of the horse in a dragging - dragged across a river 
and his head knocked in - buried right there. 

September 19: Round-up pulled out 7 a.m. Gave us a big 
hunk of meat. Changed cook tent and fixed it up nicely. 

Went to Buffalo. Received letter from Dad. Rode Tanglefoot. 

September 20: 7:30 breakfast. Went over to the petrified 
tree. Took photos of "Dad" on top. Tree 13 ft. circumference, 
about 15 to 20 ft. high. Rode "Kid" bareback. Had roast for 
dinner. Wrote Mother, Aunt Suzie and Bruce. Then rode with 
Hoyt into Buffalo for the mail. Lunch-supper at 7. Sheep-herders 
at old corral. 

September 21: "Dad" went to Buffalo for supplies. Made 
stew — baked beans. Slept and packed. I was feeling dopey so 
took alkali water. Took photo of camp, also a bath! As I was 
splashing merrily in the open flatland a team drove round over 
near the bench and I "never saw them" at all. It was close range 
at 150 ft. and then "I came to." There was a girl in the buggy. 

September 22: Started at 9:30 for Allaman's Ranch on Crazy 


Woman where Dry Creek joins. Led White Britches, and Brownie 
followed. Bad gullies and holes with lots of dust. Reached Alla- 
man's 12:10. Distance 11.07 and 75%. Camped under big 
cottonwoods with tall grass. Burnt grass in cook tent. "Dad" 
went for Wegerman's things at 3, returning at 5. 

September 23: Cold at night. Hot in the afternoon. In the 
morning, finished 2 townships - drew pictures for Gardiner and 
made bread. Afternoon, wrote to Mother. Was introduced to the 
Crazy Woman River. It runs close behind Allaman's Ranch with 
deep thickets on each side and big cottonwood trees all about. The 
water a dirty yellow. Some talk of changing camp to Babcock's or 
Buffalo. Allaman's Ranch is a 2-room oblong house. Bunk 
house and windmill in the enclosure. Stable beyond. Big dogs, 
small dogs, sheep dogs, little cats, turkeys, and hens and ducks 
made up the items. 80 ft. artesian well. 

Looked like rain. "Dad" and Hoyt, then Wegerman and "Dad". 
We are just 23 m. from Buffalo. 

September 24: Cold as blazes. Did the washing at the Ranch 
in tent there and with a big washboard. Talked with foreman, an 
Eastern man from between Nova Scotia and Portland, Me. 

Started to rain while I was still washing. Found Hoyt in the 
cook tent - after ditching and collecting wood - read magazine. 
Got colder and windy in the night. It stopped, but remained cold. 

September 25: Breakfast 6:30 on account of bad weather. 
6:20 it commenced to snow. Wegerman sick. Hoyt and "Dad" 
started for Buffalo. Pink Eyes acted the fool. Cut some box elder 
(called the ash leaved maple) for the wood as the wood was gone. 
Made postal drawings Wegerman; Stuttering Ed's Stories, the 
Wolves - outfit with two girls who did the cooking, etc. 

Hoyt - Nigger South - Dutch oven. 

Wegerman - baking in sun in the woods. 

Miles City - horse rustling. 

In the evening, we sat about the stove, the wind whining outside, 
and Wegerman told me stories: 

George's old camp at Taddiman 
The Big Bear 
The Moose Hunting 
The fear of lightning 
The moose cup 

The Ill-omened White Birth, etc. . . 
Cook tent exceedingly drafty. 

September 26: 1/2 inch snow at 5 a.m. Very chilly. At 6:30 
it commenced to snow intermittently. I cut box elder, and Weger- 
man and I fed horses, etc. "Dad" arrived at 2:30. Odometer 


read 20, correction .073 = 21.46 m from our camp to blacksmith 
in Buffalo. 

Mr. Gale is going to stay in Buffalo until next week Friday or 
Saturday. Fisher comes Tuesday. 

In the evening, it became raw and still, with the stars sparkling 
distantly and without cheer. I pretty nearly froze all night long, 
with underwear, 2 pr. socks and a sleeping bag. 

September 27: (Sunday) Wegerman went to work as usual. 
Breakfast 6 a.m. The water was frozen stiff on the water bags 
and tank, while a deep frost covered the ground. It is ghastly to 
crawl out into the damp cold, except in my case I was equally as 
frigid in bed. Heard more of the Lulu Girl Song. "Dad" changed 
our tent and put it against the front of the cook tent - things will be 
more bearable now. Yesterday received word from Mr. Butz, and 
also from Dad. Dad has recovered. 

September 28: Snowed intermittently. Breakfast 6:15 - the 
weather grew worse, and snow with rain began. Cold, rain and 
nasty. At 12:15 lunch. The sun came out and the sky cleared 
away. Wegerman went out to work. Supper 6:15. Lamb, fried 
potatoes, fried onions, and beans boiled in ham; honey, apple 
sauce, cocoa and bread. As "Dad" remarked "I'm going to tell 
Gale that we are having a grand old cut-loose, eating onions, telling 
smutty stories. Wegerman and "Dad" got pretty unwound about 
9 p.m. 

September 29: Breakfast 6 a.m. Wegerman went to work. 
"Dad" started for Buffalo. at 9 a.m. with the sorrel team. He will 
bring our week's mail. 

Many a man has been "dry gulched" among these hills. 

Fight at T. A. Ranch, about 100 on each side. Besieged the old 
Ranch - shot red hot ingate rods into the house to fire it - but 
could not light it off. This year a band of six men burned sheep 
wagons when the herders were away from them. 

September 30: About 12 p.m. started for Twaton Ranch - 
"Dad" and the greys, I on Kid. Passed Babcock's and twisted 
among a strange river bottom formation - the mud caked and 
cracked like hieroglyhics. Took the wrong road on my suggestion. 
Reached Twaton at 1:15. The Ranch consists of the houses, sev- 
eral outhouses, cellars, and corrals in a wide flat. Along the river 
were cotton- wood trees. We camped about 1/2 m. from the house 
on the bank of Crazy Woman. Shot a prairie dog. "Dad" left after 
putting up tent. I made camp fire and got wood. Wegerman 
6:15- spoiled mutton, but he had 3 rabbits. Deer tracks - beaver 
. . . Sat up before the fire until 10. Isle of Pine - the marble cake. 
Camp on the Island above the Falls. 

October 1 : Woke 5 a.m. Coyotes howling. Breakfast rabbit, 


potatoes and onions fried with sweet corn. Wegerman left 8:30 
a.m. Packed. Struck the tent. Reached camp 10:30, just 
5-3/4 m. from Allamann's to Twaton. Saw prairie chicken. 
Packed up for move to Trabing. 

October 2: Started 7:55. Ready except horse 7:10 a.m. 
Cold, cloudy, and windy. 

T.W. - 1 1 : 30 - 1 1 .8 m., crossed flats - lost trail. Took S.E. road 
where sheep had obliterated track. Old corral. Meals $1.50. 
From 8 to 12 - washout - lost hammer and flag - rode to sheep 
herder. Making road house and then Smith's Ranch. Gale of 
wind - put up cook tent and take supper at Ranch. Slept in cook 
tent with all the things - rain, snow and wind all night. 

October 3: 5:15 a.m. Breakfast at the Ranch, and in the rain 
put up one tent, ending with our cook tent. Snow and ice - lost 
stove door - cleaned up as I was soaked. Lunch 12:30. Afternoon, 
dug garbage hole and so forth. Supper, rabbit fixed in onion, baked 
potatoes, corn, "dough-gods, " honey, apple sauce, cocoa. 

Talk with Weg about sheep business. Note: Red Angus was 
Sheriff in 1891. 

October 4: Cloudy with a little snow. About noon Wegerman 
went out to work. "Dad" and I put up tents. I dug ditches around 
both. "Dad" was going to leave W's. Bob going off. 

Stationary trunk - "Dad" wanted it left outside in the rain and 
sun. Weg wanted it inside. I got up and brought it in alone. 

"Dad" moved the trunk from the cook tent into Mr. Gale's. 
W. wanted it left and told me so before "Dad." About 4 p.m. W. 
came in from work, and went with me and got the trunk. "Dad" 
was out at the Ranch. When he came back, coming in he said to 
W. "What's that trunk doing in here?" W. never answered but 
kept on writing. Again "Dad" asked. W. turned and said, "None 
of your business." "Dad": "I tell you to leave that trunk where I 
put it." "We'll see," shouts W. "Dad": "We'll see about that. 
I'm going to put that trunk where I've put it for 2 years." So "Dad" 
grabs the trunk and starts for the door. 

W. jumped up and a scuffle ensued in which "Dad" reached the 
tent door with W. wrestling with him. Here the trunk emptied 
itself on the floor in an attempt by both to get it. "Dad" hollers, 
"I could take you and the trunk to the tent and I will. You just 
wanted to show me what big authority you had. Well, you aren't 
running this camp. You haven't anything to say about it. When 
you get that trunk packed I'll take it to Gale's tent." 

Wegerman was packing. When the trunk was packed and 
locked W. stood up. "Now take it out." 

"Dad": "Oh, I'm in no hurry, you try and move it here." 
Wegerman started. "Dad" blocked the way and a scuffle ensued 
in which both men rolled on to the stove, upsetting all the bread. 


the cocoa, and tomatoes,- W. underneath and "Dad" clawing him 
in the face, and punching him with the other hand. To prevent a 
disaster from a red-hot stove upsetting, I drew the tangle of legs 
and arms outside where I could part them. "If you want to fight," 
I said, "go outside the tent where no one can see you from the 

W. walked over then, but "Dad" said, "I'm not going to follow 
you about," and went into the tent. 

To prevent a continuance of the "brawl" I took the trunk into 
my place, behind my cot. After "Dad" had done considerable 
talking, he walked out. I went out also — then W. took the trunk 
and put it back. 

"Dad" went over and talked with the men who had just come in. 

Wegerman borrowed the witch hazel and bathed his face, which 
was bleeding freely, especially at the nose, and also cleaned the 
bruise to his eye. 

"Dad's" hands were cut where W. tried to break D's grip, and 
blood was over his trousers. 

The fight occurred 5:15 and 5 : 30 p.m. 

Had visitors from the Ranch in the evening. Bed 9 p.m. 

October 5: Breakfast 6:30. W. has not spoken to "Dad" and 
he had no breakfast. "Dad" is beginning to see the folly of it all - 
besides he remembers his rupture. God speed Hoyt Gale! 

Did some washing at the Ranch. 

Mail came. The blonde gave "Dad" some advice about the 
Smith Bros. 

Mrs. Palmer gave me pie and cake. Told me about Oklahoma 
and the Panhandle country. 

Ducks and geese; saw a flock within a hundred yards. Water a 
soluble soda mixture. 

October 6: After breakfast went out to Crazy Woman and 
sheep pens. Shot a young rabbit under a pile of boards. Saw 
bunk house at Range, rifles 30-40 Carbine, 40-82 carbine, 25-35 
carbine, 45-70 carbine, split barrel. Took Kid and went back to 
the Bidderbeck and sheep wagon hunting for flag. Came home 
across country. Saw coyote and found stove door. Shot rabbit at 
second gate. Hoyt back with Fisher's team. 

Note: Bedding - tarp 12 oz. or 18 oz. - 7x14 seamless canvas — 
Sugan or Parker, quilt $1.15 to $1.50. Blankets. 

October 7: Baked bread with new yeast from Mrs. Palmer. 
Apple sauce and raisins. Letters from Mother about the hell of a 

October 8: Went with Hoyt to make monuments. Wonderful 
day. Grease wood - poor land. Three stone stations. Ate before 
Butterfly Slim's Cabin on the bank of Crazy Woman. 


Left Hoyt and took 14 ft. cottonwood pole back to hog-back 
below deep-gullied draw where road is washed away. Went back 
to first monument for gloves. Quicksand - covered with dry sand, 
even with grass. Crazy Woman bad. Powder River terrible. 
Came home across the hills. Saw big Jack [rabbit] - watched him 
for 200 yds. Throws his body and legs - such springs. 

Home 4:30. Supper 6. Evening Smith and friend with Hoosier 
sheep-herder came down with guitar. Smith [talked about] the 
Invasion. His father cut wires - governor in with big cattle men. 
Niger went to Gillette with telegram to Governor. Two men in 
first cabin. One that was not shot tried to escape through smoke 
to a draw - wrote in his diary to the last. 

Texans hired as surveyors. Carmin - ass't adjutant general dry 
gulched man for big cattle firms - shot a man in N.W. - wrong man. 
Several in Texas as U.S. Marshal. All carried two guns - now in 
Oklahoma. Trouble started with the ranches throwing out cow- 
boys in winter. Had allowed them to visit. Settlers, foremen stole 
cattle, rawhiding at horse corrals. 

The Niger's skull. "Dad" brought it down from tool house. 
Bullet hole. He came from Buffalo to kill an Irishman who ran the 
bar. Came in the door and fired 3 times. Irish crawled behind 
the counter and got 2 guns. Niger's gun stuck and he ran out from 
the house. Irish ran to the door and shot him. Dug a grave and 
threw him in, boots and all. 23 yrs. after his boots still on. 

Lots of men killed around Trabing. 

Grave in yard here - river - pine board and chicken wire - died 
of fever. 

George away after horses. 

October 9: 5:30 a.m. Woke Mr. G. late because Smith stayed 
until 1 1 p.m. Up Crazy Woman. Shot rabbit at Butterfly Slim's 
Cabin - 5 shots. Carried pole to 7 m. Put up old fur coat and soft 
pole. Saw coyote. Ate lunch at Crazy Woman. 2 ranches. Low 
colorless hills - strong wind. Lots of sheep, and some cattle. 

October 10: Before I washed the dishes "Dad" and I went out 
after the team. We started at 7 and did not get the sorrels at all, 
but found the greys, Whistle Britches and Pink Eye at 10:15. The 
pasture is 1000 acres. 

"Dad" went in over his ankles crossing the river; bad holes in 
the stream and quicksand. I started for Buffalo 10:30 with Babe. 

I made bread. The Palmer boys were here, then Mr. and Mrs. 
S. — Seventh Day Adventists. 

Baked bread 1 1 :00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. "Dad" home 8 p.m. 

J. J. Luning - man lost his arm in thresher. 

October 11: (Sunday) Cut "Dad's" hair. Had venison, mush- 
room sauce, apple sauce with raisins, beef soup, cinnamon rolls, 


mince pie, apples and grapes with chocolate to drink. 

Went on "Gemy" with Luning to coal bank. "Dad" and West 
went in the team. Coming home we rode the fence! Met Long. 
Chased cattle. I almost got into quicksand, and the cows got 
away. Chased a bunch out of the alfalfa. Evening Luning told 
about breaking colts. Hog tied 2 hrs.; saddled and hog tied 2 hrs.; 
saddles and stirrups tied 2 hrs. ridden - buck stop. Give them 
the "black snake" until they quit. Many rear and go over. Sun- 
fish bucking. 

October 12: "Dad" and Hoyt going to camp at Butterfly Slim's 
(Randlers) Young Palmer showed me how to rope (for diagram 
see Diary October 12). 

2:30 "Dad" went down Crazy Woman. I rode Kid and helped 
to put up tent. Shot a rabbit with .38. 2nd shot. Started home 
4:15 p.m. Supper 6: 15 p.m. 

October 13: Breakfast 6:30 a.m. Started 8 a.m. on Kid with 
Wegerman. Went to coal mine. Left W. and went west to the 3 
black buttes. Chased a coyote. Saw 3. Met Tennessee herder. 
He helped build sage monument in heavy wind - tied it down six 
sides. He shot 38. 

I went to the wagon and shot 25/35 W carbine. I hit 3 in. tin 
can at 50 yds. first shot. 

Saw Wegerman. Struck Smith's fences and made a monument 
in MacLeish's pasture on knob. 

Home 5:15. 

Smith and friend home. 

Wrote until 10:30. Supper. 

October 14: Fed and watered horse. Got breakfast 6:45 a.m. 
Washed all the clothes for the outfit. 

"Dad" came from Crazy Woman. Mice and sheep-herders. 
Dinner at Ranch. P.O. sheep dipping. Mrs. Palmer - mince pie, 
bread and milk - recipes for cake. 

Mr. Gale and "Dad" to stay a day or two more. Cats about 
camp. Wegerman lost his 32.20. Saw a rabbit - ate dinner. 
Went back for the gun; found it. Shot 7 times and finally hit him. 
Sage hen also. 

October 15: "Dad" arrived from Crazy Woman about 9:30 
a.m. Cut wood, skinned animals, got coal, and drew section map 
of Cross H. 

About 2:30 "Dad" and I started after the horses. Went to W. 
side of pasture, found blacks with stallion. Got gelding, but could 
not reach mare. Found other horses at S.E. corner. Could not 
get Bill or Tanglefoot. Had to round up a bunch of horses and 
then run them into sheep pen. Cold, and looked stormier. Smith 
took supper with us. 


October 16: "Dad" went to Buffalo with six horses to come 
back with the sorrels. Mr. Gale arrived in the camp 12:30 m. - 
too cold and windy. 

I saw Mrs. Palmer make doughnuts. Drew a sketch of Smith's 
Ranch which I colored for her. Luning asked me out to hunt 
some geese. We went up the river but saw no geese. I made 
Marlin shut pump. Later 30 U.S.G. carbine. 

Wegerman in at 3:30 p.m. 

October 17: Took breakfast at ranch. Washed dishes and 
swept floor. 

Escaped cutting Mr. Palmer's hair. Cleaned and listed cooking 
outfit. Packed tent, etc. Had dinner at ranch. Left Trabing 
12:15 p.m. Reached Cross H after cold ride, snow in places at 
4:20. Unpacked in barn. Sat about bunk house and ate with 
men. Slept in barn. Bunk house spit on floor, and 90° in shade. 

October 18: (Sunday) Breakfast 8:30. Oiled harness and 
about froze in the outhouse. Hoyt came. Went to Buffalo 1:30. 
Hotel room #16. Wet night below stairs; several gentlemen taken 
to bed with protestations. "Dad" said it sounded as if they were 
taking the fire engine upstairs. 

October 19: Wind among the telegraph wires on the way to 

October 20: Left for Buffalo in auto, 7:15. Sheridan 11:45. 
3 stops at Banner (batteries). Sheridan Inn, met Mr. Eaton. 
Started for Ranch; met stranger with the Colt 32-20. 330 on 
"Nellie". Snow, wind, and darkness. Arrived 8 p.m. 

Rufus Cushman, fellow from Chicago. 

October 21: Sheridan 11:15 a.m. Dinner; goodbye to Eaton. 
Oklahoma marshall. Met "Dad" at Clearmont. 2 ft. snow on 
stage road. Edgemont sleeper to Lincoln. 
Diary Ends Here 

That favorite resort, the Melodeon Theatre, is being thoroughly 
remodeled and re-fitted. Mr. A. J. Britton and Co. are the new 
proprietors. Mr. B. has gone east to Chicago and will return with 
a first class troupe. We are glad to know that we are to have a 
company of fine talent to amuse the lovers of fun these long 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, December 31, 1867. 

Mis tor y of the Presbyterian Ckurck 
in Rawlins, Wyoming 

Daniel Y. Meschter 


My interest in the history of the Presbyterians in Rawlins began 
more than five years ago while browsing through the old records 
of the France Memorial Church. Curiosity was only part of the 
reason for digging out these old books. The other part was the 
realization that the church's anniversary of 100 years of service to 
the community was within the forseeable future. In this way I 
discovered that this particular church is the first permanently 
organized church in the town and one of the oldest in the whole of 
Wyoming. Inspiration to write of this history came not alone 
from the existence of a small pile of dusty and somewhat shabby 
books; it came also from a taste of its tradition, sensed rather than 
grasped, gained by five years of membership including a year as 
chairman of the Board of Trustees — an experience not easily for- 
gotten. There was, too, the inspiration of Sheldon Jackson's 
magical presence both real and ethereal in that history. 

However, a detailed reading of the records suggests that the his- 
tory of this church is largely the sum of its people. I have chosen, 
therefore, to look at it in terms of the people who gave it life and 
of the dedicated men who served it as ministers and lay leaders. 
Inquiries were directed to such questions as who these people were, 
where they came from and why, what they did in Rawlins, and 
what happened to them later. Many of them turned out to be 
community leaders and builders of society. Thus, a history of the 
church becomes a vehicle for a kind of history of the region. 

It is my sincere belief that everything contained herein is his- 
torically accurate although I may be guilty of taking some of my 
sources too much at face value. At least it can be said that there 
were independent identifiable sources for nearly everything stated 
as fact even though some of the sources may not be entirely accu- 
rate. On the other hand I would be the last to deny the possibility 
of error in the interpretation of documentary materials. 

One of my purposes, which is to offer a documented history, led 
to the extensive use of footnotes. These are designed to identify 
documentary sources, to give specific acknowledgements to the 
many individuals and organizations whose help was indispensable, 


and to add extraneous information and elaboration on matters 
brought up in the text. No separate bibliography was prepared 
since all of the sources are identified in the footnotes. 

The appendices, of course, were taken from the various registers 
contained in the church records. However, these registers have 
been modified to more-or-less extent by the addition of more infor- 
mation gleaned chiefly from the minutes of various meetings. 

So far as completeness is concerned, only the researcher himself 
is fully aware of all of the loose ends, which, had it been possible to 
do so, traced out to the bitter end would have added much inval- 
uable information. A good example of incompleteness is the life 
of William Hamilton about whom only a few bare facts are known 
prior to his advent on the western scene in 1869 at the age of 47. 
It would be valuable to know something about his youth and the 
influences which led him first to the ministry, then to service in the 
deep south for more than 15 years, and then to dedicated service 
for another 17 or 18 years in some of the wildest mining and 
railroading towns of the really wild west. 

This work presented here covers the 16 years from 1869 to 
1885. The title designates this as "Part I" implying that there 
are other parts to come. This is the intention, but there is no real 
assurance at this moment that these later parts will ever be com- 
pleted. For one thing, the later years do not seem to have the same 
historical appeal as "The First Years' 1 although several very inter- 
esting sources covering the period prior to World War J have 
recently come to light indicating that this period has a definite 
appeal all its own. Deterring further work are a number of items 
which can best be described as delicate. Some incidents, a part 
of the church history, have been almost forgotten and possibly 
should remain forgotten. Other incidents involve living people 
making their treatment extremely difficult. Another deterrent is 
distraction with other subjects in Rawlins history not directly 
connected with church history. 

Although recognition of sources of information has been given 
in the footnotes and other places, I want to offer special thanks to 
the Presbyterian Historical Society of Philadelphia for answering 
questions, providing copies of correspondence contained in the 
Sheldon Jackson Collection, and authorizing quotations from these 
documents; to Mrs. Marian Geddes of Rawlins and the Carbon 
County Chapter of the Wyoming State Historical Society for the 
opportunity to examine early files of Rawlins newspaper, scrap- 
books, and other material preserved by that Chapter; to Mrs. 
Gymaina Whigam for personal insights into the James France fam- 
ily; to Mrs. Glen Terry of Evanston, Wyoming, for her long letter 
detailing the life and genealogy of Franklin Luther Arnold; to Mrs. 
Louise Shaffer of Apollo, Pennsylvania, for information on the 
history of the France family; to Miss Flavia Converse of Harrison- 
burg, Virginia, for data on Charles Converse; to Rev. Gene H. 


Upton, present pastor of the Rawlins Presbyterian Church for his 
unfailingly cheerful cooperation in making the church records 
available for examination, arranging interviews, and many other 
little ways; and to the officers and members of the church for mak- 
ing the whole project possible in the first place. Space just doesn't 
permit naming the Stated Clerks of Presbyteries, ministers of many 
individual churches, librarians, and many other individuals who 
wrote such courteous letters in response to inquiries. I do want 
to make special mention of the Rev. Joseph M. Ewing of the Pres- 
byterian Board of Pensions who not only went out of his way to 
search out materials for me and who also offered several useful 
suggestions for obtaining other materials, but was a source of 
encouragement at a time when his interest and sympathy did more 
to assure completion of this work than almost anytniig else could. 
Now that this part of the work is completed, I can state the 
realization that my real reason for doing the research and writing 
is the personal enjoyment and satisfaction in perpetuating this 
little bit of history. It was fun. I hope to have offended no one 
and I hope that this will bring pride to the people of Rawlins in 
the precious possession this little church is. 


Rawlins, Wyoming is a pleasant town of about 9,000 people 
nestled in among low hills in the midst of a vast prairie. It is a 
dry land. Water is scarce and the procession of blue skies is only 
occasionally broken by rain. The wind blows incessantly; so 
steady is its blast that the quiet of a rare calm day clamors in the 
ear. It is not a land that readily appeals to the casual visitor. If 
nothing else, the newcomer often finds the elevation of 6,785 feet 
above sea level depressing. 

Despite these shortcomings, the location of the town at this place 
was no accident of history. The birth of Rawlins took place here 
in 1868 out of the happy coincidence of a practical route for the 
first Pacific railway with springs of fresh clear water. It is hard to 
imagine a more logical place for a new town on the American 
frontier of the 1870s. Before long roads would be pushsd through 
to the south into the mountains of northwestern Colorado where 
there were lush pastures for stockraising and the promise (largely 
unfulfilled) of precious metal mines. The backbone of the Colo- 
rado Rockies to the east prevented easy access to this country 
from any other direction except the west and the frontier was 
moving to the west, not from it. Other roads would lead in short 
time to the north and northwest to the Sweetwater and beyond. 

In the course of time it was found that the sage and shortgrass 
forage of the dry prairie itself would support fine herds of beef 
cattle and bands of sheep. It was simply a matter of spreading the 
livestock thinly enough. However, land was abundant and cheap 


and the cattleman and the sheepman prospered. Because of this, 
the town and the railroad prospered too. 

Whether the original settlers of 1 868 intended it to be so or not, 
the availability of water in a dry land combined with transportation, 
the stockraising industry, and easy access to the back country both 
to the north and south, assured that Rawlins would become a per- 
manent settlement and a center of thriving commerce. 

The first to arrive at the site of the new town, actually before it 
came into being, were the railroad surveyors. Then followed the 
construction gangs and a few of the fortune seekers who as vultures 
are attracted to carrion, were attracted to the money the workers 
had with no place to spend it. Rail-laying did not pause here, or 
anywhere else short of Promontory, Utah, but moved steadily 
westward. The fortune seekers did not follow along like the tail 
of a dog; they continually leapfrogged ahead to set up shop at some 
convenient place and reap their harvest as the railhead approached 
them and then, shortly, passed them by before they leaped ahead 

Then others came, numbering among them the railroad em- 
ployees who would run the trains and repair the engines and begin 
the never-ending task of repairing and improving the tracks. For a 
time a troop of the U. S. Cavalry under the command of Captain 
Thomas B. Dewes and Lieutenants Bob Young and Ed O'Brien 
was posted in Rawlins to protect the railroad and the early settlers 
from the ever-present danger of hostile Indians in the region. 
Finally, there were the settlers themselves. These numbered among 
them merchants, bakers, boot makers, hotel keepers, cooks, wait- 
ers, butchers, teamsters, blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, wheel- 
wrights, a cigar maker — in fact, all of the trades vital to the needs 
of a growing community. Prospectors made Rawlins their head- 
quarters in their search for gold and silver in the Seminoe Moun- 
tains far off to the northeast and in the Park Range of Mountains 
to the south. The Census of 1870 listed a couple of physicians, 
who, no doubt, did double duty as undertakers, and a brewer. To 
all of these fell the task of building the town. In 1869 the town 
was a motley collection of frame buildings, shacks, and tents mostly 
on the south side of the tracks. 

The early settlers came mainly from the midwest and east 
Pennsylvania, as one of the most populous states in the Union, 
contributed a fair share of them. Not surprisingly, many were 
foreign born. Not a few, no doubt, were seeking solace in a new 
and peaceful land after the upset of the great war between the 
States concluded only a few years before. Manv had suffered in 
the economic depression that followed that conflict and probably 
many of these finally realized that things would never be quite the 
same after the war as they were before. This land, this vast 
Territory of Wyoming, for some at least, would be their land of 
golden opportunity. 


Whatever their motives, they had come west to stay. Some 
would move on from Rawlins in time, but only to be replaced by 
others moving on from some other place they had tried and found 
lacking. Little by little, Rawlins changed from a "for men only" 
construction camp to a family town. In 1870 there were no less 
than 28 families in town, most with one or more small children. 
Even Captain Dewes saw fit to bring along his Virginia-born wife 
and three-year-old daughter. 

As a town, the people were young and energetic. They could 
do great things once they set their minds to it. One of their needs 
was for a church if for no other reason than that in those days no 
respectable town could be without one. However, most of them 
had a Christian heritage which some of them, at least, consciously 
or otherwise, wanted to preserve for their children. Besides, in 
those days, church going was a way of life not easily cast off. In 
the first 15 years they would build not one but three, and possibly 
four, churches. 

The first church organized was by the Presbyterians. With help 
from the east, they built the first church building in Rawlins and 
one of the first two or three in the Territory. For the first 12 or 13 
years of its existence, it was a truly community church since it was 
the only one serving Protestants. Its doors were open to all 
regardless of their faith or denomination or lack of either. Even 
after the other denominations built their own churches, it contin- 
ued to serve the community as God gave it the grace to serve, even 
unto this day. 

This is the story of the Presbyterians and their church in Rawlins 
for the first 1 5 years. 


The Reverend Sheldon Jackson, Presbyterian minister and mis- 
sionary, stood dictating to a woman seated at a rough table. This 
meeting had begun an hour ago in the early afternoon. 1 He had 
offered prayer. Then, looking out of a window at this vast and 
empty land, he had preached: 

"And the Lord said unto me, Behold, I have begun to give Sihon and 
his land before thee: begin to possess, that thou mayest inherit his 
land." (Deut. 2:21) 2 

That text had seemed particularly appropriate for this group 
seated casually around the sides of the room and at the tables. A 
few of the men affected full beards. Nearly all of them cultivated 
sideburns, moustaches, or both. Their suits of black broadcloth 

1. Rawlins Journal, June 4, 1887: ". . . at 2 P.M. a little band of wor- 
shippers assembled in the dining room of the Railroad Hotel. . . ." 

2. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881. 


were their best; some, no doubt, were without either collars or neck 
cloths in the sometime fashion of this crude western country. A 
few casual onlookers, attracted by the prospect of entertainment, 
may not even have had go-to-meeting suits, but wore loose jackets 
of coarse cloth or buckskin — not only their best, but their only suit. 
The women wore long gowns of cotton or worsted; silk and satin 
were rare among these inheritors. 

He began: "Rawlins Springs, Wyoming Territory." 3 

Eliza Kenyon wrote carefully, 4 perhaps aware that her script 
lacked the regularity and beauty achieved by long hours of practice. 
But after all, Rawlins Springs was a long way from New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, where she had come from,"' and no one in town 
had been here much more than a year. A year and a half ago 
there had been no town here at all. Everyone in this room had 
come from somewhere else, and being able to write as well as she 
did was sufficient accomplishment. 

Her pen scratched. She deprived General Rawlins of his final 
"s" and shortened Wyoming Territory to "Wy Ter" to make it fit 
the narrow sheet of note paper. ,: 

She looked up at the narrow angular face of this man with its 
high angular forehead, small sensitive mouth, and prominent nose. 
A full beard hid his jaw. His eyes, close set and piercing, gleamed, 
not unkindly, but with bright determination, through steel-rimmed 
spectacles. He had been of slight build as a lad and was still small 
enough that he could sleep in reasonable comfort on the 4 ^-foot- 
wide seat of a Rocky Mountain stage coach." Despite his physical 
weakness, he would prove to be a giant among men in the future 
if he hadn't done so already as a missionary on the western frontier. 

"August 8, 1869," he went on. A Sunday. When had he 
arrived here? Thursday? Friday? It had been a tiring trip down 
from Montana; 8 but there was work to be done here, too. He had 

3. Presbyterian Historical Society, Sheldon Jackson Collection, petition 
dated August 8, 1869. 

4. Ibid. The conclusion that this manuscript was written by Eliza Ken- 
yon is based upon similarity of the script in the text to her signature at the 
bottom. There is also a strong similarity to the handwriting of Sheldon 
Jackson in other documents; it is possible that he composed and wrote this 
petition. If this is the case, literary license is claimed. 

5. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881. 

6. PHS, SJC, petition dated August 8, 1869. 

7. Stewart, Robert Laird, "Sheldon Jackson," Fleming H. Revell Com- 
pany, London, 1908. This fine biography of Sheldon Jackson was written 
by a Presbyterian minister who was also a contemporary of Jackson. 

8. Fulton, Hugh K., "Historical Address Delivered at the Twenty-Fifth 
Anniversary of the Synod of Wyoming," Casper, Wyoming, October 5, 
1939. Sheldon Jackson organized a church in Helena, Montana, on August 
1, 1869, and another in Laramie, Wyoming on August 10, 1869. Hugh K. 
Fulton was the pastor of the France Presbyterian Church, 1932 - 1944 and 
was Synod Historian. 


been here long enough this past week to have met most of these 
people, to see that they were well enough educated, decent, and 
full of pride in their new town. Some were solid churchmen. 
Whether the rest had come to this meeting through civic spirit, 
sincere godliness, or for sheer entertainment did not seem too 
important. They were here. The town was big enough to need a 
church. It was big enough to support a church if the people 
wanted to. 

He had been in town long enough for the landscape to bscome 
familiar to him. A long hill on the south stretched to the east. 
Rocky crags on the west and north formed the end of a larger 
mountain which stretched northerly 15 miles, ending in a wide 
expanse of flat land where the water was bitter and where the 
ground around the water holes, dried up in August, was stained 
white with salt. It hardly ever rained this time of year and the sky 
was a dome of crystal blue. The wind was a dry blast that sucked 
the moisture out of the grass and dried the few shallow waterways 
into flats of cracked mud. Now the hills and prairie were seared 
brown and the sage was dull and gray. Only along the gulches, in 
the shade of a few scattered cottonwood trees, did the grass remain 
green where its roots could reach to the moist soil below. 

He could well be grateful for the springs of clear cold water 
bubbling out of the ground at the foot of ths mountain. These 
springs in a dry land was one reason for this settlement of poor 
frame buildings and tents. 

To the east, the prairie stretched vastly, a blanket of yellow- 
brown over distant low hills and ridges out of which, dimly at first 
and then more clearly, snaked two thin ribbons of steel, side-by- 
side, 4 feet % x /i inches apart, almost insecurely bound to the earth 
by cross pieces of rough hewn logs laid upon a hastily thrown-up 
mound of earth borrowed from the thin soil alongside. This was 
the Pacific Railway. This was the main reason for this town — 
fresh water, the other reason. 

Only a little more than seven years ago, on July 1, 1862, Presi- 
dent Abraham Lincoln had signed the Pacific Railway Bill into law 
making all this legally possible. 9 It remained to be seen if it was 
physically possible to build a railroad through unpopulated lands 
across wide prairies, over towering mountains, penetrating salt 
deserts where no blade of grass grew, 2,000 miles to the Pacific 

Not as long ago as two years and a few months, the first survey- 
ors had passed this way choosing a route. With them had come a 

9. U. S. Statutes-at-large, Chapter CXX, 37th Congress, First Session. 
The guage of the railroad was also established by Congressional action. 


dying John Aaron Rawlins seeking relief from tuberculosis. 10 An 
Illinois lawyer become soldier, Brigadier General Rawlins had been 
an aide to General Grant at Vicksburg and on through the events 
leading to Appomattox Courthouse. 11 Honors had come his way 
as Chief of Staff of the Army and Secretary of War under President 
Grant; but on his visit here, he learned that a spring of cool water 
in a dry land was a worthy memorial. One month and a day after 
Sheldon Jackson's first sermon in Rawlins Springs, John Aaron 
Rawlins would be dead at 38. The name of this town honors his 
memory; so does a pleasant park a mere two blocks from the 
White House in Washington, D. C. where his statue serenely con- 
templates a lily pond. 

Not as long ago as a year and a half, small armies of men with 
horse scoops, hand tools, brawn, sweat, and even their life blood 
had come out of those distant hills to the east, throwing up this dirt 
mound and bridging rivers and conquering mountains on their way 
to the Pacific. When the rock in the everlasting hills resisted drills 
and blasting powder, they went over or around. 

Just 13 months ago, in July, 1868, the steel had come, length 
by length, one piece after another, joined together with fish plates 
and bolts into one piece squirming its way over mountain, through 
gorge, and across the boundless prairie to this place. This was 
merely one of any number of little settlements set aside to supply 
the needs of the people who were building and who would serve the 
Pacific Railway. Then the ribbons of steel curled their way around 
the rocky crags and faded dimly into the west. 

Now, three months ago on May 10, 1869, it was finished. On a 
barren desert flat not far from the northwest lobe of the Great Salt 
Lake where Promontory Point looms up out of the lake to the 
south, a golden spike was driven into the final tie of finely polished 
California laurel 1,085 miles west of Omaha and 690 miles east of 
Sacramento. Western Union Telegraph receivers all along the line 
ticked out the message: "Ready, hats off, prayer is being offered." 
Central Pacific engine, Jupiter, and Union Pacific Engine No. 119 
touched, symbolizing the completion of the greatest engineering 
feat of the age. 11 ' The Union Pacific Railroad and its western twin, 
the Central Pacific Railroad, stretched unbroken almost 2,000 
miles from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to the shore of the Pacific. And 
Rawlins was a part of it! 

10. Dodge, Major General Grenville M., How We Built the Union Pacific 
Railway, reprinted by Sage Books, Denver, Colorado, 1965, pp. 23-24. 

1 1. Sandburg, Carl, Abraham Lincoln: the War Years. 

12. Dodge, op. cit., pp. 29-30. The description used here is adapted 
from a pamphlet by Henry W. Bainton, "The Fiftieth Anniversary of the 
France Memorial Church of Rawlins, Wyo." October 4, 1932. Rev. Bain- 
ton, 1863-1936 was historian of the Casper Presbytery at this time. 


Along with the road gangs had come and gone others the land 
would not miss. Gamblers, thieves, murderers, camp followers of 
every description sought ways both fair and foul to separate the 
rough men who built this railroad from the little gold that was 
their due. Fortunately for Rawlins Springs, these human vultures 
had stopped to practice their trade at a place called Benton some 
10 or 12 miles to the east, a few miles from where the railroad 
crosses the North Platte River. 

At its peak, Benton featured 23 saloons and five dance halls, 
one of which was a 40-foot-wide by 1 00-foot-long frame structure 
covered with canvas and floored for dancing. Known as "The 
Big Tent," it had served duty at Julesburg, Cheyenne, and Laramie 
on its way west. It served equally as well for drinking and gam- 
bling as for dancing. Contemporary photographs show that Ben- 
ton was a collection of tents and frame buildings in ths midst of a 
broad plain without trees or water. Water had to be hauled from 
the Platte River and sold in Benton for ten cents a bucket or a 
dollar a barrel. Tanglefoot whiskey was considered cheaper and 
longer lasting. Although the town is said to have had a mayor and 
a newspaper, law enforcement was nonexistent. Violent death was 
a daily occurrence. 13 

Benton thrived briefly in a glorious orgy of debauchery. It was 
said that a man's life was cheap in Benton, but that that was the 
only thing that was cheap. But in the presence of Fort Steele at 
the railroad bridge across the North Platte with the constituted 
authority of the Army and the need to hastily leap ahead of the 
tracks in the few months of railroad building left, Benton's flame 
was already flickering and dying. Almost literally, it "grew in a 
day and vanished in a night." 14 The worst Benton had to offer 
quickly moved on towards historical oblivion. Some of the best 
moved to Rawlins. Soon it was all but forgotten. 

Here in Rawlins Springs in August, 1 869, was the beginning of a 
permanent town. There were women and children here, few 
enough to be sure, but they were here and some were certain to 
stay. There were merchants and craftsmen, husbandmen and 
tradesmen. There was hope, youth, courage, and energy. There 
were men willing to invest their lives in this place. Sheldon Jack- 
son could see that they were a hardy breed. He could be sure 
they would indeed inherit this land. If God's house was the only 
thing lacking, he could do something about it. 

13. Miller, Nina Hull, Shutters West, Sage Books, Denver, Colorado, 
1962, pp. 97-102. Much of this paragraph is derived from this interesting 
little book based upon the life and work of Mrs. Miller's father, A. C. Hull, 
pioneer photographer. She reproduces rare photographs of scenes in Colo- 
rado and along the Union Pacific taken by A. C. Hull between 1866 and 

14. Ibid., p. 98. 


"We the undersigned," he went on to the accompaniment of the 
scratch of Eliza Kenyon's pen, carefully pacing himself to her 
speed, "being members of the Church of Christ in other portions of 
the land & desirious of obtaining church privilages in this place, do 
hereby request Rev. Sheldon Jackson to organize us into a Presby- 
terian Church & send us at his earliest convenience a Minister. ,,lr> 

A formality, perhaps, this written request; but Sheldon Jackson 
could have had no illusions as to the rocky road ahead in making 
the ideal of a church into a practical reality. He would have had 
no desire to have it thrown up to him during the rough going in the 
days to come that no one really asked him to start a church here. 
He would have known, too, that a church is a living thing, created 
through the efforts of leadership and the desire of the people; but 
born, too, like the germination of a seed planted in a fertile bed 
and tended to maturity by loving hands that really care whether it 
lives or dies. He could organize, he could send a minister, he 
could even erect a building; but if this church was to survive, it 
would have to have the nourishment of love and devotion to its 
cause. Perhaps these people weren't ready yet to accept the re- 
sponsibility even if a few of them might think it a good idea. 

Eliza Kenyon signed her name down near the bottom of the 
page leaving space above for all those in the room to sign too. 16 
Then she yielded her place as one-by-one five other people came to 
the table. 

First came William C. Wilson. A man of 35, he had brought his 
wife and four children from Summit Hill in the coal regions of 
eastern Pennsylvania. 17 Now he was a bookkeeper for the rail- 
road, 1S and while this may have been a land of opportunity for 
many, he would be hard pressed for money as long as he would 
stay in Rawlins. Others had done better. The man in charge of 
the railroad shops to whom he was responsible, Robert Galbraith, 
barely 25 years old, had for three years past held responsible 
positions with the railroad. He had supervised as many as 700 
men in the shops at Omaha when he had been but 22. 1!l However, 

15. PHS, SJC, petition. August 8, 1869. 

16. Ibid. 

17. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881. shows 
Wilson from Summit Hill, Pennsylvania. The 1870 Census lists four chil- 
dren: Wm. C. Jr., 11; Emily B., 9; Mattie, 7; and Marion, 4. The 1880 
Census (Albany County) lists seven children: Wm. C, Jr., 20 (druggist); 
Emma B., 18; Martha M., 16; Marion, 14; Maude, 11; Lizzie C, 5; and 
Edward, 3. The apparent discrepancies in ages over 10 years is due to the 
fact that the two Census takings were at different times of year. 

18. Owen, William, "Jo Rankin's Great Ride, the Ute Uprising of 1879, 
the Thornburgh Massacre," manuscript. Carbon County, Wyoming Public 

19. Bancroft, H. H., Bancroft's Works. History of Nevada. Colorado 
and Wyoming, Vol. XXV, pp. 788-9. 


Wilson took his churchmanship seriously and he was eager to lend 
his support to this project. 

Then came Harry Hall. Here was the outstanding man of the 
lot. He inscribed his name with a flourish probably painfully 
learned from bruised knuckles inflicted by a schoolmaster's ruler. 
At 28 he was the support of his sister in school. 20 Moreover, he 
was a successful businessman and as well off as any in town. A 
year or two before, he and his partner, James France, had started a 
store at Wyoming Station. 21 Then France had come here to open a 
branch when the town was brand new. Now, the business pros- 
pects of Rawlins Springs looked so good that Hall had come to join 
him as a merchant in dry goods and general merchandise. The 
small frame building of H. C. Hall & Co. was one of the first to 
disturb the sage brush north of the railroad tracks. 22 The men, 
both bachelors, lived together in the store building with Hall's 
relative, William F. Hall, as their clerk. 28 

20. PHS, SJC, Letter from Harry C. Hall to Sheldon Jackson dated 
May 17, 1871: "My little sister whom I had at school was taken with the 
measles & died on the 4th. inst. Sad news to me. All my interest, happiness 
and care centered in her. She had been a member of the Presbyterian since 
1/66 & died shouting the praises of a saviours love." 

21. Bancroft, op. cit., pp. 788-9. This reference is somewhat ambiguous. 
It reads in part: "James France .... came to Wyoming in 1868 and opened 
a store under the firm name of H. C. Hall & Co. A branch store was estab- 
lished at Rawlins in 1869, of which France took charge." "Wyoming" 
normally would be construed as meaning Wyoming Territory. However, 
there was a temporary town similar to Benton called Wyoming or Wyoming 
Station about 20 miles north of Laramie along the railroad. The opening 
of a branch store in Rawlins would suggest that "Wyoming" should be read 
in this context. Another interesting reference to Wyoming Station is in a 
letter by the Rev. John Cornell, early day Eoiscopal priest in Laramie, 
quoted in Cook, Rev. Joseph W., Diary and Letters of Rev. Joseph W 
Cook, Missionary to Cheyenne, The Laramie Republican Company, Lara- 
mie, Wyoming, 1919, 137 pp. Referring to Bishop Randall's Reports, he 
wrote: "When we bought a saloon at Wyoming Station and turned it into 
a chapel, he (Bishop Randall) made quite a flaming report of it and said 
for once 'the Progressive Saloon' had progressed in the right direction and 
turned into a church." This letter was dated February 14, 1912. Wyoming, 
like Benton, was short lived. At present, all that remains are the founda- 
tions of the old section houses. 

22. Rawlins, Journal, February 4, 1882. Rawlins was originally estab- 
lished on the south side of the railroad tracks where the depot was then 
located. The business district and main part of the town now is largely 
north of the tracks. 

23. Harry C. Hall and William F. Hall were probably brothers, but this 
cannot be established beyond a shadow of doubt at the present. The France 
Presbyterian Church Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881 shows that Harry Hall 
came from Tennessee and was dismissed to Oswego, Kansas on April 23, 
1871. William F. Hall became a member on September 25, 1870 by cer- 
tificate from "Union Church," Tennessee and a letter was later issued (no 
date available) recommending him to "Pres. Ch. in Oregon." The 1860 
Census for Marshall County, Tennessee lists Esther Hall, 47 (Farmer); Mar- 


Eliza Kenyon added, "Bethel, N. S.," behind Harry Hall's name. 
Bethel was his home church in Tennessee. "N.S." probably stood 
for "New School," suggesting that his home church was affiliated 
with the New School Assembly of the Presbyterian Church rather 
than the "old." Prior to 1869, this made some difference. There 
were, up to that time, two General Assemblies of the Presbyterian 
Church, one styled the "New School" and the other the "Old 
School." They were the product of a schism in the Presbyterian 
Church which took place in 1837, the culmination of deep theo- 
logical arguments and bitter debates on the activities of church 
government. 24 In general, the New School was liberal in outlook, 
anti-slavery, and often abolishionist in its sympathies in antebellum 
days, although these elements played no part in the schism itself. 
Nor would it be proper to say that either school was strictly char- 
acteristic of any section of the country. The Old School was con- 
servative and Southern in its sympathies, tolerating and apologizing 
for the institution of slavery if not actually pro-slavery. For a 
Tennesseean like Harry Hall to have held to the anti-slavery senti- 
ments so widely espoused by the New School Assembly may have 
taken considerable personal courage in a border state during the 
Civil War. The schism was finally healed with a general realign- 
ment of the Presbyterian Church in 1869, but only at the cost of 
the permanent separation of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. 
in the South. 

garet Hall. 24; Franklin Hall, 21; Constantine. 18; Mary, 16; William, 10; 
Monroe, 8; and Hazeltine, 6, as a family unit. All are shown as born in 
Tennessee. The 1870 Census for Carbon County, Wyoming lists Harry C. 
Hall, 29, and William F. Hall, 21, both born in Tennessee. The same cen- 
sus for Labetto County, Kansas, Oswego Township, taken some months 
later, lists Esther Hall, 57; Henry Hall, 25; James Hall, 18; and William, 21, 
as a family unit all born in Tennessee. The 1880 Census for Oswego Town- 
shin, Kansas lists J. M. Hall, 28; Lulu Hall (wife), 22; Nita Hall. 4; Lena 
Hall, 8 mos.; and Esther Hall (mother), 68, as a family unit with all born in 
Tennessee except wife Lulu and the children. Also listed for this year and 
place is H. C. Hall, 39, born in Tennessee, and a growing family. If it can 
be assumed that Constantine was a middle name used for Harry C. Hall in 
1860 and Monroe a middle name used for James or J. M. Hall, then the 
Census record shows a good family continuity from Tennessee to Kansas. 
Harry C. and William F. would then have been brothers and the little sister 
Harry Hall referred to in his letter of May 17, 1871 (footnote 20 above) 
would probably have been Hazletine. Further, the records of the First 
Presbyterian Church of Oswego, Kansas show that Mrs. E. Hall, W. F. 
Hall, J. M. Hall, Miss W. (or M?) T. Hall, and Mrs. L. E. Hall became 
members of that church on February 5, 1870. W. F. Hall was dismissed 
"to Oregon" (Letter, Rev. Boyd D. Ash, Pastor, June 4, 1965). 

24. This discussion ignores a number of local and "splinter" assemblies 
such as the Cumberland which enjoyed separate existences. The present 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S., formed in 1861, is the product of Civil 
War schism. See Thompson, Ernest Trice. Presbyterians in the South, John 
Knox Press, Richmond, Virginia, Vol I, 1963, for a scholarly dissertation on 
the epochal events leading up to the Civil War. 


Then L. R. Woods and Mrs. B. F. W. Dey came forward. 
Original entries in the records of the new church would show that 
Woods had come from St. Louis and Mrs. Dey from Council 
Bluffs. 25 History is silent as to what happened to them or where 
they went later. 

Next was Mrs. Saul K. Swain. Annie Swain and her husband, a 
tailor turned hotel keeper, were the proprietors of the Railroad 
Hotel in which this Sunday afternoon meeting was taking place. 26 
This room was the dining room. He, at 42 was 1 1 years his wife's 
senior; he was from Pennsylvania, she from Ohio. 27 Their hotel 
venture would prove a failure and after another year or two, they 
too, would pass from the scene progressing onward toward an 
unknown fate. 

Thus, with the enrollment of six organizing members, the first 
step was completed. 


Actually, the job was only just started. There was much to 
be done and the Reverend Sheldon Jackson alone could imagine 
how much would fall on his own thin shoulders. Right now there 
was a myriad of details to be attended to in order to complete the 
organization of this church. 

First and most important, under the Presbyterian system of 
church government, it would be necessary to have a Session. The 
Session is composed of one or more members of the church elected 
by the members and ordained to the off be of ruling elder and 
installed by the minister. The minister is the Moderator of the 
Session. Together they assume the spiritual government of the 
church. Now, using the democratic methods dictated by the Con- 
stitution of the General Assembly, the members elected William 
C. Wilson to this honorable position, but he would not be ordained 
and installed until later when a church could be built and dedicated. 

Land for a church could be obtained from the Union Pacific 
Railroad. All of the towns along the railroad, like Rawlins, were 
laid off by the railroad company from lands granted to it in the 
Pacific Railway Act. In order to populate the land it was built 
to serve, the railroad would sell land cheaply, lay out towns, and 
make land available for the establishment of churches and schools 
in order to make the towns desirable places to live. It would take 
the railroad company 15 years to get around to issuing a deed; but 

25. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881. 

26. That the Swains were the proprietors of this hotel is inferred from 
Harry Hall's letter of May 17, 1871 (op. cit.) which indicates that Swain 
had been a failure in keeping hotel. It seems hardly likely that there would 
have been more than one hotel in Rawlins at that time. 

27. 1870 Census. 


when it finally did, it conveyed Lots 1 and 2 of Block 22, at the 
corner of 3rd and Cedar Street, to the Morris Presbyterian Church 
of Rawlins for $62.50: "said premises are hereby conveyed for 
church purposes exclusively. " 28 More importantly for a town of a 
few hundred persons 251 and six members, Sheldon Jackson could 
promise material aid for the building of a church if the members 
would pledge part of the money. 30 

Trustees would be needed to assume legal possession of the real 
estate and take on the business of raising money and building the 
church. Hall and Wilson were elected to be two of these almost 
as a matter of course. Three others were added from among those 
eager to have a church established, but not so eager as to enroll 
themselves as members; perhaps because they belonged to some 
other denomination or perhaps because they belonged to no church 
at all. The support of the Rawlins Presbyterian Church by non- 
members began early in its history and the value of their support 
over the past 90 years would be difficult to exaggerate. John Ken- 
dall, Saul K. Swain, and Perry L. Smith agreed to serve as the 
other three trustees. 

Sheldon Jackson might well have speculated on the chances of 
this organization succeeding. In Harry Hall he had a man of 
whom he could be sure. Hall already was a solid Presbyterian 
from a section of the country with a rich Scotch Presbyterian tra- 
dition. He had the makings of a community leader and had al- 
ready shown his interest in the future of the area by accepting 
appointment as County Assessor. 

Carbon County was organized originally by the legislature of 
Dakotah Territory in early 1868. After Wyoming Territory was 
appointed out of Dakotah Territory in 1868, Governor Campbell 
appointed new county officials for Carbon County to serve in pub- 

28. Carbon County Clerk and Recorder, Rawlins, Wyoming, Book "B," 
p. 34. 

29. Initial population was 2,000 according to several writers, but this 
figure can only be speculative in view of the highly mobile early population 
and lack of good statistics. A special census reported in July, 1869, shows 
that the population for Carbon County in early 1869 was only 460 and the 
county then comprised about 1 /5th. of the territory (See Larson, T. A., 
History of Wyoming, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 
1965, 619 pp.) The 1870 Census shows a population of 612 of which 86 
were military personnel. Ten years later in 1880 the population was up to 
1,451 and it has increased gradually since then with every census showing 
an increase except in 1920. 

30. PHS, SPC, rough draft letter from Sheldon Jackson to William C. 
Wilson, probably the summer of 1870: "Dear Bro. Wilson, I have been 
looking over my papers with reference to Rawlins Ch. & find the case stand- 
ing as I anticipated. I first promised the people there that a friend enabled 
me to offer thousand $ if they (citizens of Rawlins) would raise 500$." 


lie offices until general elections could be held in the fall of 1870. 
Harry Hall, accordingly, was appointed assessor. 31 

Two of the first trustees, Saul Swain and Perry Smith, were also 
county officials having been appointed to serve along with John C. 
Dyer as County Commissioners. 82 Perhaps their interest was more 
in the welfare and development of a new community rather than in 
church membership, recognizing that a church would be a good 
thing for the town. There may have been, too, an element of 
entertainment in this meeting for the organization of a church. 
Amusements were infrequent in 1869 in this remote place and an 
itinerant preacher was always sure of a warm welcome. 

It takes only two words to describe Perry Smith adequately — 
colorful adventurer. In 1869 he was the epitome of the hardy 
breed who were the really authentic pioneers of the age. He was 
born in Vermillion County, Illinois, in 1836 and in later years liked 
to recall the happenings around Nauvoo, Illinois, before the Mor- 
mons there emigrated to Utah. As a young man rumors of gold 
to be discovered in Colorado called him to the Pike's Peak region. 
With a bull team and two comrades of his own age, he crossed the 
prairie and spent a short time at the foot of the Rockies before 
returning to Illinois. The West had won his heart, however, and a 
few years later he settled in Central City, Colorado, during the days 
when it was a booming metropolis and the outstanding city in the 
Rocky Mountain region. In 1867 he took advantage of an oppor- 
tunity to contract to supply fresh wild meat to the construction 
gangs building the Union Pacific Railroad. In this he was able to 
turn his love of the outdoors and unusual marksmanship into a 
profitable enterprise. For a time he made his headquarters at 
Benton, near which place game was plentiful. He came to know 
the future site of Rawlins before the first building was put up. 
Upon completion of the railroad he returned to Rawlins to settle 
there, taking up butchering as his trade. He brought his wife, 
Elizabeth, and two young daughters, Laura (she was always 
known as Lodie) and Jennie, up from Colorado with him. He 
could have contributed much to Sheldon Jackson's cause, but his 
interest in the Presbyterian Church soon waned and he had nothing 
more to do with it. 33 

31. Rawlins Journal, February 4, 1882. County and territorial history 
can be found in standard references on the history of Wyoming. A recent 
comprehensive work is Larson's History of Wyoming, op. cit. Personal rec 
ollections of local politics attending early day elections is Judge W. L. 
Kuykendall's fascinating little autobiography. Frontier Days. 

32. Ibid. 

33. Rawlins Republican, obituary, October 2, 1928. Smith turned his 
talents to politics. He was chairman of the Board of County Commission- 
ers for several terms. He was elected to the Sixth, Seventh and Tenth Leg- 
islative Assemblies (1879, 1882 and 1888) and was appointed State Auditor 
during the period between the Seventh and Tenth Assemblies. He was 


It would not have mattered to Sheldon Jackson, had he known 
it, but his was not the first attempt to organize a church in Rawlins. 
The Reverend John Cornell, first rector of St. Matthew's Episcopal 
Church in Laramie, writing in February, 1912, recalled what was 
probably the first effort to bring religion to the town: 

"While at Laramie, started missionary work at Rawlins, April 8, 1869. 
I baptised some children there. The people seemed much interested, 
so I organized a Parish and was elected Rector and I think took some 
means to build a chapel. For this I received a very severe letter from 
Mr. Cook. He considered it was in his parish (though he had to pass 
mine to get to it) and he had started services there. I asked him if 
he considered himself responsible for it, why he did not hold service 
there, and he said, 'Don't you know I haven't the time?'. I said I did 
(not) suppose he wanted to be 'the dog in the manger', still I could 
discontinue services there if he would go. So I abandoned it. I don't 
think he found time to go and the work came to an end, though sub- 
sequently revived." 34 

Rev. Cornell also recalled the advent of the Presbyterians in 
Rawlins in a still later letter: 

"The first note I have of Rawlins is April 8. 1869. The prospects 
seemed so good, I organized a vestry. Mr. Cook thought the place 
belonged to him, so I agreed not to go there if he would look after it. 
But I don't think he found time, and the Presbyterians came in and 
built a church which I found there January 23, 1871, in which I 
officiated that Sunday after holding service in Ft. Steele the day 
before, many of the people of Ft. Steele coming to the service at 
Rawlins. There was then a Methodist chaplain (named Regan) at Ft. 

Rev. Cornell also conducted religious services during those 
eventful years of 1869 and 1870 at Carbon, Bryan, Fort Steele, 
Evanston, Medicine Bow, and Wyoming Station. Although nei- 
ther Cornell nor Jackson mention a meeting in the documents at 
hand, it is almost unbelievable that they could have failed to meet 
somewhere in their respective travels. 

Sheldon Jackson had been appointed Superintendent of the 
Presbyterian Mission for Central and Western Iowa, Nebraska, 
Dakotah, Utah, and Wyoming by the Presbytery of Missouri River 
in session at Sioux City, Iowa, on May 1, 1869.™ There was 

elected at different times both as a Democrat and a Republican (See also 
Wyoming Historical Bluebook, Bradford - Robinson Company, Denver, 
Colorado, 1946 (?), p. 177. 

34. Rev. John Cornell, letter dated February 14, 1912 quoted in Cook, 
op. cit. 

35. Rev. John Cornell, letter dated March 27. 1912 quoted in Cook 
op. cit. 

36. The following paragraphs on the activities of Sheldon Jackson during 
1868 and 1869 draw heavily from Hugh K. Fulton op. cit. Robert Laird 
Stewart op. cit. an article by Robert Laird Stewart published in the Presby- 
terian Banner, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1877 and reprinted in Hugh K. Fulton {op. 
cit.. pp. 4-6). 


nothing unusual about such an appointment. Presbyteries and 
Synods of the Presbyterian Church frequently appointed and sent 
out missionaries on their own account in those days. It was 
singular and significant that no salary or traveling expenses were 
attached to the appointment. Jackson was strictly on his own. 
However, he more than measured up to the occasion. He imme- 
diately began a survey of his field of 571,000 square miles to 
determine its needs. The needs, obviously, were not only for 
church organizations to serve the widely scattered few thousands 
of persons in this vast pastorate, but for ministers to live among 
the people and for buildings to house the church organizations. 
Most towns in the mountain west at that time had no vacant 
buildings of any size, let alone one large enough to be used for a 

From Cheyenne, in early June, 1 869, he returned to the East to 
solicit funds for church erection. In theory, the maintenance of 
ministers would be left to the local churches. Meanwhile, Jackson 
was able to recruit three able men whom he sent out on his own 
responsibility, pledging them material support. These three were 
Rev. J. N. Hutchinson to Blair, Fremont, and Grand Island, Ne- 
braska; Rev. John L. Gage to Cheyenne and Laramie; and Rev. 
Melancthon Hughes to Bryan, the Sweetwater Mines, Wahsatch, 
and Utah. On his eastern trip he secured four more seminarians 
to go west for the summer of 1869. As indications of the practical 
problems these men faced in the field, Bryan, located where the 
railroad crossed the Green River a few miles west of the present 
City of Green River, was closely similar to Benton and suffered a 
similar fate. The Sweetwater Mines apparently included South 
Pass City and Atlantic City and the promising gold mines near the 
headwaters of the Sweetwater River of Oregon Trail fame. Prob- 
lems with hostile Indians prevented continuance of the work. 

Jackson was able to return to Cheyenne in early July and organ- 
ize a church there on July 18, 1869, bringing to fruition two 
months of missionary work by Rev. Gage. According to Robert 
Laird Stewart, this church was organized with only three mem- 
bers; 37 but Rev. Kephart says that nine persons signed the peti- 
tion. 38 The Cheyenne Church was the first Presbyterian organized 
in Wyoming and Rev. Jackson was not only able to assure the 
services of ministers (John L. Gage from May to July 1869; H. P. 
Peck in October 1869; and William G. Kephart for several years 
beginning on February 1, 1870) but a church building as well. 

Two weeks later Jackson was in Helena, Montana, on August 1, 

37. Robert Laird Stewart, op. cit. 

38. Rev. Wm. G. Kephart, Stated Clerk, "A Historical Narrative of the 
Presbytery of Wyoming," probably 1872, reprinted from the Rocky Moun- 
tain Presbyterian by Hugh K. Fulton, op. cit., p. 6. 


1869, to organize a church there in the Academy with 13 members. 
Rawlins on August 8, 1869, was the second Presbyterian Church 
organized in Wyoming. Two days later, on August 10, 1869, the 
third was organized in Laramie with five members. 39 

Although the embryonic Rawlins Church would have to get 
along without a minister for the time being, the wheels were turning 
to provide a church building. Rev. Jackson agreed to arrange for 
the erection of a church building if the citizens would contribute 
$500 to the cause. 4 " Land was obtained in the townsite of Rawlins 
in the fall of 1 869 from the railroad company, and in early Novem- 
ber, William Wilson could write to Lyman Bridges of Chicago, 
dealing in building materials and ready-made houses, that the 
trustees were ready for him to begin the erection of a church in 
accordance with arrangements already made by Rev. Jackson. 41 

The building materials were supplied by Lyman Bridges at a cost 
of $950, and two men, John Brannan and William W. Adams, 
were sent out from Chicago in early December to put the building 
up. Erection took 43 days and the two workers boarded with 
Wilson during this time. By January 27, 1870 the building was 
completed and Wilson could begin to worry about collecting the 
$94 board bill for two men for 47 days each. Evidentally Wilson 
gave his boarders a bill to hand to their employers for payment out 
of their wages. 4 - 

On February 14, 1870, Sheldon Jackson figured the cost of the 
"Rawlings" church at $2,581.89 including such items as $247 for 
seats, $35 for a pulpit, $150 for the travel expenses of the workmen 
from Chicago, $10 for a cupola, and $582 for rail freight. 


March 13, 1870, was a cold stormy day with the ceaseless winds 
of the Wyoming prairie drifting snow against the windward side of 
the building and swirling it away where the gusts curled around the 
corners. The new church building was filled with townspeople and 

39. The membership rolls of the Union Presbyterian Church of Laramie 
lists six members as of August 10, 1869: Robert W. Baxter, Ellen Baxter 
(wife of R. W.), George Lancaster, Euphomia Naismith (Mrs. William 
Naismith), Eliza Stewart, and Miss S. V. Vaughn. 

40. PHS, SJC. rough draft of letter from Sheldon Jackson to William C. 
Wilson, probably summer of 1870. 

41. PHS, SJC, letter from Lyman Bridges to Sheldon Jackson, November 
16, 1869. 

42. Contract prices and work days required for erecting from Sheldon 
Jackson memorandum of February 4, 1870; date of dispatch of workmen as 
early December shown in letter of December 16, 1869 from John McEwen 
for Lyman Bridges to Sheldon Jackson; identity of workmen, details of 
board bill, and completion date shown in letter from William C. Wilson to 
Sheldon Jackson dated January 27, 1870; all in Presbyterian Historical 
Society, Sheldon Jackson Collection. 


soldiers from Fort Steele undaunted by the weather, for the dedi- 
cation of the first Presbyterian Church building erected in Wyo- 
ming Territory. 48 A neat frame building 20 by 36 feet in dimen- 
sions, it had a four-foot vestibule at the entrance and was sur- 
mounted by the ten dollar cupola. History doesn't record that the 
cupola ever contained a bell. The church could seat 110 people 
although we doubt that it could seat 1 1 people with the comfort a 
contemporary writer ascribed to it. It had three large windows on 
each side to provide light and air when the weather was fit to 
have them open. 44 

Again Sheldon Jackson stood to preach to these people, to dedi- 
cate this building to the service of God; only this time he could 
preach from a proper pulpit. He could see the fulfillment of the 
ideal conceived seven months before. Again he could see the vast 
emptiness of the land and take as his text: "But will God in very 
deed dwell with men on earth? Behold, heaven and the heaven of 
heavens cannot contain thee: how much less this house which I 
have built." (2 Chron. 6:18) recalling Solomon's prayer in dedi- 
cation of his temple. 45 

Two other items of business were taken care of during this 
service of dedication. First, William C. Wilson was ordained and 
installed as ruling elder. Then the congregation, member and 
non-member alike, solemnly resolved: 46 

"Upon this day of gladness, when the Presbyterian Church of Raw- 
lings are permitted to enter in and occupy their new house of worship, 
they would not forget that they are largely indebted for their com- 
fortable building to the generous gift ($1,000) of Mrs. Wm. E. Morris 
and Family of Philadelphia. 

"Therefore resolved that we do hereby express to them our thanks 
and as a further expression of our appreciation of their gift do name 
the building The Morris Presbyterian Chapel of Rowlings." 

The closing prayer at this service of dedication was offered by 
the Rev. Z. Regan, Methodist-Episcopal chaplain of the Army at 
Fort Steele. He would preach to this church several times in the 
months to come symbolizing, since there was now only one church 
in Rawlins and no other within a hundred miles in any direction 
and no full time minister anywhere within that area, that this 
church would henceforth be open to all ministers and all congre- 
gations, not excepting the Episcopal and Methodist congregations 
in Rawlins before they erected their own churches a decade later. 

43. Robert Laird Stewart, op. cit. 

44. Description of this first church is derived from a typescript copy of 
an application for aid addressed to the Presbyterian Board of Church Exten- 
sion, 1870, in PHS, SJC; another description is contained in the Rawlins 
Journal, June 4, 1887 including a line drawing. 

45. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881 

46. Ibid. 


Community service was its first heritage and so remains. This is 
only right because, as has been stated and will be emphasized again, 
this church has benefited immeasurably over the years from the 
support of non-members. 


The Morris gift did much to raise the indebtedness on the 
church, but it did not accomplish this fully. And in fact, the 
church would never be financially comfortable even on those one 
or two occasions when large gifts would raise the substantial part 
of indebtedness on this Morris Chapel and the stone church built a 
decade later. Of the $2,581.89 total cost of the Morris Chapel 
figured by Sheldon Jackson, $1,000 was contributed by the Morris 
Family and $688.60 was contributed by the railroad mostly in the 
form of freight charges. 47 Just after the dedication on March 13, 
1870, Harry Hall, William Wilson, and John Kendall, the remain- 
ing active trustees, applied for and apparently received $400 from 
the Presbyterian Board of Church Extension leaving a balance of 
$493.29. The pledge of $500 from the members would have 
covered this nicely, but the whole was never paid. In April 1870, 
Hall, Wilson, and Kendall wrote to Rev. Jackson: 

"We have paid in cash $200 which includes labor in painting of 
church, freight, and other incidental expenses and now labor under 
the impression that $200 will fulfill our part of the contract". 48 

Rev. Jackson agreed to accept the $200 paid for labor as a 
credit against the $500 pledge. He also agreed that $200 in cash 
reimbursed to him would satisfy him if the other $100 of the $500 
pledge would be made up by the settlement of other bills outstand- 
ing against the church including the $94 board bill still claimed by 
Wilson. In the final analysis, it is clear that Sheldon Jackson made 
up a deficit approaching $300 out of his own funds or funds con- 
tributed to him for other purposes. 

It is equally clear from the correspondance on the subject that 
Wilson was in difficult financial straits and that $94 was a con- 
siderable sum to him. 41 ' During the summer of 1870 he wrote 

47. PHS, SJC, Sheldon Jackson personal memorandum, February 4, 

48. PHS. SJC, letter to Sheldon Jackson of April 16, 1870, quoted in 
undated rough draft letter from Sheldon Jackson to Wm. C. Wilson, prob- 
ably summer of 1870: "Afterwards (after the letter of April 16, 1870) Mr. 
Hall sent me the 200 $. I answered that the 200$ would satisfy me, if with 
the other hundred they were to raise - the balance of the 500 $ - they would 
satisfy the claims among themselves including your claim. The failure was 
at Rawlings & not on my part as I paid out more for the church than I 
received from all quarters." 

49. PHS, SJC, letter from Harry C. Hall to Sheldon Jackson dated May 
17. 1870. 


two letters to Rev. Jackson seeking his aid in the matter. 50 Wilson 
even suggested that if Jackson would remit the amount due, he 
(Wilson) could and would raise the amount in Rawlins as a sub- 
scription to raise the debt. To compound the increasingly ill 
feelings, Wilson indicated that he had learned that Lyman Bridges 
had indeed paid the $94 due to Jackson as a part of the final settle- 
ment. Although we will probably never know how the matter was 
finally resolved, late in the fall of 1870, Jackson agreed to reim- 
burse $35 to Wilson as his share of the matter. 31 In any event, 
Sheldon Jackson not only organized and delivered the Rawlins 
Church, he was an important contributor of sorts. 

Even the $200 cash remittance represented the generosity of one 
man to a large extent — Harry C. Hall. Hall bemoaned the fact 
that he had been able to raise only $62 of which $40 was contrib- 
uted by John Kendall and nothing from Smith or Wilson since 
March. 52 

All of this already was or shortly was to become an old story to 
Sheldon Jackson. Robert Laird Stewart, in his biography of 
Sheldon Jackson, describes a similar case involving the Cheyenne 
church. This was completed and dedicated in July, 1870, and 
like the Rawlins church, it had been purchased from Lyman 
Bridges of Chicago. In the course of construction the mem- 
bers had the ceiling plastered at their own expense for which 
they claimed a credit against Bridges. Bridges' reaction was to 
have Sheldon Jackson arrested in Chicago in 1871 for default of 
contract and to bring a suit for $500. By a strange coincidence 
the papers in the lawsuit were destroyed in the great Chicago fire of 
1871 so that, on advice of his attorney, Jackson compromised the 
case for $300 which he had to borrow on his own credit. 53 This 
money was later refunded to him, but building a church was more 
than preaching the Gospel and inspiring local God-fearing citizens 
to action. 

Despite whatever high hopes there might have been in the Morris 
Presbyterian Chapel, things moved slowly. Of the six charter 
members listed in the petition of August 8, 1869, Hall, Wilson, and 
Kendall, in their application for church aid in the Spring of 1870, 
could claim only four, but could state that the attendance at serv- 
ices every other Sunday ran between 25 and 30. 54 The month of 

50. PHS, SJC, letters from William C. Hall to Sheldon Jackson, July 6, 
1870 and August 9, 1870. 

51. PHS, SJC, undated rough draft letter from Sheldon Jackson to Wil- 
liam C. Wilson, probably summer of 1870. 

52. PHS, SJC, letter from Harry C. Hall to Sheldon Jackson, May 17, 

53. Robert Laird Stewart, op. cit. 

54. PHS, SJC, typescript copy of application for aid to the Presbyterian 
Board of Church Extension, probably 1870. 


June saw services every Sunday with Rev. Cornell from Laramie 
preaching on the 5th; M Rev. William G. Kephart (Presbyterian) 
from Laramie on the 12th; Rev. Ruben Gaylord, a Congregational 
Missionary from Omaha, on the 19th; and a Rev. Thompson, a 
Presbyterian minister enroute from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Wash- 
ington, on the 26th. •'" 

The simple fact of the matter was that Rawlins, even in the 
days when a minister could be employed for as little as $30 to $50 
per month, was unable to support a minister on its own account. 
If a regular minister was to serve in Rawlins, aid would need come 
from some outside source. 

Again it was the influence of Sheldon Jackson that made a pulpit 
supply possible in bringing the interest and support of established 
eastern Presbyterian churches to bear on the problems of the 
newly formed western churches. A correspondent for the Phila- 
delphia Presbyterian reported the event in this way: 

"J usi at the time when these pleasant things were transpiring in this 
far Western town, a member of an I astern church had his thoughts 
largely directed to the subject of church extension, as possibly affecting 
himself. Consulting with his pastor and the members of the session, 
they too were imbued with his spirit. The result was the voting by 
the church of $1,000 yearly for the support of a missionary on the 
frontier. Bui the interest did not end here! It continued to grow, 
and ere long an additional subscription amounting to $800 was devoted 
to the same purpose with a view to adding another worker to the posts 
on the frontier. To give direction to those generous gifts, Sheldon 
Jackson was sent for and he laid — as he only could — the field and the 
work to be done before them. Ere the evening was over, they unan- 
imously voted to send a man to occupy the new church at Rawlins, 
with the understanding that Laramie, twenty (sic) miles farther east 
was to be included in his pastorate.""' 7 

According to Stewart: "this generous provision was made by 
the Brainard Church of Easton, Pennsylvania, ,,;,s and the man on 
whom the choice fell to undertake the work was Franklin Luther 
Arnold. Actually, Rev. Arnold elected to serve the Laramie 
Church, succeeding Rev. Kephart in this post, at first dividing his 
time between Laramie and Rawlins, commuting the 1 10 miles by 
rail. Later, it appears that he managed to serve the Rawlins 
church only about once a month, but in mitigation of this seeming 
negligence, it should be noted that during 1871 until July 1872, he 
also managed to supply the new church at Evanston — another 200 
miles beyond Rawlins from Laramie. This church was the fourth 
and last organized in Wyoming by Sheldon Jackson in July 1871 
in a hall over a saloon. In all probability Rev. Arnold did much 

55. Compare with page 19. 

56. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881. 

57. Robert Laird Stewart. "Sheldon Jackson," op. cit., p. 173. 

58. Ibid. 


of the missionary work leading up to the formal organization. It, 
like the others, was provided with a church building the same fall. 55 ' 
All four of the churches organized in Wyoming by Sheldon Jackson 
at Cheyenne, Rawlins, Laramie, and Evanston are still actively 
fulfilling the purpose Sheldon Jackson envisioned for them. 


Franklin Luther Arnold was the first regular pastor of the 
Morris Chapel,"" and to him belongs the credit of consolidating the 
uncertain organization feebly clinging to its existence at the end of 
its first year. Much could be written about this man in view of his 
long career as a missionary, minister, and educator. It would be 
fascinating to have known him personally as a man; to explore his 
mind and know the intimate details of his relationships with his 
contemporaries. However, at present only the rough fabric of his 
life can be described. 

He was born on September 8, 1825, on a farm at Parma, New 
York, near Rochester in the western part of the state. He was the 
fourth of seven children born to John Arnold, Jr. and Sophia Lord 
Arnold. 01 His parents were both natives of Middlesex County, 
Connecticut, - who settled at Parma sometime before 1817. John 
Arnold was a farmer; however, he had an interest, and was a lead- 
er, in both education and religion. He was elected Commissioner 
of Schools at Parma in 1817 and was one of the first deacons 
appointed in the First Congregational Church organized at Parma 
on December 2, 1 8 1 9. A sister of John Arnold, Theodocia Arnold 
Green, was a missionary to Hawaii arriving there on the Parthian 

59. Rev. William G. Kephart, op. cit., p. 7; Stone, Elizabeth Arnold, 
Uinta County — Its Place in History, Laramie Printing Co., Laramie, Wyo- 
ming, 1924, p. 141. Both of these sources agree that Jackson canvassed 
Evanston in the spring of 1871 and held a service there on April 24, 1871. 
Both sources are vague as to whether he actually accomplished the organ- 
ization of July. The credit for this may actually be due to Rev. Arnold. 

60. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1881 

61. The chief source for the following biography of F. L. Arnold is a 
long letter from his grand-daughter, Mrs. Florence A. (Glenn) Terry of 
Evanson, Wyoming. Many additional details have been drawn from the 

Oberlin College Alumni records, Oberlin, Ohio 

Thompson, George, "Thompson in Africa", D. M. Ide, Cleveland, Ohio, 

1851; privately reprinted New York, 1854; Dayton, Ohio, 1859; quoted 

in letters from Oberlin College. 
Memorial Minute, Presbytery of Utah, August 26, 1905, original in Library, 

San Anselmo Seminary, California. 
Stone, Elizabeth Arnold, op. cit. 

62. Mrs. Terry: John Arnold, Jr. was born about 1789 at East Haddom, 
Conn., and Sophia Lord was born about 1783 at Millington, Conn. Both 
had brothers and sisters. They were married in the Millington Congrega- 
tional Church on May 17, 1810. 



out of Boston in 1828 indicating that the Arnolds were not only 
believers, but doers. 

When young Franklin was eight years old, the family moved 
westward again to settle on the Western Reserve in Ohio. In 1 846 
he enrolled in the Preparatory Department of Oberlin College, 
Oberlin, Ohio. During his four years at Oberlin, he listed his 
home address as Gustavus, a village in northeastern Ohio near the 
Pennsylvania state line. Data in Oberlin College alumni records 
suggest that he started school with savings of only $55; but on the 
other hand, tuition was only $9 a year and he was able to work his 
way through by teaching, doing farm work, and working as a 
janitor. Although his scholastic record has been lost — presumably 
in a fire which destroyed the administrative records of the college 
in 1903 — it is known that the 
curriculum in the Preparatory 
Department included English 
grammar; modern and ancient 
geography; arithmetic, algebra, 
and geometry; Latin through 
Cicero; Greek; history of Greece 
and Rome; New Testament; and 
composition and elocution. The 
alumni records contain no indi- 
cation that he was ever enrolled 
in the college proper. However, 
a memorial minute prepared by 
the Presbytery of Utah after his 
death states that he graduated 
from the Oberlin College Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1850. The 
Preparatory Department was 
equivalent to a modern high 
school, although somewhat more 
advanced by modern standards, 
and was designed to train teach- 
ers. From this it can be sup- 
posed that Arnold was qualified 
as a teacher by his studies. He 
was also ordained as a mission- 
ary in 1848 and prepared him- 
self for a foreign assignment. In this way he carried on his father's 
heritage in both education and religion. 

Rev. Arnold was married to Minerva Penfield Dayton, another 
Oberlin College student, at Piqua, Ohio, on September 2, 1850.' 53 

Courtesy of Daniel Y. Meschter 

63. Oberlin College alumni records show September 23, 1850. 


They sailed together on December 10, 1850, as members of a party 
of eight bound for the Mendi Mission Station, Sierra Leone, West 
Africa under the American Missionary Association. This exper- 
ience took the lives of three of the women in this little group within 
six months. Minerva Penfield Dayton Arnold died on June 5, 
1851, of African or malarial fever and was buried with the others 
in the station cemetery. Mrs. Arnold "felt thankful for the priv- 
ilege of coming to Africa to labor for this degraded people" and 
often said "I have already been richly paid for coming to Africa." 64 

Left a young widower in Africa with his own health suffering, 
Rev. Arnold married Marie Ramsauer 6 "' on May 1, 1852, at Free- 
town, Sierra Leone. 

Marie Ramsauer was born on June 12, 1830, at Oldenburg, Ger- 
many. She was the ninth of fourteen children of Johannes and 
Wilhelmine Schulthess Ramsauer, who were natives of Switzer- 
land. 66 Johannes Ramsauer was a student and biographer of 
Henry Pestalezze, a distinguished educator, and was himself a 
noted educator. Marie, like Arnold, was a teacher. She had 
taught as a private governess for a family near Bath, England, be- 
fore coming to Africa as a teacher at the mission station. Later, 
she wrote for religious journals. 

Shortly after their marriage, the two missionaries returned to the 
United States on account of Rev. Arnold's health. It has been said 
(possibly a bit of latter day apocrypha) that he returned with a 
life expectancy of only a few months. He was not yet 30. It was 
characteristic of his strong will and determination that he would 
live until nearly 80. 

The Arnolds located first at Windsor, Ohio, in late 1852 or 
early 1853 where he became pastor of the Congregational Church 
there. Their first child, Carl Franklin, was born in Windsor. 67 
Later that same year, Marie Arnold returned to Germany on the 
first of at least two trips which she made during her years in 
America. Rev. Arnold followed her to Europe later to join her 
for the return trip. Their second child, Gottfried Herman, was 
born in Germany in 1854. 

After two years in Windsor, Rev. Arnold became pastor of the 

64. Thompson, op. cit., p. 330. 

65. Mrs. Terry: Emilie Franziska Johanna Marie Ramsauer. 

66. Mrs. Terry: Johannes Ramsauer was born at Herisau, Appenzell, 
Switzerland on May 28, 1790; Wilhelmine Schulthess was born at Zurich, 
Switzerland on July 4, 1795. 

67. Mrs. Terry lists seven children: Carl Franklin, b. March 10, 1853, 
Windsor, Ohio; Gottfried Herman, b. July 5, 1854, Barderwisch, Germany; 
Wilhelmina Marie, May 2, 1856, Rome, Ohio; Johannes Ramsauer, March 
29, 1858, Rome, Ohio; Constantine Peter, February 7, 1860, Rome, Ohio; 
Martha Elizabeth, July 8, 1862, Johnston, Ohio; August Otto, March 3, 
1865, Rome, Ohio. 


Congregational Church at Rome, Ohio, where he remained for 
about 10 years until 1865. Five more children were born here. 
Apparently the two oldest boys were reared in Germany; at least 
both had notable careers there. 

The comparison between John Arnold, the Commissioner of 
Schools, and Johannes Ramsauer, the educator and. biographer, 
and between Franklin Arnold, teacher, missionary, and minister, 
and Marie Ramsauer, teacher and religious author, suggests that 
much could be expected from their children if the laws of inher- 
itance have any validity. Certainly educated people could be 
expected to see to the education of their own children, and this 
proved to be the case. The oldest son, Carl, became Professor of 
Ecclesiastical History first at Koenigsberg and later at Breslau. 
Gottfried became a Judge of the Court of Appeals in Germany 
living in Hamburg. Johannes, or John, Arnold also followed law. 
He was Judge of the Third Judicial District Court for Wyoming 
succeeding David H. Craig of Rawlins, and prominent member of 
the Rawlins Presbyterian Church from 1885 to 1915, on this 
bench. 68 A third son who followed the law was C. P. Arnold. 
This Arnold was an attorney and virtually life-long resident of 
Laramie. He first became a member of the Union Presbyterian 
Church of Laramie on June 22, 1873 and was dismissed on Sep- 
tember 3, 1872 [sic] only to be readmitted on October 20, 1882. 
He served numerous terms as a trustee of that church and aggre- 
gated about 25 years service as an elder between 1890 and 1923. 
It is possible that he served again in this capacity before his death 
on October 2, 1943. He was a true son of an energetic and dedi- 
cated father. ,!!l Martha, better known as Elizabeth Arnold Stone 
was a writer and historian. Her book "Uinta County — Its Place in 
History" remains the definitive work on this subject and is a fine 
example of the historian's art in dealing with a local subject. 

In 1865, Rev. Arnold accepted a call to the Presbyterian Church 
of Marengo, Iowa, a small town near Cedar Rapids, where he 
remained about five years. It was at this time that he gave up his 
Congregational heritage to associate himself with the Presbyterian 
cause for the rest of his life. At the end of this pastorate in 1869, 
the Arnolds made another trip to Germany, and on their return 
moved to Laramie to take up his work there beginning on July 29, 

In physique F. L. Arnold was a giant of a man compared to the 
slight frame of Sheldon Jackson. He was something more than six 
feet tall and robust in build. Photographs show that his head was 
large and massive with a heavy forehead over deep sunk eyes. 

68. Bartlett, I. S., History of Wyoming, S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 
Chicago, 1918. 

69. Union Presbyterian Church, Laramie, Wyoming, membership rolls. 


The nose was prominent and broad. His hair was thick and dark 
during his younger years; a photograph taken on his seventy-second 
birthday shows no sign of thinning of the now whitened hair, eye- 
brows, and beard. The head was connected to heavy shoulders by 
a short thick neck so that the overall effect was not unlike a modern 
day football player in full uniform. He was emotional by nature, 
frequently brilliant but as often sinking into fits of deep depression. 
He was prone to give way to the deep emotions called forth by his 
sometimes impassioned style of preaching. 

Rev. Henry Bainton, writing in 1932, states that Arnold was a 
relative of Mrs. W. E. Morris, the benefactress and name sake of 
the Rawlins Church. 7 " Rev. Bainton's source is unknown, but 
there is no other evidence at hand either to dispute or confirm this 

Rev. Arnold began his service at the Laramie church on July 29, 
1870, and began his labors at Rawlins on August 7, 1870 almost a 
year to the day after the church was first organized. His first duty 
was to bring the congregation together and finish the uncompleted 
details of organization. Although the six organizing petitioners 
are generally respected as the charter members of the church, they 
never truly became members either by profession of faith or by 
deposition of a letter or certificate of transfer from other churches. 
Thus, technically speaking, they never really were members of the 
Rawlins Presbyterian Church. 

On September 25, 1870, William Wilson, as ruling elder, and 
Rev. Arnold, as moderator, acting together as the Session of the 
Morris Presbyterian Chapel, received five members on presentation 
of certificates. These five were Robert and Ellen Baxter from the 
Presbyterian Church of Laramie; William C. Wilson from the First 
Presbyterian Church of Summit Hill, Pennsylvania; William F. 
Hall from "Union Church," Tennessee; and Harry C. Hall from 
"Bethel Church," Tennessee. Only two of these, Harry Hall and 
William Wilson, were left from the original six. 71 

The Baxters were typical of the early settlers of the place. They 
were young and had come from elsewhere like everyone else. 
Robert was 32 and his wife 31 in 1870. 72 Both were natives of 
Scotland where the oldest of their four children, a son Robert, was 
born. The second son, John, 10, had been born in England, evi- 
dently while enroute to North America, and the two younger chil- 
dren, Alice, 7, and William, 4, in Pennsylvania. Another son, 
David Kennedy Baxter was born in Rawlins in 1870 and was the 
first child baptised in the church by Rev. Arnold at this same 
membership service. Immediately before coming to Rawlins, the 

70. Henry W. Bainlon, op. cit. 

71. France Presbyterian Church, Session Record, Vol. 1869-1) 

72. 1870 Census 


Baxters lived briefly in Laramie where they were charter members 
of the Presbyterian Church organized there on August 10. 1869 
by Sheldon Jackson. 73 

Baxter listed himself in the 1870 census as Section Foreman for 
the railroad. Son Robert found employment as a boy as a tele- 
graph messenger boy. 15 years later in 1886 he became Train 
Master at Omaha before being transferred to Cheyenne in 1 888. 74 
This was also the year that the Baxter Family removed to Alameda, 

The arrangement with Rev. Arnold, as understood by the Raw- 
lins people, called for him to divide his time equally between 
Laramie and Rawlins. From the beginning of missionary work in 
Evanston in the spring of 1871, he managed to spend part of his 
time there until he was relieved by Frederick B. Welty, a young 
divine from Pennsylvania, in July 1872. It appears that he was 
able to serve Rawlins only about once a month until the middle of 
1 874, when he accepted a call to Sidney, Iowa, in the hope that the 
change of climate and altitude would improve Marie's declining 
health. But it was already too late; she died at Omaha on August 
20, 1874 on her way to Iowa. 

Arnold was succeeded as pastor of the Laramie Church by Rev. 
William E. Hamilton who did not attempt to serve Rawlins on the 
same basis as Rev. Arnold. However, Hamilton was not long to 
avoid the problems of the Rawlins church although he was to make 
one spirited attempt. 

Sidney apparently lost its appeal for Rev. Arnold because 1875 
found him back in Evanston as the pastor of the church he had 
helped to organize. A third marriage to Eva White Brown, a 
widow with a small son of her own, ended tragically after only six 
weeks in Evanston where she died on July 1, 1875 at 35. 

In addition to serving as a minister, Rev. Arnold's talents as a 
teacher found good use as Superintendent of Schools for Uinta 
County. Thus he was able to fulfill his two great interests in life - 
the mission ministry and education. His decision to take on the 
additional labor of this position may well have been motivated 
also by economic considerations since a home mission minister was 
poorly paid at best and the small income from a non-controversial 
county office must have been welcome. 

Rev. Arnold spent 13 years in Evanston and several of his 
children elected to make it their permanent home. He was mar- 
ried for the fourth time to Hannah Ramsey in 1877, at Fairfield. 
Iowa. In October 1888 he accepted a call to the Westminster 
Presbyterian Church in Salt Lake City, Utah, from which he retired 

73. Union Presbyterian Church, Laramie, Wyoming, membership rolls. 

74. Rawlins Journal, September 1, 1888. 


in October 1898 rounding out ten years in his last pastorate and 48 
years in the ministry. However, his indominable spirit would not 
let him quit completely. He spent his last years filling and preach- 
ing from the pulpits of various denominations. In fact, he was 
active up until three days before his death from pneumonia on May 
18, 1905, a few months short of his eightieth birthday. 

His funeral on Monday, May 22, 1905, in the First Presbyterian 
Church of Salt Lake City, of which he was a member at trie time 
of his death, is an indication of the esteem in which he was held. 
No less than eight ministers representing five different denomina- 
tions took part in the service. He was buried in Mount Olivet 
Cemetery as was his widow, Hannah Ramsey Arnold, who survived 
until 1922. 

One name in the Register of Communicants of the Morris Chap- 
el at the time that Rev. Arnold received the first five members on 
September 25, 1870, is conspicuous by its absence. Harry Hall in 
his letter of May 17, 1870, to Sheldon Jackson, discussing the 
finances of the church goes on to record: "My partner, James 
France, is South at present — will be married on the 19th. inst. and 
will reach home about the 1st. prox." 75 By "South" Hall meant 
Farmington, Tennessee, at or near his own boyhood home. The 
wedding referred to did take place and the bride and groom did 
arrive in Rawlins about June 1, 1870. In this way, history intro- 
duces two people well known in Rawlins history — James France 
from Pennsylvania and his bride, Margaret Elizabeth Ramsey 
of Tennessee. 


James France has already been referred to as the business part- 
ner of Harry Hall; but whereas Hall was to move on shortly, James 
France was to remain in Rawlins nearly all of the rest of his life. 
He became a distinguished citizen of Wyoming, widely known 
throughout the territory for honesty and enterprise. He bought 
out Hall's interest in their mercantile business in 1871 and ex- 
panded it into one of the leading if not the leading business house 
in the Territory of Wyoming. On at least one occasion his activ- 
ities involved him in one of the best known events in western his- 
tory. This is not surprising in view of the pioneering spirit and 
enterprise of his forebears. 

The genealogy of James France can be traced back to one 
Abraham Frantz. 76 The Anglization, or perhaps it would be better 
to say the Americanization, of Frantz to France appears to have 

75. PHS, SJC, letter from Harry Hall to Sheldon Jackson, May 17, 1870. 

76. The details of the genealogy of James France was provided by Louise 
Henderson Shaffer of Apollo, Pennsylvania, a great-neice of James France. 
Mrs. Shaffer also provided much information on the France or Frantz 



been adopted by James France's father prior to his death in 1855. 

Most, if not all, of his children subsequently adopted this form of 

the name. 77 

It is believed that Abraham 
Frantz was born in 1739, pos- 
sibly in Pennsylvania. The rec- 
ord appears to be somewhat 
contradictory in this respect 
since it also is believed that the 
father of Abraham Frantz was 
yet another Abraham Frantz 
who immigrated to the North 
American continent in 1848. 
However speculative this infor- 
mation is, it is known that Abra- 
ham Frantz settled in North- 
ampton County, Pennsylvania, 
which includes the present day 
cities of Bethlehem and Easton. 
He married Catherine Dorfis in 
1762 and began to raise a fam- 
ily. Eight children were born to 
them over a period of 15 years 
during which Abraham became 
both soldier and frontiersman. 
The oldest child was Jacob, who 
was born in Northampton Coun- 
ty in June 1763. Little is known 
at present about the next six 
except their names which were 

Barbara, Abram, Elizabeth, Mary, Catherine and Sarah. 

In 17 78 Abraham Frantz enrolled as a private in the 3rd Vacant 

Company of the Volunteer German Regiment formed in the spring 

Courtesy of Daniel Y. Meschter 

connection with St. Jacob's Evangelical Church. Personal experience was 
gained by a visit to South Bend, Shelocta, and Elderton on June 27, 1965, 
at which time the writer visited St. Jacob's Church and the cemetery at 
South Bend, the Presbyterian Church and cemetery at Shelocta, and the 
two Presbyterian Churches and the three cemeteries at Elderton. The 
names found in those cemeteries recall many early day Rawlins names, 
most notably France or Frantz, Armstrong, and Rankin. By a strange co- 
incidence the day of my visit, a Sunday, was the day of the 75th Anniversary 
of the present St. Jacob's Church. Some details here are from a booklet 
containing the "History of St. Jacob's Church, 1822-1965" by Mrs. Neal 
Espy. The writer is indebted to Mrs. Harold Uptegraph of South Bend tor 
her warm courtesy. 

77. The tombstone of Samuel France (died January 25, 1855) in the 
South Bend Cemetery uses "France" instead of "Frantz." This is the earliest 
indisputable use of the form found to date. 


of that year at Valley Forge under the command of Lieut. Colonel 
Lewis (or Ludwig) Weltner. 78 His military experience could not 
have been long because his youngest son Issac was born in October 
1778 and within a year or two he was located in Westmoreland 
County in western Pennsylvania. Abraham Frantz and his wife 
were killed in 1872 in an Indian raid at Hannahstown, (now 
Greensburg) less than 30 miles east of Pittsburgh. In 1782 west- 
ern Pennsylvania was close to the American frontier and was far 
more remote in its way than Rawlins was in 1869. The circum- 
stances by which Jacob at 19 and Issac, barely four, survived 
this massacre no doubt would make a tale by itself. Whether the 
other six children survived or perished would seem to be more part 
of that story than this one. 

The family, or what was left of it, seems to have remained in 
Hannahstown for the time being. Jacob married Elizabeth 
Otterman, the duaghter of another Revolutionary War veteran, in 
June 1786. They had 13 children of which at least nine lived to 
maturity. The 12th in this large family was Samuel Frantz who 
was born in June 1808. 79 

About five years later in 1813 or 1814, Jacob and his brother 
Issac moved northerly 30 miles or so into an area near the line 
between Armstrong and Indiana Counties. Jacob in particular 
became a substantial land owner along Crooked Creek at a place 
which came to be known as Frantz Mills. 80 Present day maps show 
the place as South Bend. Presumably, Samuel Frantz acceded to 
some part of the land because he spent the rest of his life in the area 
of South Bend. 

Samuel Frantz, or France, married Catherine Smith, the daugh- 
ter of German immigrants, in May 1832. 81 Between 1834 and his 

78. Richards, H. M. M., "The Pennsylvania-German in the Revolution- 
ary War, 1775-1873", Pennsylvania-German Society, Lancaster, Penna., 
1908. pp. 220, 228. Page 332 lists a Private Daniel France from Northamp- 
ton County in the muster roll of Captain Van Etten's Volunteer Company. 

79. Mrs. Shaffer; the children of Jacob Frantz were: Elizabeth, b. April 
15, 1788, m. Henry Allshouse; Abram or Abraham, b. July 20, 1789, m. 
Susannah Davis, d. 1846; John, b. April 10, 1790, m. Mary Klingensmith 
1811, d. June 5, 1854; Franzina (Fanny), b. July 4, 1793, m. Jacob Alls- 
house; Esther, b. April 4, 1795, m. John Stitt; Jacob, b. April 20, 1797; 
Sarah, b. December 24, 1798, m. Jacob Shoop or Shoupe; Maria, b. July 20, 
1800; Hannah, b. March 3, 1802, m. Jacob George; Ludwig, b. March 19, 
1804; Lewis; Samuel, b. June 25, 1808, m. Catherine Smith, d. January 25, 
1855; Polly, b. , m. Jacob Thomas. 

80. Jacob Frantz died April 18, 1832, and was buried at South Bend, 
according to Mrs. Shaffer. Elizabeth Otterman Frantz was born on April 
15, 1766, died October 12, 1852, and was buried at South Bend. 

81. Mrs. Shaffer; Samuel France died January 25, 1855 and was buried 
at South Bend. Catherine Smith France was born on November 16, 1812. 
She later remarried, to a Dr. Crum. She died January 8, 1887, and is 
buried at South Bend with her first husband. 


death in 1855 he had at least 1 1 children of which it is certain that 
the first eight lived to maturity.* 2 Six of the eight were sons and all 
of these six found occasion to seek their fortunes elsewhere to the 
west. The two oldest boys, Redding and Sanford, both settled in 
Homer, Illinois, where they engaged in the mercantile business. 

Cyrus served in the Civil War and was wounded in heavy action 
during the Battle of the Wilderness — one of the bloodiest of the 
many bloody battles of that conflict. Later, he studied medicine at 
the University of Michigan (1868-69) and graduated with an 
M. D. from the University of Philadelphia in 1871. He took 
another M. D. from the Rush Medical College of Chicago in 1876. 
He practiced medicine in Pennsylvania until May 1882 when he 
located in Pueblo, Colorado. In 1883 he moved again, to La 
Junta, Colorado. He died there on November 17, 1890, of 
pneumonia. 83 

The next son was James France born on December 25, 1838. 

J. Smith France became a dentist who practiced in Danville, 
Illinois. Smith was followed in age by two girls, Sarah and Phoebe, 
both of whom remained in Pennsylvania. Sarah lived past her 
ninety-first birthday; Phoebe lived to be 86. Longevity was a 
family trait. 

The youngest of the eight was Walker France who was born on 
December 24, 1846. Walker France moved to Rawlins about 
1 872 and his wife, Susan Armstrong France, to whom he was mar- 
ried in Elderton, Pennsylvania, on October 6, 1869, followed in 
1874 with their oldest son, Homer. In all the years he was to live 
in Rawlins he was known as D. W. (Dwight Walker), or more 
rarely, W. D.; but family records in Pennsylvania show only the 

82. Mrs. Shaffer; the children of Samuel France were: Redding, b. 
January 28, 1834, m. Elizabeth Heffelfinger on May 18, 1855; Sanford, 
b. May 4, 1835, m. Miss Labourne (the identity of this first wife is open to 
question), m. Candace Gerald; Cyrus, b. January 15, 1837, m. Jennie Coul- 
ter on July 9, 1868, d. at LaJunta, Colorado, November 17, 1890: James, 
b. December 25, 1838, m. Margaret Elizabeth Ramsey at Farmington, Ten- 
nessee, May 19, 1870, d. at Salt Lake City, Utah, August 21, 1888, buried in 
Riverside Cemetery, Denver, Colorado; J. Smith, b. November 8, 1840, m. 
Belle Babcock on May 11, 1867; Sarah Elizabeth, b. January 8, 1843, m. 
Thomas Elias Henderson, March 1, 1864, d. August 13, 1934 and interred 
at South Bend, Penna.; Phoebe, b. November 27, 1844, m. Daniel Knappen- 
berger, d. July 15, 1931, interred Knox, Penna.; Walker, b. December 24, 
1846, m. Susan Armstrong at Elderton, Penna., October 6, 1869, m. Rose 

, 1906 (?), d. Long Beach, California, April 18, 1928; Ambrose. 

b. August 2, 1851, d. November 1, 1851; Catherine Anna, b. February 27, 
1854; Noah, b. June 19, 1849, d. November 17, 1859 and interred at South 
Bend, Penna. 

83. Rawlins Journal, November 29, 1890; also undated clipping in Car- 
bon County, Wyoming, Historical Museum, possibly from the Christian 


name Walker. However, a more detailed search might shed more 
light on this point. 

This recital of the children of Samuel France seems to reveal 
something about them personally. One thing is that in the troubled 
times following the Civil War, they were posessed of the fortitude 
and vision to seek and find new lives for themselves in other places. 
We have no record of their educational advantages although there 
is some indication that Walker might have attended an academy at 
Elderton near South Bend. Certainly Cyrus and Smith had formal 
educations preparatory to professional careers and there is no 
doubt that all had considerable basic education. In any event, they 
and their progeny proved to be substantial, useful, and productive. 

Walker was followed by three more children — Noah, Ambrose, 
and Catherine Anna — none of whom seems to have lived to ma- 

South Bend, Elderton, and Shelocta, Pennsylvania, are arranged 
in a triangle with sides of about five miles. They are small com- 
munities with about 50 people in South Bend, a hundred or so in 
Shelocta, and a couple of hundred in Elderton. Scattered around 
the triangle are a number of even smaller hamlets such as Idaho, 
Girty and Brick Church. Each has its own identity, character, 
and, usually, a church. Unlike the empty vastness of the western 
prairie, roads go everywhere, homes are seldom more than a mile 
apart in any direction, the bottom of nearly every hill has a rivulet 
or stream between wooded banks, and churches abound every- 

The land is rolling hills between the many streams which drain 
into the Allegheny River to the west. In June the air is clean and 
soft; green, rolling fields of grain, and thickets of hardwoods and 
brush mantle the hills. In October one can easily imagine the 
gathered abundance of the harvest, the woods berobed in color, 
hedgerows carpeted with dried leaves, and a tang in the air to bring 
joy to the hunter's heart. But the lushness of the land is deceptive. 
The soil has lost its fertility in a century of cropping. Merchant- 
able timber is sparse. There is little employment short of the steel 
mills at Apollo and Vandergrift and the industrial cities along the 
Allegheny leading down toward Pittsburgh 40 miles away. 

It is a land with a rich history recalling Washington and Brad- 
dock and the French and Indian Wars. Near here Captain John 
Armstrong led his Scotch-Irish irregulars against an Indian en- 
campment on the Allegheny in the 1750's. In those times Pitts- 
burgh was the gateway to the west down the Ohio River from the 
confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers. This was 
both the west and the way west. 

South Bend was virgin land when Jacob Frantz and his family 
settled here in 1813. The land was rich; the soil was fertile. The 
forests yielded timber needed for the sawmills to make into lumber 
to build the growing cities. Salt brine was found in wells at Salts- 


burg and coal was abundant in the hills. A little later oil would be 
discovered in the counties to the north. The prospects must have 
been pleasant for Jacob. His fields stretched up the hill from 
Crooked Creek and he could account himself a man of substance 
in the world. There were other families in the vicinity, too, and 
there was much intermarriage between his children and his neigh- 
bor's children down to the second generation. When life's toils 
were over, many would continue to be neighbors in the little South 
Bend graveyard up that hill. 

The Frantz family heritage is loosely identified with the so-called 
Pennsylvania Dutch, probably because of Abraham Frantz's pre- 
sumed immigration from Germany and his residence in Northamp- 
ton, Pennsylvania; but not so far as is known with the strongly 
conservative and religiously strict groups such as the Moravians, 
Amish, Menonites, Bretheran, or Dunkards who are popularly 
regarded as the true Pennsylvania Dutch. They tended, rather, 
to be adherents to the Evangelical Lutheran and Reformed move- 
ments. All of Jacob Frantz's 13 children save one, for example, 
were baptized in the First Reformed Church at Greensburg. In 
South Bend as in Rawlins in 1869, a church was not long in fol- 
lowing the early settlers. In the words of Mrs. Neal Espy: 

"St. Jacob's Congregation was organized in the early eighteen twenties 
by the Rev. William Weinel. The earliest extant is that of baptisms, 
July 18, 1822, and the first Communion was held May, 1823, at which 
24 persons were confirmed and 40 members communed. 
The first church was a very primitive one, a plain log building or 
meeting house as it was called, with rude benches for pews. There 
were no stoves or heaters, not even a chimney, and in cold weather 
services were discontinued. It was common saying among the people 
that when the first cold wind blew from the north. Rev. Weinel would 
not be seen any more until the south wind returned. 
About the year 1840, the Reformed people together with the Lutherans 
erected a plain building, the material being taken from the woods 
near by. It was weathered boarded and painted white, and for some 
years went by the name, White Church. 

The first Lutheran and Reformed Church stood where the South Bend 
Cemetery is now located. They had separate times for their services. 
The relationship between the Lutherans and the Reformeds were ex- 
ceedingly cordial. The rights of each party were respected by the 
other, and they lived and labored as bretheran." 84 

This "White Church" stood on the top of a hill less than a mile 
north of South Bend. The land for the church and the adjacent 
cemetery was given by Jacob Frantz, but he died before the deed 
conveying the land could be signed. However, his son John hon- 
ored his wish and intent and deeded the land. 85 The White Church 

84. Espy, Mrs. Neal, "History of St. Jacob's Church, 1822-1965, 
phamphlet. South Bend, Pennsylvania, June 27, 1965. 

85. Mrs. Shaffer. 


continued in use until it was sold and the present church on the 
north bank of Crooked Creek completed in 1891. An abandoned 
church across the road from the South Bend Cemetery apparently 
was built by the Lutheran congregation in 1872. 

The Frances, like many of the Pennsylvania Germans, readily 
adapted to new communities wherever they went and accepted what 
ever denomination might have been available there. The records 
of St. Jacob's Reformed Church show that both Phoebe Frantz and 
James Frantz were early members. Cyrus France at the time of 
his death was a Methodist. In view of the fact that Pittsburgh 
is probably the strongest of Presbyterian strongholds in North 
America and was so at the time of the Civil War with the possible 
exception of Philadelphia, it would not have been at all surprising 
to find that one or another of the Frances had been exposed to it. 
Indeed, both Walker France and his wife, nee Susan Armstrong, 
were members of the Presbyterian Church at Elderton where they 
were married before migrating west. Sarah France, who married 
Thomas Henderson in 1864, was a member of the Elderton church 
also and was noted throughout her long life for her Biblical 

It is difficult at this distance and late date to evaluate the impact 
of the Civil War on this western Pennsylvania community. Suffice 
it to observe that South Bend, Shelocta and Elderton contributed 
heavily to Company "H" of the 54th Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers and Company "A" of the 135th Pennsylvania Infantry 
if G.A.R. markers in the several cemeteries are any indication. 
Such markers can be found in abundance and accompany almost 
every family name. Several did not survive the war, including 
Robert Armstrong, buried near Susan Armstrong's parents in the 
cemetery at Shelocta. The patriotism of the community is beyond 

James France does not appear to have played a direct role in the 
Civil War, very possibly because his diminutive stature made him 
unfit for service. 86 There were employment opportunities in west- 
ern Pennsylvania at the end of the War in the forests and oil fields; 
mule skinners and bullwhackers were in demand to supply the 
Indian agencies in the Dakotas and the growing towns beyond the 
railroads in all of the western territories; a man could always pros- 
pect for gold in the Black Hills or the Front Range of Colorado or 
work in other men's mines. This is the route that Jim and Joe 
Rankin, James France's colorful Shelocta neighbors, took on their 
way to Rawlins. 87 but they were cut from different cloth. They 
were robust men capable of action — whenever the situation called 

86. Much of the information in the following paragraphs was obtained 
in interviews with Mrs. Gymaina Whigam of Denver, a granddaughter of 
James France. 


for action — well suited to the life of the typical thick-skinned, hard- 
fighting, hard-working, brawling frontiersmen of legend. It is not 
surprising that if James France should elect to try the wild west 
that he would appear there in the form of a merchant. When and 
where he established his partnership with Harry Hall is an unim- 
portant mystery. Such partnerships could be and were formed and 
broken on short noitce. About all that was really required to 
establish a mercantile business was a supply of saleable goods, a 
tent to store them in and, incidentally, to serve as a shelter for the 
merchant, and a head for figures. Perhaps the last was the most 
difficult come by. Partners were often kindred souls who enjoyed 
each other's company as well as mutual protection. In other cases, 
partnerships were formed with one complementing the other; one 
having the goods and the other the head for business. 

James France was always proud that he had helped officiate at 
the birth of Rawlins in 1868 when he was canvassing the territory 
for business opportunities. It was a measure of his business 
acumen that he could visualize early day Rawlins as a life-long 
opportunity. While the original population may have been in 
the thousands during railroad construction, the special census of 
1869 showed only 460 in the whole of Carbon County, which at 
that time encompassed close to one-fifth of the vast territory which 
was to become the State of Wyoming. 88 By 1870, Rawlins could 
boast 612 people of which 86 were militarv personnel. Even by 
1880 the city had little more than doubled in a decade. Business 
success, therefore, was not to be measured by population statistics. 
Whatever the source of business was, he and Hall had sufficient 
confidence to erect a store building. Their business included not 
only groceries and dry goods, but some informal banking on the 
side. Credit was an essential element in doing business after the 
boom days of railroad construction had passed. The newly settled 
ranchers could not be expected to come up with hard cash before 
marketing their increase, and building large herds was slow busi- 
ness. Fortunately for these new businessmen, ranchers as far away 
as th? Bear River (now the Yampa River) in Colorado trailed their 
herds to Rawlins for shipment and could use the opportunity to 
order supplies for the year ahead. In addition, they supplied con- 
signment goods to traders along the Little Snake and Bear Rivers 
far to the south. There were Fort Steele and White River Ute 
Indian Agency vouchers to cash and supplies to ship. In another 

87. Rankin, M. Wilson, "Reminiscenses of Frontier Days, including an 
authentic account of the Thornburgh and Meeker Massacres," photolitho- 
graphed by Smith-Brooks, Denver, copyright 1935, 140 pp. Wilson Rankin 
was a cousin of the Rankins of Rawlins. His limited edition book deals 
exclusively with events with which he had personal knowledge. 

88. T. A. Larson, History of Wyoming, op. cit. 


year James France bought out Hall's interest in the business and 
Hall moved on to Kansas where his family had located. 

In 1871 James France was the almost obvious choice for post- 
master, a position he held for 14 years. He dabbled in cattle 
and invested heavily in the Seminoe Mines. He was a substantial 
owner of the Wyoming Tribune, a newspaper which was published 
in Rawlins for a few years. He engaged in a building program and 
erected a large stone building to house James France and Com- 
pany. In 1880 he divided his business, taking D. C. Adams of 
Chicago into partnership in the wholesale and retail grocery part 
of the business, while retaining the dry goods and contract business 
under his own name. 

James France has had his name written into the history books for 
several reasons including his leadership in business affairs. How- 
ever, it was the contract business that wrote his name into history 
by reason of his small role in the affairs of the White River Ute 
Indian Agency. 

In 1869 the Federal Government built an agency for the White 
River band of Ute Indians in the valley of the White River in Colo- 
rado, about 150 airline miles south of the railroad. The agency 
was established chiefly for the purpose of distributing rations and 
goods to these Indians in fulfillment of treaties by which the Utes 
ceded lands to the United States and agreed to retire to a huge 
reservation in Western Colorado. The Utes were wild, free, and 
horse-oriented. Reservation boundaries meant little to them and 
their alleged depredations throughout the Territory of Colorado 
created an issue of considerable use to the politicians of the day. 
Throughout the decade of the 1870's the attitude of the Bureau of 
Indian Affairs toward the Utes was an enlightened one, only 
slightly shattered by Custer's defeat at the Little Big Horn by the 

In the summer of 1879, James France held Interior Department 
contracts to haul the food and supplies from the railroad at Rawlins 
to the Agency on White River at $3.50 per hundredweight. 

Things were especially difficult that summer. The Utes were 
restive. Large volumes of flour, oats, and supplies were delinquent 
in delivery due to the dishonest practices of some of the earlier 
contractors so that the Indians, now partly dependent on these 
goods, knew hunger. 89 More repugnant from the Ute viewpoint 

89. Although there is an enormous number of books, articles, pamph- 
lets, speeches, oral legends, etc., ranging in quality from the scholarly to 
the inane; the subject of Indian affairs during the opening of the west has 
never been treated in its entirety in an objective manner. There are many 
reasons for this neglect including the focusing of attention on single report- 
able episodes such as the Battle of the Little Bighorn; the lack of real objec- 
tivity on the part of contemporary reporters who were either pro-Indian or 
violently anti-Indian, most of whom had little real experience with the 


were the increasingly repressive measures being taken by the 
agents in attempting to make them over into the white man's 

James France knew all of this only too well. He was in close 
touch with the situation through his men who freighted to the 
Agency, through his contacts with the Interior Department in ful- 
filling his contracts, and through considerable personal knowledge 
of the Utes gained during their frequent forays into Wyoming. He 
had delivered 1 3 tons of flour, a ton of seed wheat for planting in 
cultivated horse pasture in the White River Valley, and miscella- 
neous supplies during August, but his freighters were getting edgy 
in view of the prospect of having to make additional heavy deliv- 
eries before the onset of winter. On September 14 he sent out two 
four-mule wagons with two tons of flour in charge of inexperienced 
teamsters — the mysterious old peddler, Carl Goldstein, and a mere 
boy, Julius Moore. This was sufficient cause for worry in itself. 
Two days later he dispatched John Gordon's bull train of ten 
wagons in tandem, and thirty-three oxen with three bullwhackers 
to help John, carrying five tons of flour and a miscellany of goods 
ranging from washtubs to red flannel shirts. The next day, John 
Gordon's brother George and two drivers set out with three four- 
horse wagons carrying, among other things, a threshing machine for 
the agency together with its steam engine. Still another wagon set 
out on the eighteenth in charge of Al McCarger and his son with 
a virtual hardware store aboard, including a liberal supply of 
barbed wire which was about the last thing calculated to bring joy 
to a horse-loving Ute's heart. 

During this same summer, Nathan C. Meeker, the present agent, 
was embarked upon a determined course to bring agrarian reform 
and the joys of honest labor to the Utes by force if persuasion 
failed. All summer he had been faced with one disagreeable inci- 

problem while the few men who really knew the Indians best generally had 
serious intellectual limitations; wide dispersion of pertinent data; and prob- 
ably most importantly, the lack of expression by the Indian himself of his 
side of the matter. 

For the following paragraphs I have drawn upon accumulated reading on 
the subject including specifically M. Wilson Rankin, op. cit., William Owen, 
op. cit., and personal visits to Meeker and Milk Creek. Specific details have 
been derived from Marshall Sprague's book, "Massacre, the Tragedy at 
White River," Little, Brown and Company, 1957, 364 pp. Sprague's anal- 
ysis of the background of the Ute Indian problem is historically satisfactory 
and the whole book is entertaining reading. Another source I have used 
is a little book by Thomas F. Dawson and F. J. V. Skiff entitled "The Ute 
War." This book is interesting because it was written within weeks after 
the events described. It was originally published by The Tribune Publishing 
House, Denver, Colorado in an edition of 1,000 copies. A facsimile edition 
was prepared by Nolie Mumey, M.D. and published in 1964 by Johnson 
Publishing Company, Boulder, Colorado. The facsimile edition was limited 
to 300 copies. 


dent after another arising out of misunderstanding and Ute resent- 
ment, which was beyond his limited comprehension of the Ute 
character. Whether in apprehension for the safety of his employees 
or whether to back up his proposed plans of action, he asked for 
the presence of the military so that on the twenty-second of Sep- 
tember the road to White River became even more heavily travelled 
with the departure from Rawlins of elements of the 3rd, and 5th. 
U. S. Cavalry and the 4th Infantry under the command of Thomas 
T. Thornburgh, Commanding Officer of Fort Steele. 

The entry of troops into their reservation could mean only one 
thing to the Utes and they reacted, violently, on September 29, 
1879. Nathan Meeker and all of the white men at the Agency 
were slain in the well-known Meeker Massacre. Not so well 
known is that on that same day Thornburgh's troops were attacked 
and pinned down in Milk Creek about 25 miles northeast of the 
agency where the agency road passed through the mountains. 
Thornburgh himself was killed in the first skirmish and all of his 
officers except one were wounded. Coincidentally, the troops had 
just passed John Gordon's bull train when the attack started, and 
although Gordon lost his wagons, his oxen, and his cargo under 
fire, this fact saved his life as he and his helpers found safety in the 
rifle pits hastily dug by the troops. The other freighters were not 
so fortunate. Carl Goldstein and his youthful companion were 
killed just five miles short of the agency. John later found his 
brother George and his two helpers hideously butchered a few 
miles back up the road and his wagons and that of Al McCarger 
destroyed. Battles are not discriminating of identities. James 
France lost five employees, their wagons and cargos in his attempt 
to fulfill his contracts. 

The practical effect of the Meeker Massacre was the removal of 
the Utes out of their beautiful valley onto a much less desirable 
reservation in Utah. The land was thrown open for settlement. 
Whatever business Rawlins lost with the termination of the Agency 
was made up for by the growth of a white population in the region 
which continued to be supplied from Rawlins. 

France's last important business venture was to mature his 
informal banking business into a full fledged bank. The Banking 
House of James France opened for business in December 1881 and 
gave promise of serving an important need. 

By all accounts, James France was a gentle, sensitive, and gen- 
erous man. He could not easily have fit our modern concepts of 
the western frontier prototype. His features were finely molded 
almost to the point of being delicate. In later years a receding 
hairline gave the false impression of a high forehead. In stature 
he was short and slight of build. Possibly in compensation for this 
he affected a full length beard reaching nearly to the waist. Nor- 
mally, for work, the beard was tucked neatly inside his shirt; but 
on ceremonial occasions, it flew at full mast. His typical generosity 


extended not only to frequent gifts to his family, contributions to 
various causes, but also in affording opportunity to friends and 
relatives. The early records of the Morris Presbyterian Chapel 
give ample proof that such early day family names in Rawlins as 
Hefflefinger, Kelley, McMillen, Rankin, and others had their 
origins in the immediate vicinity of South Bend and Elderton 
where James France himself had been reared. Jennie McCul- 
lough came from there to find employment in his household. 90 
There is little doubt that these, along with his own brother Walker, 
came to Wyoming at the behest, and likely the assistance, of James 
France. Both Walker France and D. C. Kelley were employees of 
his. James Hefflefinger probably was an employee also and may 
have been related by marriage. After a banking business was 
established in 1881, he arranged for his nephew, Harry B. 
Henderson, (son of his sister Sarah), to join him in this business. 

All of his business enterprises except the last can be considered 
in retrospect as reasonable successes. 91 He was a wise business- 
man giving his best efforts to every project he undertook. Above 
all, his honesty was unquestioned and in later years his personal 
integrity stood up in the courts on the occasions when his reputa- 
tion, laboriously built up in almost 20 years of business, hung in 
the balance. While he was always reasonably successful in busi- 
ness and achieved a good measure of wealth for the community of 
which he was so much a part, he probably never was half as 
wealthy as popular opinion held. Even so, he had his share of 
disappointments and losses. Perhaps his generosity and almost 
childlike trust in his employees and associates were his worst faults. 
He was noted for liberality of credit in his business dealing. Mod- 
erate prosperity and a reputation above reproach appear to have 
been his goals in life, and in this respect he was eminently 

Unlike many businessmen then and now, his was a retiring 
personality. He mingled but little in public affairs although he 
accepted public office and positions of trust from time to time 
because, it seems, of a sense of duty in the interests of the com- 
munity. Perhaps the highest office he attained was the Territorial 
Council of the Legislature to which he was elected as a Republican. 
He served only one term, that being in the Fourth Legislative 
Assembly, which met in November, 1875. 92 

(To be continued) 

90. 1880 Census. 

91. The story of James France in later years is beyond the time scope of 
this part of this history. 

92. Wyoming Historical Bluebook, op. cit. 

Mot Weather Kules 

1 . Load lightly, and drive slowly 

2. Stop in the shade if possible 

3. Water your horse as often as possible. So long as a horse is 
working, water in moderate quantities will not hurt him. But 
let him drink only a few swallows if he is going to stand still. 
Do not fail to water him at night after he has eaten his hay. 

4. When he comes in after work, sponge off the harness marks 
and sweat, his eyes, his nose and mouth, and the dock. Wash 
his feet but not his legs. 

5. If the thermometer is 75 degrees or higher, wipe him all over 
with a wet sponge. Use vinegar water if possible. Do not 
turn the hose on him. 

6. Saturday night, give a bran mash, cold; and add a tablespoon- 
ful of saltpetre. 

7. Do not use a horse-hat, unless it is a canopy-top hat. The 
ordinary bell-shaped hat does more harm than good. 

8. A sponge on top of the head, or even a cloth, is good if kept 
wet. If dry it is worse than nothing. 

9. If the horse is overcome by heat, get him into the shade, re- 
move harness and bridle, wash out his mouth, sponge him all 
over, shower his legs, and give him four ounces of aromatic 
spirits of ammonia, or two ounces of sweet spirits of nitre, in a 
pint of water; or give him a pint of coffee warm. Cool his 
head at once, useing cold water, or, if necessary, chopped ice, 
wrapped in a cloth. 

10. If the horse is off his feed, try him with two quarts of oats 
mixed with bran, and a little water; and add a little salt or 
sugar. Or give him oatmeal gruel or barley water to drink. 

1 1 . Watch your horse. If he stops sweating suddenly, or if he 
breathes short and quick, or if his ears droop, or if he stands 
with his legs braced sideways, he is in danger of a heat or sun 
stroke and needs attention at once. 

12. If it is so hot that the horse sweats in the stable at night, tie 
him outside. Unless he cools off during the night, he cannot 
well stand the next day's heat. 

These Rules are prepared by the Boston Work-Horse Parade 
Association, whose office is at 15 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 
Copies of the Rules will be sent free on application. Our Office 
open throughout the year. 

Henry C. Merwin, President 
Lewis A. Armistead, Secretary 

From a poster circulated in the early 1900 's. 



frontier Powder River Mission 

Burton S. Hill 

Captain W. F. Raynolds, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, 
assigned the duty as topographical engineer to explore the Yellow- 
stone Country, went into winter quarters at the Deer Creek Indian 
Agency in October of 1859. He was there cordially greeted by 
Major Thomas S. Twiss, the Indian Agent, and assigned some of 
the unused Mormon houses abandoned by them at the outbreak 
of the Mormon War in 1857. Not only was Captain Raynolds 
comfortably housed, but conveniently so. Only three miles down 
Deer Creek, on the Oregon Trail adjacent to the Platte, was a Pony 
Express stop and the Deer Creek stage station. And, while the 
Captain was a guest at Deer Creek, a post office was established 
at the station. Also, in the close vicinity was the trading house of 
Joseph Bissonette and Company, doing a thriving business with 
the emigrants passing along the Oregon Trail. It will be of interest 
to mention that the Deer Creek Station was just east of Glenrock, 
Wyoming, in what is sometimes known as the Glenrock Park. 

Soon after his arrival at the Deer Creek Agency, Captain Ray- 
nolds became acquainted with German Missionary Moritz Braeun- 
inger, and his missionary companions, Schmidt and Dosderlein, 
with Seyler as helper, and two colonists, Beck and Bunge. They 
were on their way to establish a mission among the Crows in 
Absaraka, but had also taken up winter quarters at Deer Creek. 
Like Captain Raynolds and his forces, they were guests of Agent 
Twiss, and quartered in one of the Mormon houses. Sent out by 
the German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Iowa, they were de- 
voted and dedicated men, but with little knowledge of the ruthless 
and vengeful Indian country. And, able to speak only German 
with facility, they were particularly handicapped. But. with winter 
closing in, they were exalted at the proposal of Agent Twiss to 
remain at Deer Creek during the cold months. He assured them 
that with the coming of spring they would have a much better 
opportunity of reaching Absaraka, which they would have to 
reach by traversing the territory of the hostile Sioux and Chey- 

In visiting with Braeuninger, Captain Raynolds learned that the 
supplies and provisions of the missionaries were all but exhausted, 
and that their situation was really serious. He realized that as 
conditions were, they would not be able to proceed in the spring. 
This he communicated to the guileless Braeuninger, who up until 
then did not appear to have been concerned. However, when it 


became evident that the missionaries were determined to work it 
out, Captain Raynolds offered the necessary assistance, which was 
accepted. When this was reported to the Iowa Synod, the Captain 
was repaid in full, with the sincere thanks and appreciation of the 
governing body at home. 

As weeks passed the Christmas season was approaching and the 
missionaries were preparing for it. At the appropriate time 
Braeuninger communicated his plans to Captain Raynolds. He 
and his staff were invited to a service to be held Christmas Eve 
at the quarters of the host. Agent Twiss and his family were also 
invited, but it does not appear they attended; although there was 
quite a number of Indians who did. They had been hand picked 
by the Major. For that era, the most unusual thing about this 
celebration was the presence of a Christmas tree glowingly lighted 
with an array of candles which had been affixed to the branches. 
Prior to Christmas Eve some of the missionaries had sought out a 
suitable spruce tree, which they had chopped down and brought to 
their quarters. Nothing had been said about a Christmas tree, so 
it was a pleasant surprise for everybody. Even the Indians showed 
their good will and gratitude. During the evening Braeuninger 
read from the scriptures, and the group sang the well known Christ- 
mas songs accompanied by Braeuninger on the violin. Unfortu- 
nately, Captain Raynolds and his staff could not always join in the 
singing since most of it was done in German. Whether refresh- 
ments were served or gifts exchanged has not been recorded, but 
probably not. At Deer Creek living was simple, and presents hard 
to come by. Yet, it is certain that the occasion was enjoyed, even 
by the Indians. As far as it can be determined, this was the first 
Christmas celebration is what in now Wyoming. 

Since it had now become evident to Braeuninger that additional 
funds and equipment were going to be needed to set up a mission 
in Absaraka, after Christmas new plans were formulated. The 
mission in Bavaria had sent funds for the project in the Crow 
Country, but that clearly was not sufficient. Accordingly, it was 
decided that Schmidt and Doederlein should return to Iowa to 
equip a second train and return to Deer Creek in the Spring. But, 
finally home, Schmidt became ill and could not return, and Doeder- 
lein joined the Missouri Synod. 

In spite of all their disappointments and setbacks, in the spring 
of 1 860 the group remaining started their lonely northward trek. 
It is not exactly known just what route they took or the course of 
their wanderings, but after traveling what they considered to be 
about a hundred miles they approached the banks of Powder River. 
Jubilant in the belief that they had reached Absaraka, the home of 
the Crows, they little knew that in reality they had only gained the 
heart of the hostile Sioux country. At all events, they crossed the 
river and selected a site for the mission, where the ground was level 
on the river bottom, and the grass was thick and luxuriant. Here 



they erected a house and sank a well for drinking water, and later 
plowed a plot of the rich soil to plant seed for the fall harvest. 
Some thirty years later this well was discovered by ranchers in the 
vicinity, as were the charred remains of the mission house. There 
was also evidence of the plowed area on the west bank of Powder 
River opposite the confluence of Dry Fork and that stream. In 
1863 this point was selected by John M. Bozeman for his crossing 
of the Bozeman Trail, and nearby, in 1876, General George 
Crook's Indian expeditionary forces laid out Cantonment Reno, 
famed in the annals of the West. Of late years much search has 
been made for the mission location, but after a century no traces 
can be found. 

When the missionary group was finally located, Braeuninger 
wrote a full report to the Mission Board, and made a pencil sketch 
of the mission house and nearby scene. In his report, two addi- 
tional missionaries were requested, since Bunge wanted to resign. 
With reluctance he was taken to Deer Creek. After Braeuninger's 
report reached the Board, much satisfaction was expressed at the 
accomplishments on Powder River, and a call went out for the two 
recruits. Highly dedicated men, whose names were Flachenecker 
and Krebs, readily accepted the call, and immediately completed 
preparations for their long journey. At Scotts Bluff, now a Nation- 
al Monument near Scottsbluff, Nebraska, a man addressed the two 
missionaries by name and invited them in as his guests for a free 

Inside, the man said he realized that the two did not recognize 


Courtesy of Burton S. Hill 



him, but that he was Bunge. He was not readily recognized be- 
cause of the beard he was wearing. His friends had never seen 
him with one. He told of his experiences on Powder River, and 
how he had resigned as colonist. He explained how he reached 
Scotts Bluff, and had remained as cook at the stage station. 

In the meantime, on Powder, the Sioux frequently visited the 
mission, and at first seemed quite friendly. But, as time went on 
they became more independent and arrogant. One day when the 
missionary group did not immediately comply with their desires, 
they threatened to shoot. Nothing came of this threat, but a few 
days later a large war party did arrive, bristling with hostility. 

One of their number carried an 
old blanket which he wanted to 
trade for a new one. When 
Braeuninger attempted to re- 
monstrate, the Indian snatched 
up a new blanket, tore it in two, 
and threw his old one on the 
ground. He then hotly an- 
nounced that he considered it 
to be a fair trade. Braeuninger 
did not immediately reply, but 
placed his hand over his mouth, 
meaning in sign language thai 
he had nothing to say. How- 
ever, realizing his people were 
outnumbered, and that resist- 
ance would be futile, he reluc- 
tantly told the Indian to keep 
the blanket. Soon afterwards 
the chief of the band and his 
party, showing signs of friend- 
liness, approached the mission 
with the blanket. The chief said 
he had come to return it and 
that he wanted his people to act 
decently toward the whites, 
which he knew they had not 
done. A very agreeable visit 
followed, but this party had 
scarcely moved away when another group of six approached on 

The six visitors were taken to be Sioux, but not warlike. The 
missionary group served them three meals before they departed 
upstream to be with the Snake Indians. As soon as they were out 
of sight, which was toward evening, Beck and Braeuninger went 
out to bring in the cattle. After a time, Beck returned with the 
stock, but without his missionary companion who had become 

Courtesy of Burton S. Hill 


(Picture taken in Germany) 


separated from him. When Beck asked the whereabouts of 
Braeuninger, Seyler said he was not there, and did not know where 
he was. But, he was convinced that the six visitors, who had 
departed just before the search for the cattle, had come to the 
mission with an evil intent. 

When Braeuninger did not return that night, his two companions 
spent the following two days in a futile search for him, or his 
remains. When no trace could be found, it was concluded that 
the Indians had murdered him and concealed his body. Since only 
Ssyler and Beck were left of the original six, they became assured 
that other plans would be requisite. They recalled several days 
earlier when Braeuninger had said they would be unable to remain 
unless their number could be brought up to 15 or 20 men who 
could throw up embankments and defend themselves. 

Since it was evident that Braeuninger had been right, and that to 
remain on Powder would only mean their destruction, they decided 
to leave for Deer Creek without delay. There they could obtain 
further instructions from the Mission Board. While Missionaries 
Flachenecker and Krebs were still at Scotts Bluff enjoying the 
hospitality of their former companion Bunge, the stage driver 
coming from the west brought the news of Braeuninger's death on 
Powder River. In attempting to decide their next move, Bunge 
suggested that at the next station, 1 50 miles further on, they would 
find an Alsatian named Henry who could speak German as well as 
French, and who might be able to give them full particulars. On 
the chance that Henry would have helpful information, Flache- 
necker and Krebs climbed aboard the stage going west. Without 
serious incident they finally reached their designated station and 
there met the Alsatian whose name was Henry. They also met a 
number of Frenchmen playing cards, and one who had just arrived 
from Deer Creek. In French, Henry interviewed these gentlemen 
concerning the murder of Braeuninger, and the whereabouts of 
Seyler and Beck. He learned that the leader had lost his life on 
July 23, 1860, and that the other two had reached Deer Creek 
unharmed. All this Henry relayed to Flachenecker and Krebs in 
German. With this first-hand information the two missionaries 
agreed that they should reach Deer Creek as soon as possible, and 
were again boarded on the stage headed in that direction. When 
there, they went at once to the headquarters of Agent Twiss, and 
learned that their companions were housed in the same dwelling 
they had occupied the year before, and until their departure in the 

At a meeting with Flachenecker and Krebs, Seyler and Beck who 
had been awaiting recall, now believed that with four missionaries 
in the field other arrangements could be made. This turned out 
to be the case. When the Mission Board members learned of 
Braeuinger's death they were, of course, much disturbed, since he 
had been a worthy, dedicated and trustworthy leader. But they 



concluded this should not be the end. After intensive deliberation 
the Synod directed the four workers to stay on at Deer Creek and 
there erect and maintain a Mission. They were instructed to be on 
the alert for the friendly Crows, should they appear, but to con- 
tinue the missionary work with any of the Indian tribes who would 
receive it. 

Courtesy of Burton S. Hill 


Actually, the German Lutherans were not altogether new in 
the field. Organized at St. Sebald, Iowa, on August 24, 1854, by 
members from Bavaria, thought was then given to missionary work 
among the Indians. With the possible teachings of Father P. J. 
DeSmet just prior to 1851 and afterwards, little effort of the kind 
had ever been attempted among the tribes of North America. 
After their organization at St. Sebald, the German Lutherans had 
failed in two attempts to establish missions among the Canadian 
Indians, but Pastor Schmidt was not yet ready to give up. While 
in Detroit in 1858 he became acquainted with a man named Red- 
field who was then Indian Agent for the Crow Tribe along the 
Yellowstone and Big Horn rivers. After some negotiations Agent 
Redfield consented that Moritz Braeuninger and Pastor Schmidt 
should accompany him upon his next trip among the Crows. It is 
evident that the Synod had explicit faith in these two very dedi- 
cated men, and particularly in Braeuninger, an acknowledged 
leader, who was later to give his life to the cause he believed in so 
thoroughly. The two thus chosen by the Synod lived with the 
Crows all during the summer of 1858, but returned to St. Sebald in 
November bringing a favorable report. It was then decided that 
the Lutheran Mission Board should found a colony in Absaraka, 
the land of the Crows. Just why Deer Creek was selected as a 
starting point has never been satisfactorily explained, but in the fall 
of 1859 Braeuninger, and his five followers there became acquaint- 
ed with Captain W. F. Raynolds of the U. S. Topographical Engi- 
neers, who gave them help and advice. It is obvious that a starting 
point some place in the Yellowstone Country would have been 
more advantageous and less precarious, but the Synod may have 
had its reasons. At all events, in the fall of 1860, Flachenecker, 
Krebs, Seyler and Beck were at Deer Creek ready to launch a fifth 
attempt at missionary work among the Indians. It appears that 
later they were joined by Pastor Matter. This time, however, 
their headquarters mission remained at Deer Creek, from whence 
they visited all the tribes, including the Crows. 

This fifth attempt turned out to be quite a success. However, 
the accomplishments of the missionaries were the greatest among 
the Cheyennes, whose language they learned and whose ways of 
life they came to well understand. These devoted and dedicated 
men traveled at will among the different Cheyenne tribes and were 
always welcome. They were not only able to converse with these 
Indians in their own language, but they were able to teach many of 
them the Word of God. One of their trips in the Indian Country 
was of particular interest since it brought them in the neighborhood 
of the earlier mission station erected on Powder River. But, at 
the time there was little left. One of the accomplishments of these 
five missionaries was the education and training of three Indian 
boys they called Paul, or Paulus, Gottfried and Fred. Gottfried 
and Paulus died in 1865 at St. Sebald, where they were buried in a 


small country cemetery. Later a monument was erected to their 
memory, as well as to Moritz Braeuninger, and all the Deer Creek 

Just how long the German Lutherans did missionery work in the 
Powder River Country has never been exactly fixed. But, from 
the record of events it appears they were there as late as 1865, 
irrespective of the many depredations being committed by the 
Indians along the Oregon Trail and open warfare in most of the 
area. During those years history does not record much missionary 
work in that untamed territory. 

Acknowledgement: The source of this article from the copious notes 
and writings of the late Howard B. Lott, a well known historian of Buffalo. 
Wyoming. Some thirty years ago he was in correspondence with Professor 
George J. Kritschel, of Dubuque, Iowa, at one time Curator of the German 
Lutheran Church Records of the Iowa Synod. The account of the Powder 
River Indian Mission, and allied Indian Mission efforts, had appeared in the 
Kirchenblatt, a church publication, but had never before appeared outside 
of the Church publications. For Mr. Lott, Professor Kritschel translated 
the appropriate records from the German text of the Kirchenblatt, contain- 
ing a full account of the German Lutheran Mission among the Crows and 
Cheyennes. The accompanying pictures were also furnished by Professor 
Kritschel. Upon the death of Mr. Lott, his widow, Emily B. Lott, gener- 
ously provided the writer with this material. The official report of Captain 
W. F. Raynolds was also used. 

$15,000 Reward. On the night of 25th August, Wells Fargo 
and Co.'s Overland Mail Coach was stopped and robbed on Bitter 
Creek at a point about seven miles west of Laclede of a large 
amount of bullion. By four men, partially described as follows: 
One, quite a young man of thin visage. Two men with small feet 
wearing boots with very small pointed heels. The other had on 
boots with large heels, run down on one side. To any party or 
parties procuring the arrest of the perpetrators of this robbery and 
recovery of the bullion a reward of Fifteen Thousand Dollars ! 
will be paid or a fair proportion thereof for any one of the robbers 
or any portion of the treasure. Wells Fargo and Co., Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, August 27, 1868. 

Advertisement in the Cheyenne Daily Leader, October 17, 1868 

Zke greatest Kide 
in Wyoming Mist or y 

Francis A. Barrett 

The winter of 1866 was full of bitter days for the garrison at 
Fort Phil Kearny. 1 This outpost on the Little Piney in northern 
Wyoming was isolated by blizzards and embattled by the Sioux 

The department commander in Omaha, Gen. Phillip St. George 
Cooke, advocated an open battle with the Indians during the win- 
ter. Although the Commander at Phil Kearny, Col. Henry B. 
Carrington, was a cautious man, he nonetheless intended to employ 
this strategy of "surprise and extermination" as soon as reinforce- 
ments arrived. 2 

Among the newly arrived officers at Kearny was young Capt. 
William J. Fetterman. He, along with many of the other less 
experienced officers and enlisted men, was full of recklessness and 
bravado. Although the Sioux were fighting with their lives to 
preserve their hunting grounds, Fetterman was known for his confi- 
dent assertion that "with 80 men, I could ride through the Sioux 
nation." 3 

Thus, on a cold, clear day, December 21, 1866, a detachment of 
81 men under Fetterman's command left Fort Kearny with clear 
orders to "give support" to a wood train under Indian attack and 
to return to the fort. There was an additional order from Col. 
Carrington: "Under no circumstances must you cross Lodge 
Trail Ridge." 4 For there, the colonel was certain, Indians had 
been gathering for attack or ambush. 

Two Moons, a Cheyenne at the scene, described the Indian 
strategy: "The Indians attacked the wood train and then, when 
Fetterman's command came out, they sent a few Indians, mounted 

1. Named after Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny, killed 1 Sept. 1862 at the 
battle of Chantilly, Va. (Heitman, Francis B., Historical Register and 
Dictionary of the U. S. Army, 1789-1903, Vol. I, 1903) 

2. Hebard, G. R., and Brininstool, E. A., The Bozeman Trail, The Arthur 
H. Clark Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1922. Glendale, Calif., 1960. 

3. Brown, Dee, Fort Phil Kearny: An American Saga, G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, New York, 1962. 

4. Ibid. 



on their best ponies, to decoy them into the hills." 5 Among the 
individual Sioux and Cheyenne warriors who risked their lives to 
lure the soldiers into the trap were several who, during the next 
decade, would become famous chiefs: Crazy Horse, Dull Knife, 
Black Shield, Big Nose, White Bull. ,! Fetterman followed up the 
crest of Lodge Trail Ridge and nearly 2,000 Indians swarmed in 
from all sides," including Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Sioux, Ogalalas. 
Under Red Cloud, they attacked with ferocity. s 

In thirty minutes, the firing was over, the battlefield indescrib- 
able with not a living man or animal. Most of the men were taken 
alive and tortured to death - only six killed by bullet. At the end, 
the Fetterman Disaster stood as one of three battles in American 
history from which came no survivors. (The others: Custer on 
the Little Big Horn 1876; Crocket at the Alamo 1836) 1 ' 

For those left at Fort Kearny, the outlook was bleak. Indian 

Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 
M. D. Houghton sketch 


5. Hebard and Brininstool. 

6. Brown. 

7. Appleman, Roy E., Great Western Indian Fights. Members of the 
Potomac Corral of the Westerners, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, 
1960. Chapter 10, "The Fetterman Fight." 

8. Red Cioud claimed to have directed the fighting but several Indians 
indicated that he was not present. But the ambush, which incidentally, was 
carefully rehearsed, was the fruition of Red Cloud's long summer campaign 
of harassment.^ 

9. Hebard and Brininstool. 


attack in overwhelming numbers was likely; the remaining de- 
fenders were reduced to 20 rounds of ammunition per man; a 
blizzard was storming in from the Big Horns; the nearest help was 
Fort Laramie, 236 miles away. 

Col. Carrington made known the desperate problem at hand and 
the necessity of some one riding to Fort Laramie for help. John 
"Portugee" Phillips volunteered. As a matter of fact, he was re- 
ported to be the only volunteer. 10 

John Phillips, born on the isle of Fayal in the Azores, of Portu- 
gese parentage, landed on the Pacific Coast as an immigrant and 
worked his way east as a prospector. He with several others had 
come to Fort Phil Kearney as employees of contractors and the 
Post Quartermaster. On the morning of the disaster, he had been 
operating a water wagon. 

As later related by Col. Carrington, 11 "John Phillips, used to 
frontier life, the wiles of the Indians and convinced that utter 
destruction awaited the command unless relief were promptly 
obtained, volunteered his services as "despatch bearer" to Ft. 
Laramie". 12 The "despatch" from Col. Carrington was as follows: 

FORT PHIL KEARNEY,^ D.T., Dec. 21, 1866 - (By courier to 
Fort Laramie) - Do send me reinforcements forthwith. Expedition 
now with my force is impossible. I risk everything but the post and 
its store. I venture as much as anyone can, but I have had a fight 
today unexampled in Indian warfare. My loss is ninety-four, 81 killed. 
I have recovered forty-nine bodies and thirty-two more are to be 
brought in in the morning that have been found. Among the killed 
are Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Fetterman, Captain F. H. Brown and 
Lieutenant Grummond. 

The Indians engaged were nearly three thousand, being apparently 
the force reported as on Tongue River in my dispatches of the 5th of 
November and subsequent thereto. This line, so important, can and 
must be held. It will take four times the force in the spring to reopen 
if it be broken up this winter. I hear nothing of my arms that left 
Fort Leavenworth September 15; additional cavalry ordered to join 
have not reported their arrival; would have saved as much loss today; 
the Indians lost beyond all precedent; I need prompt reinforcements 
and repeating arms. I am sure to have, as before reported, an active 
winter, and must have men and arms; every officer of this battalion 
should join it today. I have every teamster on duty, and, at best, one 
hundred and nineteen left at the post. I hardly need urge this matter; 
it speaks for itself. Give me two companies of cavalry, at least, forth- 
with, well armed, or four companies of infantry, exclusive of what I 
need at Reno and Fort Smith. I did not overestimate my early appli- 
cation; a single company, promptly, will save the line; but our killed 

10. Russell Thorp, Letter of February 27, 1956, to Wyoming State Ar- 
chives and Historical Department. 

11. Affidavit of Henry B. Carrington, U. S. Army. 

12. It must be realized that this statement was made in behalf of a 
special bill to give relief to Hattie Phillips, widow of John Phillips. 

13. A common misspelling that persisted for many years. See foot- 
note 1. 


show that any remissness will result in mutilation and butchery beyond 
precedent. No such mutilation as that today on record. Depend on 
it that this post will be held so long as a round or a man is left, 
promptness is the vital thing. Give me officers and men. Only the 
new Spencer arms should be sent. The Indians desperate and they 
spare none. 

Colonel Eighteenth Infantry, commanding. 

Before agreeing to the ride, John Phillips made one condition; 
that he be allowed the pick of any horse at the fort. He chose a 
thoroughbred belonging to the commanding officer, Col. Carring- 
ton. Accounts differ as to how the colonel took this selection. 
Some reports indicated that Col. Carrington was bitter over the 
selection of his favorite animal. 14 George Lathrop, a government 
teamster at the post said "the old man got pretty sore when Phillips 
insisted on taking his horse." 1 "' However, another eyewitness 
recorded that the colonel "quickly complied" with Phillips' wish. 16 

Frances Grummond 17 was also at the Fort. She, the bereaved 
widow of Lt. George Grummond, killed that very day in the Fetter- 
man Disaster, had an interesting visit from John Philiips before his 
departure on the "ride." 18 He brought her his wolf skin robe, paid 
his respects and although he had never met her before, said, "For 
your sake I am going to attempt to bring relief from Laramie. I 
may not get through the Indian lines, but in case I fail, I want you 
to keep this robe as a slight remembrance of me." Perhaps he felt 
it his duty to protect Mrs. Grummond and her unborn baby. 

So John (Portugee) Phillips made his preparations; biscuits for 
himself, a quarter sack of oats for the horse. John C. Brough, an 
enlisted man in the Second U. S. Cavalry, was walking the beat: 19 
"Pretty soon we saw two men walking toward us, their heads close 
together, seemingly in earnest conversation and one of them leading 
a horse. When they got within twenty or twenty-five feet, I put 
myself in position and prepared to challenge, when the Sergeant 
said 'Attention! It's the Commanding Officer!' General Car- 
rington 2 " interrupted and said, 'Never mind, Sergeant, open the 
gate!' " According to Brough's account, following the conversa- 

14. The Colonel's horse "Grey Eagle" was probably not the horse chosen 
by Phillips since reference is made to his using this horse the following day. 

15. Russell Thorp. Letter. 

16. Carrington, Frances C, Army Life On The Plains, J. B. Lippincott 
Co., Philadelphia, 1910. 

17. After the death of Lt. Grummond, Frances lived with Col. and Mrs. 
Carrington. Following the death of Mrs. Carrington, Frances married the 

18. Carrington, Frances. 

19. Ostrander, A. B., "John Phillip's Ride," Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 

20. Reference is to a later promotion. 


tion, one man mounted the horse and the other, General Carring- 
ton, took his hand and said "May God help you." 

It was near midnight with a blizzard bearing down from the Big 
Horn Mountains, the temperature 30 to 40 degrees below zero, 
the ground covered with snow, drifting up to four and five feet. 

As John (Portugee) Phillips and his horse left Fort Phil Kearny, 
those at the post listened to the quickly disappearing hoofbeats. 
Colonel Carrington remarked, "Good! He has taken softer ground 
at the side of the trail." Thus began the greatest ride in Wyoming 

It was a ride of 236 miles, through snow and bitter cold, 21 over 
territory endangered with Indians. 22 How did he do it? It was, 
according to Frances Grummond Carrington, 23 "intensely simple" 
as was later related to her and others by John Phillips. He rode 
parallel to the Bozeman Trail. Later, when asked if he stuck close 
to the trail, John replied: "Hell no! More'n once I was more'n 
ten miles off the trail." In a talk with Capt. Proctor at Fort Reno, 
he said he left the trail at Buffalo Wallows and "came around" 
five miles south of the "Forks" (Crazy Woman's) and then to 
Fort Reno. 24 

He usually traveled at night and hid with his horse in the thickets 
from dawn to dusk in order to escape the notice of the Indians. He 
fed his horse oats and tree bark and ate biscuits himself. He 
passed through Fort Reno alone, stopping to rest himself and his 
horse. His immediate destination was Horseshoe Telegraph Sta- 
tion some 190 miles south of Fort Kearny. Just before arriving, 
he was pursued by Indians but with his strong horse, he rode a 
"high hill" where he stayed all night. At dawn he "made a run 
for it" and arrived at Horseshoe Christmas morning. 25 

At the Horseshoe Station, where he reputedly arrived with 
George Dillon and William Bailey, 26 he gave the operator, John C. 
Friend, two despatches, one to the department commander in 
Omaha, the second to the post commander at Fort Laramie. Be- 
cause there was no assurance that these messages would "get 
through" and because he had promised Col. Carrington that he 

21. It is quite likely that the weather was a greater enemy than the 

22. Coutant, C. G., The History of Wyoming, Chaplin, Spafford and 
Mathison, Laramie, 1899. 

23. Carrington, Frances. 

24. Ostrander, A. B. 

25. Cook, Captain James, Agate, Sioux County, Nebraska, personal letter 
to the authors of The Bozeman Trail. 

26. Carrington later stated that "citizen couriers" had been sent on this 
mission. It is likely that Bailey was sent as a separate rider and that Bailey 
and Phillips had met George Dillon on the way. 


would deliver his message to the commander at Fort Laramie, John 
Phillips continued his ride to his final destination, Laramie. 

The final 40 miles to Fort Laramie were ridden over blinding 
white snow during the day and falling, freezing snow at night. He 
arrived near midnight of Christmas Day at Fort Laramie and 
stopped in front of Old Bedlam, the post headquarters and ball- 
room. Here a full-dress garrison ball was in progress. 

Lieutenant Herman Haas, the Officer of the Guard, asked the 
rider his name — but he was too weak to answer.- 7 He was taken 
inside, where "a huge form dressed in buffalo overcoat, pants, 
gauntlets, and a cap, accompanied by an orderly, desired to see 
the commanding officer." The message from Col. Carrington 28 
was the first word to reach the world outside the Dakota Territory 
of the Fetterman Disaster. 29 

Phillips collapsed from exhaustion and frostbite. His horse 
dropped to the ground in front of "Old Bedlam," and later was 
moved to the stables where he soon died despite the efforts of the 
post veterinarians. 30 

And so ended a four-day, 236-mile ride through deep snow and 
bitter cold, accompanied by danger at every turn, with most of the 
riding under cover of night with the barest of supplies — Wyoming's 
greatest ride. 

27. A Tribute to John Phillips, Warren Richardson; On the Occasion of 
the Erection of Monument to John Phillips by the Wyoming Landmark 
Commission, August 15, 1940. 

28. Robert Murray states that the telegraph message was not "garbled" 
and was received at Fort Laramie and that preparations were underway to 
send relief. Personal communication. 

29. Brown. 

30. This is the popular story. There is no direct evidence that the horse 
ever died. 1:{ Also, it is quite likely that John Phillips had the opportunity 
to change horses at Reno and Horseshoe. 

This story is of special interest in this 100th anniversary year of the 
Fetterman Massacre and the resulting ride of John Phillips. Ed. 

For the benefit of mechanics comtemplating removal to this 
place we will say that any man that can drive a nail intelligently 
can get all the work he can do, and at high rates, until winter's 
storms shall prevent prosecution of outdoor work. 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, September 26, 1867 . 

ttook Keviews 

Bankers and Cattlemen. By Gene M. Gressley. (New York, 
Alfred A. Knopf, 1966. Illus. Index. 320 pp. $6.95) 

Professor Gressley has written the best single book on the west- 
ern range cattle industry since the publication of E. S. Osgood's 
The Day of the Cattleman in 1929. In an area where historical 
writing has too often been based on the records of one company or 
on the unreliable memoirs of aged participants, the author has gone 
directly to a staggering number of fresh manuscript sources. This 
diligent research enables the author to reach persuasive conclusions 
about the nature of the western cattle business as a whole. The 
result is a book which can be heartily recommended to every 
student of the American West. 

In Professor Gressley's capable hands, the story of the cattle 
business loses its parochial character and becomes part of the 
general history of American economic development in the late 1 9th 
century. Responsive to the fluctuations in the business cycle, 
influenced by conditions in the world economy, the range cattle 
industry was much more than a romantic saga of cowboy and gun- 
fighter, rancher and homesteader, or cowman and sheepman. In- 
stead, it reflected a complex relationship between eastern investors 
and western ranchers, both interested in making stockgrowing pay, 
but often for mutually antagonistic reasons. 

Professor Gressley, then, has used the cattle industry as a case 
study of the frequently-cited but seldom described colonial position 
of the west in relation to the east. The record in this one area 
indicates that the affair brought unmixed blessings to neither side. 
Few eastern investors in cattle emerged with profits, or even their 
original stake, while western ranchers found themselves saddled 
with nagging overseers who did not understand their problems or 
sympathize with their plight. 

The cattle business has had more than its share of romance, and 
the great merit of Professor Gressley's book is that it penetrates 
beneath this appealing facade to reveal the intricate, time-consum- 
ing and frustrating difficulties which confronted men who, for 
whatever reason, had decided to link their fortunes with the steer. 
Incompetent managers, rebellious cowboys, declining prices, and 
tightening credit combined to make the task of eking out a profit 
from a ranch, at least in the 1880's, an awesome responsibility. 

Featuring as it does such men as Francis E. Warren, John Clay, 
Owen Wister, and Thomas Sturgis, to mention only Wyoming fig- 
ures, this book could hardly be dull, but the author is more than 
equal to his subject and writes with such verve and dry humor that 
his style is continually delightful. To those who believe that aca- 


demic history of superior quality must therefore be boring, Pro- 
fessor Gressley's book will be a pleasant surprise. In his lively 
pages, students of the West will find innumerable provocative 
insights to aid them in their work. On every count, Bankers and 
Cattlemen deserves to be placed among that small group of books 
about the west which can be described as definitive. 

Yale University Lewis L. Gould 

The War on Powder River, The History of an Insurrection. By 
Helena Huntington Smith. (New York. McGraw-Hill Book 
Company. Illus. Index. 320 pp. $7.95) 

This is Mrs. Smith's account of the Johnson County War, which 
took place principally in Johnson County, Wyoming, during the 
months of April and May of 1 892. Her narrative also includes a 
record of the state-wide events and happenings leading up to it, 
and afterwards. 

Mrs. Smith is a talented writer, and usually carries her theme 
along in a leisurely, unhurried journalistic fashion which is both 
pleasing and readable. In this book, however, to keep her por- 
trayal tense and exciting, she has indulged in considerable specu- 
lation, and the over-use of certain stylistic and rhetorical gimmicks, 
which are of dubious value. Also, she has overworded some of her 
descriptions to the point of causing them to be a bit tedious. 

In a book of this kind the reader might justly presume that the 
subject matter will be kept impersonal; but, all too early the 
author's bias and prejudice commence to show through. Finally, 
by her scorching indictment of some of the prominent members of 
the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, and her efforts to build 
to hero status several of the notorious rustlers, her position becomes 
patently clear. 

The best part of Mrs. Smith's book is her treatment of the events 
surrounding the murder of George Wellman. In this part there is 
exhibited more of her authorial skill, and less anxiety to keep the 
context thrilling and taut. Of course, in this situation she did not 
have the Wyoming Stock Growers Association to flay, and none of 
its members to chastise. Yet, she places the blame where it 
belongs, and deals justly with the outlaw element involved. 

It will bscome evident at once that the author has done much 
research, and has afforded painstaking effort in putting her book 
together. The arrangement is good, and her chapter titles are 
alluring and ingenious. However, many of her references to news- 
paper articles and similiar writings, are scarcely dependable since 
they were written by persons highly biased, or emotionally wrought 


for one reason or another. These references are so numerous that 
small space is left for additional facts, of which there are very few. 

To the reader who has no ancestral involvement, and no par- 
ticular knowledge of early Wyoming history, Mrs. Smith's book 
should prove entertaining. It will be accepted by those readers 
whose progenitors espoused the rustler cause, either as ancestors or 
friends. And, the term "rustler" appears to include almost every- 
body not on the other side, from the preying culprit with a long 
lariat and straight branding iron, to the honest cowboy, the early- 
day Powder River homesteader, small rancher, or settler and their 

The Smith commentary will anger the descendants and admirers 
of the one-time big cattlemen, and members of the Wyoming Stock 
Growers Association, all of whom were sometimes known as 
"white caps." This was a derisive title used in ridicule and mock 
purity. It covered virtually everybody not fixed to the rustler side. 

For the historian the Smith Johnson County War treatise will be 
a disappointment. It was hoped that her account would be un- 
biased, more factual, and written in modest candor; but, unfor- 
tunately, most of these elements are lacking. The author was too 
bent on writing a good story. To satisfy the reader of history she 
should have been a bit less breath-taking, more veritable, and much 
less fictitious. 

Buffalo Burton S. Hill 

The Jesuits and the Indian Wars of the Far Northwest. By Robert 
Ignatius Burns, S. J. (New Haven and London, Yale Uni- 
versity Press, 1966. Illus. Index. 512 pp. $10.00) 

This is a scholarly production, twenty years in the making, 
according to the author's preface, and the result of painstaking 
research in fifty manuscript repositories around the world. Much 
of the theme of the volume is an evaluation of the influence of the 
Jesuits in civilizing the tribes of the inland northwest; present 
Washington, Oregon, Idaho and western Montana. 

The Protestant influence is briefly touched upon and dealt with 
sympathetically, although their forces had been withdrawn from 
much of the terrain with which the author treats in the bulk of the 
book. The author presents candidly both the successes and failures 
of Protestant and Jesuit efforts in peacekeeping, mission establish- 
ment and neutrality (or involvement) in civil affairs. 

The Jesuit role was to join the primitive tribe, adapt to their ways 
and customs, including language, and proceed to introduce hand- 
crafts, farming, morality, monogamy and a Catholic religious 


pattern. As the author points out: "The motive for this danger- 
ous work was not pacifism . . . When the Jesuit Indians were un- 
justly attacked, it was assumed that they would defend themselves 
... In the American Civil War numbers of Jesuit Osages were to 
fight fo rthe Union forces when they could not remain neutral.'' 

The result was suspicion on the part of non-Indian settlers, 
miners, and military forces of Jesuit intent. The author goes to 
some length to clarify the Jesuit position, to delineate the Jesuit 
peace-keeping activities and their disinterest in civil matters. 

Of interest is the origin of the Jesuits: Dutch, Swiss, Irish, Ger- 
man, Italian and Belgian were some of the nationalities represented 
in the Oregon country. All were well educated in European insti- 
tutions and dedicated to the precarious life among the primitive 
peoples they served. 

The volume covers in minute detail the negotiations for peace 
and land treaties in 1855, the military engagements of 1858-1859. 
and the Nez Perce war of 1877. 

The text is well supported with footnotes, nine maps, 36 illus- 
trations and an exhaustive bibliography. The rather choppy style 
and infinite detail may deter the casual reader but the scholar will 
find this book much to his liking. 

Cheyenne Neal E. Miller 

Dividing the Waters: A Century of Controversy Between the 
United States and Mexico. By Norris Hundley, Jr. (Berke- 
ley and Los Angeles, University of California Press. 1966. 
Illus. Index. 266 pp. $6.95 ) 

Essentially, this is a doctoral dissertation as completed a few 
years ago at the University of California at Los Angeles. It is a 
good one. Dr. Hundley, who now teaches at UCLA, has done a 
remarkable job of compressing the story of a century-long, amaz- 
ingly complicated struggle into 186 pages. The small volume, 
besides the text, includes 35 pages of notes and 33 pages of bib- 
liography. It isn't often even in a doctoral dissertation that notes 
and bibliography approach one half the bulk of the text itself. 

The long controversy concerns mainly the waters of two inter- 
national river systems, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. A third 
international river, the Tijuana, only 17 miles long, plays a minor 
role. Hundley takes the controversy from crisis to crisis, and there 
have been many of them, especially in the last 60 years. 

International negotiations have been complicated by conflicting 
water laws, changing administrations in the United States and 
Mexico, erratic estimates of stream flow and return flow, treaty 
ambiguities, and lack of unity among states of the United States. 


In particular, representatives of the seven states of the Colorado 
River Basin, who have disagreed over the distribution of the United 
States' share of Colorado River waters, have likewise differed about 
the amount that should be allowed to Mexico. More often than 
not, it has been California against the other six states. This is not 
to say that California has been more selfish than the others, for in 
fact all have placed their own interests first pretty consistently. 

A most significant treaty was worked out by negotiators in 1944, 
and it received the approval of the United States and Mexican 
Senates in 1945, with most of the opposition coming from Cali- 
fornia. The treaty divided the waters of the Rio Grande and the 
Colorado Rivers, but not of the little Tijuana. The details of the 
division are too involved for repetition here. Since that time, 
controversy has been renewed over the salinity of the Colorado 
River water sent down to Mexico — the 1944 treaty settled the 
question of quantity but not of quality. 

Besides illuminating the international problems, Dr. Hundley has 
cast a bright light on interstate water problems as well. He has 
done so with admirable objectivity. In sum, it is an excellent study, 
one which should stand as a reliable reference volume for a long 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 

Custer's Gold The United States Cavalry Expedition of 1874. By 
Donald Jackson. (New Haven and London: Yale Univer- 
sity Press, 1966. Illus. Index. 152 pp. $5.00) 

The phenomenal interest, often undeserved, in George Arm- 
strong Custer continues with Donald Jackson's detailed and read- 
able account of Custer's 1874 expedition into the Black Hills. 
Ostensibly a military expedition, the resulting verification of gold 
in the Sioux-held area opened the flood gates to another white 
advance into Indian-held lands. 

History is full of irony. The last two years of Custer's life are 
but another example of this axiom. Custer's 1874 expedition only 
verified what had been long suspected, the existence of gold in the 
Black Hills. Peaceful attempts to relieve the Sioux of the Black 
Hills failed; thus, in 1876, the government ordered a three-pronged 
military attack to drive the remaining hostiles of the northern high 
plains on to reservations in western Nebraska. It was during this 
campaign that Custer met his demise at the hands of the Sioux in 
the valley of the Little Big Horn. 

The author has made profitable use of official records and cor- 
respondence; the book is well documented. He shows a refreshing 


understanding of Indian concepts and the problems the United 
States government had in negotiating with them. The language, 
terms, and provisions presented to the Indian were those of the 
white man — many of which were totally confusing, if not meaning- 
less, to the Indian. 

There were two avowed purposes for writing this book: to 
examine that characteristic of the American people as reflected in 
taking the Black Hills and to portray an Army expedition in detail. 
The account of the miseries of a military expedition during the 
1870s is one of the more interesting facets of Jackson's book. 
Much of this information was taken from the ournal of a soldier 
who was on the expedition, Private Theodore Ewert. Company H, 
Seventh Cavalry. 

Even the novice reader of western Americana will recognize 
some of the names of the scientific corps that accompanied this 
expedition. Names such as George Bird Grinnell, Luther North, 
and the photographer on the expedition, William H. Illingworth. 
The author included a fairly detailed account of the "wet plate" 
process, basis for most photography of that period. Geologist on 
the expedition, Newton H. Winchell, is not as well known. Much 
to Custer's chagrin, Winchell was more interested in the geograph- 
ical structure of the Black Hills than in looking for gold. However, 
the report of gold was sent back and as the author so aptly con- 
cluded Custer's return: "He could not know that within two years 
men would be repeating a sad little platitude, saying that the miners 
who had shoveled the gold out of the ground, back there in the 
evergreen valley, had dug the grave of George Armstrong Custer." 

Appendixes include a Summary of Locations and Distances, the 
Treaty of 1868, the Agreement of 1876, and a Roster of Custer's 
Staff. There is a series of excellent illustrations, a complete index, 
geographical descriptions of the route taken, Custer's official report 
regarding gold in the area, public reaction the news had back East 
as well as in the Plains area. Also included are divergent news- 
paper accounts, the official government stand, the Jenny Expedi- 
tion, the treaty commission of 1875, and the final settlement are 
all included. The admirable thing about this book is the simplicity 
in which the author has presented the intricate complexities of the 
white man's encroachment of Indian lands. 

Jackson does not treat Custer too kindly; he doesn't glorify the 
westward movement or the discovery of the new El Dorado in the 
Black Hills. He has taken a relatively insignificant topic and writ- 
ten an enjoyable book for those interested in western Americana. 
Custer buffs will particularly enjoy it. This is Volume 14 in the 
Yale Western Americana Series. 

Fort Laramie National Historic Site R. James Axt 


Red Man's Religion. Ruth M. Underhill. (University of Chicago 
Press, 1965. Illus. Index. 301 pp. $7.95) 

It is time that a serious scholar made the effort to look carefully 
at the metaphysical aspects of Indian culture. When it is accom- 
plished, much of what are now considered to be characteristics of 
the Indian way of life will change; and much of what is now consid- 
ered to be strange and backward will be seen in a new light. The 
lack of any basic connection between ethical behavioir and religious 
activity has long led the layman to consiider that the Indian's "bar- 
baric" behavior resulted from his lack of religious orientation. The 
failure of the Indian to "worship" in the sense that the western 
Christian worships, has led many to suspect that the Indian never 
considered the concept of diety as a reflection of value. Both of 
these viewpoints are wrong, however — as wrong as it would be for 
the Indian to interpret Christian ideals by watching Christians 

Just how wrong most of our concepts of the Red Man's Religion 
are will not be understood until we are somehow able to circumvent 
the term, and the concept, "religion," and realize that the Indian's 
relation with divinity can not be understood in our terms, and that 
while it is neither ethical nor worshipful, it was nevertheless vital 
and directive. 

Under the general heading of religion are discussed such areas as 
world creation, delayed burial, visions, planting ceremonies, and 
modern religion. Without trying to pick at words with Dr. Under- 
hill, most of these areas, when discussed at the level of "why they 
believe" rather than "how they believe," are areas of philosophical 
investigations. Creation, for example, is strictly a cosmological 
study and is not a concern of religion until the assumption is made 
that creation was the result of some planned or personalized be- 
havior. Only when the Red Man began to pay tribute, expect 
justice or mercy, or to worship the sunburnt rabbit (in the case of 
the Arapaho) did creation become an aspect of religion. The same 
is true of eschatology. This is a distinction that Dr. Underhill 
would have been wise not to ignore for as it is, she is straddling 
a metaphysical fence without tasting the real grass in either pasture. 

Dr. Underhill sees a common supernatural arising from what 
appears to her to be some metaphysical concerns which, much like 
the clovis point, were common knowledge throughout the tribes. 
These fears are: fear of the menstrual blood; fear as an avoidance 
of death; and individual failure to meet one's one fear and crisis 
situations, thus the medicine man or priest. From these three she 
sees the rise of rites, symbols, ceremonials and to whatever extent 
possible, a consistant relationship to fear. She is operating through- 
out, however, with the assumption that fear is the basis of religious 
development — an assumption that is open to considerable question. 

Dr. Underhill's work, Red Man's Religion, is an interesting, and 


in some areas, informative book. While most certainly neither a 
difinitive or well-balanced investigation, it is a beginning. It is, 
however, more an account of religious practices, with editorial com- 
ment, than it is an attempt to discuss the metaphysical and cosmo- 
logical substantiation for such practices. 

Dr. Underbill's book includes some fine illustrations and a very 
good bibliography. 

Graceland College Paul M. Edwards 

Golden Rails, 100 Years of Opertaion of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road. By William Kratville. (Omaha, Kratville Publications, 
1966. Illus. Index. 314 pp. $17.50) 

"Evening on the Wahsatch," from the spirited original oil by 
Otto Kuhler on the dust cover of William W. Kratville's Golden 
Rails, sets the exciting pace of this book covering 100 years of 
operation of the Union Pacific Railroad. One can almost hear the 
tearing exhausts of the Vauclain freight compound helping the new 
Harriman Pacific pull the great limited westward with the magic 
power of steam. 

It is a big book, 314 pages 8Vi x 11 inches, bound with a rich 
golden cover. The several hundred photographs, gathered from 
wide and varied sources, sweep one from Council Bluffs to Los 
Angeles and northwestward to Portland and Seattle, with all the 
fascinating branches in between. 

There is a good, brief history of the Union Pacific; an interesting 
succession of shields of the U. P., one page of portraits of the pres- 
idents — rugged men for rugged days. 

Special attention is given to E. H. Harriman, who bid in the 
road November 1, 1897, at the world's largest public auction. He 
immediately began rebuilding it into a great and valuable system. 
"Harriman Standards" became famous: the world's finest road- 
bed, the world's largest steam locomotives, super diesels, gas 
turbines, etc. 

Dramatic is the chapter, "Along the Platte" to Cheyenne; infi- 
nitely more so is "Across the Great Divide." Kratville sums it up 
well: "The Wyoming Division — hotspot of the mighty Union 
Pacific! From the banks of Crow Creek to the confines of Weber 
Canyon, the tracks of this Division carry the brunt of overland 

This was the initial home of great steam power — the Twelve 
Wheelers, compound Mallets, Overlands, Union Pacifies, the Chal- 
lengers, and the Big Boys. Cheyenne — windy, smoky, noisy — 
never closing, trains arriving and departing at all hours. Here 


crews and locomotives girded their loins for the battle up Sherman 

There are unforgettable pictures: Dale Creek Trestle at Mile- 
post 36.7 on the original Sherman line. Sherman, highest point 
(8,235 feet) with its great windmill to pump water into a big 
wooden tank, diamond-stack engine waiting, frame station and two 
hotels; a mighty 3,600 class compound Mallet leaving Laramie for 
Cheyenne under threatening skies; Laramie roundhouse, a sym- 
phony of smoke and steam and mighty power; the blizzard-harried 
Laramie Plains — bleak, dangerous, yet grand; a Vauclain road 
engine being "changed over to compound running with a loud roar 
and bilious escape of steam!" the South Park (Colorado) narrow 
gauge and the almost never ending war with snow. 

There are great trains to remember: The Pacific Limited, Over- 
land Limited, China and Japan Fast Mail, Eastern Express, Gold 
Coast Limited, Pony Express, Portland Rose, Columbine, and the 

I enjoyed reading William W. Kratville's Golden Rails and shall 
enjoy reading it again. 

Boulder, Colorado Forest Crossen 

Indian Legends of the Northern Rockies. By Ella E. Clark. (Nor- 
man: University of Oklahoma Press, 1966. Illus. 324 pp. 

Ella E. Clark has produced three anthologies based on "myths, 
legends, personal narratives and historical traditions" from the oral 
literature of the North American Indian. 

The first book, Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest, was 
published in 1953 and the second, Indian Legends of Canada, 
appeared seven years later. Now in 1966, comes Indian Legends 
of the Northern Rockies, which treats with tribes historically asso- 
ciated with the present states of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. 

Any author has the right to delimit the scope of his writing con- 
tent and this right Clark has exercised quite well. Her third book 
comprises six major linguistic headings: I. A Sahaptian Tribe: 
The Nez Perces; II. Salishan Tribes: The Flatheads, Kalispels and 
Coeur D'Alenes; III. The Kutenais; IV. Shoshonean Tribes: The 
Shoshonis and Bannocks; V. Algonquian Tribes: The Arapahos, 
Gros Ventres and Blackfeet; VI. Siouan Tribes: The Crows, Sioux 
and Assiniboines. 

Some legends and narratives used by the author are easily traced 
to ethnologists of the 19th century; a few — unfortunately, too few 
— are attributed to scattered Indian "laymen" who recorded tales 
they had heard their elder kinsmen tell again and again and again. 
Some myths and legends were obtained orally through the medium 


of an interpreter; others, directly from English-speaking tribesmen. 
The community school on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming 
supplied a number of Shoshoni stories contributed, back in the 
1930"s, by school children who had probed the memories of their 

Indian Legends of the Northern Rockies is replete with myths 
explaining the origin of sacred objects and tribal ceremonies, the 
history of ancient customs, traditions and beliefs. 

Surely no serious reader can come away without a deeper knowl- 
edge of a people who have emerged bent, but not cowed, by dec- 
ades of tragedy and misery; of a people whose sense of humor is 
beyond the comprehension of many white men. One feels a keen 
sense of poignancy in knowing that, were it not for a few writers 
who care as Clark does, this vast storehouse of Indian folklore 
would fade away as swiftly as Indian crafts are disappearing from 
the modern scene. Too often the Indian youth of today, through 
fear of ridicule or sheer indifference, chooses to ignore the rich 
literary heritage which is his. 

Selectivity is always a problem for any author when choosing 
writing content. It must have been especially hard for this anthol- 
ogist to limit to 1 30 the number of myths and legends she has 
recounted here. 

Rarely, in ancient days, was a tale told and retold around the 
firesides of a single tribe, which did not have its counterpart inside 
the tepees of many other plains and plateau people. Animals such 
as Old Man Coyote had a predominant role in the myths of every 
tribe. The pranks they played and the aplomb with which they 
emerged triumphant from every situation must have tickled the 
fancy and excited the admiration of each breathless listener long 

You may experience disappointment (as this reviewer occasion- 
ally did ) when the version quoted by the anthologist differed, even 
slightly, from the one most familiar to you. It is easy to forget it 
was her privilege to be arbitrarily selective. 

Not only has the author supplied an adequate list of selected 
references; she also has pinpointed for us, by means of "Source 
Notes," 1 the exact origin of the many myths, legends and personal 
narratives she has used. 

Have you ever groped for the correct pronunciation of tribal 
names, such as Coeur D'Alene or Gros Ventres? Then you will 
find Clark's pronunciation list (xvii) extremely helpful. Some 
two dozen photographs, scattered throughout the book, add value 
but most of them are familiar to many readers. 

Clark claims that "approximately half of these narratives have 
never before appeared in print." 

She names the goals she seeks in writing style to be "simplicity, 
sincerity, a conversational or oral quality, and the variety of 
rhythms in everyday speech." 


With the first two of these goals, this writer would raise no ques- 
tion. But, when it comes to the third and the fourth, I must 
confess keen disappointment. It seems to me the myths and 
legends related here suffer in comparison with the charm and subtle 
humor of Alice Marriott's Kiowa winter-telling tales or the imagery 
and musical prose found in Mari Sandoz 1 tales of the Cheyennes. 

Laramie Clarice Whittenburg 

The Great North Trail. By Dan Cushman. (New York, McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, 1 966. Index. 383 pp. $7.95) 

Historic epics are strung like glittering beads on The Great North 
Trail. Into this detailed account of North American peoples and 
their continuous traveling, both north and south, along a route 
from present Alaska to Mexico, east of the Rocky Mountains, 
Cushman weaves colorful incidents to lighten and quicken histor- 
ical data. 

Starting with mysteries of a vast geological past, the author pic- 
tures the earth as still changing, and North Americans still roaming 
up the Alaskan Highway which follows the Great North Trail. 

Artifacts found in caves with bones, dated by Carbon 14 read- 
ings, place the earliest men in North America at last 12,000 years 
ago. They wandered over from Asia which was then connected 
with Alaska, and followed the Great North Trail southward along 
the eastern side of the mountains. 

In 1540 Spaniards wandered north along the trail hunting the 
mystic land of Cibola and following Coronado. Horses, which 
they brought and lost, roamed the plains once filled with small 
native three-toed horses which mysteriously disappeared. Spanish 
horses captured and trained by Indians changed their way of life, 
making it easier for them to kill buffalo which furnished them all 
necessities of life. 

Then came white men exploring westward: trappers, fur trad- 
ers, and gold seekers. Unethical, most of these adventurers tricked 
and stole from the Indians, bartering with cheap alcohol and bring- 
ing in smallpox, both deadly to Indians. 

When gold was discovered in Montana, the Bozeman Trail again 
followed the ancient pathway east of the mountains. Complete 
familiarity with the history of the west allows Cushman to write 
detailed descriptions of this period. Next he brings in the long 
history of paleontology with the discovery of dinosaur bones, espe- 
cially in what is now Wyoming. The ancient land passage proved 
to be a supreme burying ground for gigantic reptiles as the inland 
sea lapped against the rising Rockies. Fascinating is the detailed 
story of two paleontologists: Cope, charming and witty; March, 
dour and dedicated; as they struggled to outwit each other in their 


frantic search for and recovery of the bones of these ancient 

Following the Civil War, vast herds of cattle were driven north- 
ward along the Great North Trail to fill the land where millions of 
buffalo had been slaughtered for their hides. Homesteaders, too, 
were pouring in to take their share of land, resulting in the clash of 
big cattle barons and small sod-breakers. The often-told stories of 
Cattle Kate and the Johnson County War in Wyoming are given a 
fresh touch by Cushman. 

Switching to Montana history and the "Whoop-up Road," a 
whiskey-smuggling route from Montana into Canada, the author 
again follows the Great North Trail. He started writing as a 
reporter in Big Sandy, Montana, at the age of fifteen, and has 
worked in that state as a miner, prospector, and geologist. 

The heart-breaking struggles of men up the Great North Trail 
during the Alaska gold rush, and the final building of the Alaskan 
Highway in 1942 to protect Alaska from possible Japanese inva- 
sion, bring the history of this great land route up to date. 

Lusk Mae Urbanek 

The Red Man's West: True Stories of the Frontier Indians from 
MONTANA, The Magazine of Western History. Selected 
and edited by Michael S. Kennedy. (New York, Hastings 
House, 1965. Illus. Index. 342 pp. $10) 

From the past issues of Montana: The Magazine of Western 
History its editor, Michael S. Kennedy, selected twenty-eight arti- 
cles on the Indian: his early history; his early contacts with whites 
on fur trading or exploring expeditions; his religious beliefs; his 
battles with the whites: and "Characters, White and Red." These 
are gathered under the title Red Man's West, a most appropriate 
companion volume to an earlier, similar compilation by Kennedy, 
Cowboys and Cattlemen. 

While selections treat various Indian tribes, the understandable 
emphasis on "Red Man" is to those associated with the region of 
the Northern Plains and Rocky Mountains. Individual articles are 
presented on the Blackfeet, the Flatheads, the Assiniboins (by 
Kennedy), the Nez Perces, and the Metis. 

In a potpourri, diversity is the theme in lieu of a stand on an 
historical controversy. This is obvious when readers encounter 
such variety as Bernard De Voto's very short and interesting piece 
on that most fascinating American woman, "Sacajawea;" Robert 
G. Athearn's lively treatment of the Plains Army, "War Paint 
Against Brass;" and John E. Parson's edited version of a contem- 
porary account by Col. George A. Woodward, "The Northern 


Cheyennes at Fort Fetterman." Those whose interests are more 
limited to just Wyoming will still find a considerable amount of 
reading material that will be of interest to them. 

The article of least importance also happens to be the most enter- 
taining. Edgar I. Stewart's "Which Indian Killed Custer?" pre- 
sents White Bull, Rain-in-the-Face, Flat Hip, Two Moon, Red 
Horse, and Brave Bear as the claimants, while not forgetting Custer 
as a possible suicide. Recently another contender has been heard 
from, that of a Sioux squaw as related by Harry E. Chrisman in 
the March, 1966 Golden West. 

With the over-emphasis in popular literature on Indian vs. sol- 
dier, it is gratifying to see a superior treatment of an important and 
often neglected subject, as in the case of Everett W. Stirling's "The 
Indian Reservation System of the Northern Plains." The same is 
true of the several pieces devoted to Indian religious beliefs. 

An unfortunate feature — discounting the several typographical 
errors, such as Paul "J." Wellman (p. 332) instead of Paul I. 
Wellman — is that variety should have also affected the system of 
documentation as well as the topics of articles. The editor, of 
course, is not responsible for the latter. 

But the point is minor, for it does not affect the reading of selec- 
tions. Kennedy indicates that his purpose was to "select a well- 
rounded, interesting and entertaining group of authoritative narra- 
tives which together would make a broad panorama," (p. viii) and 
this he certainly has done. 

Red Man's West is abundantly illustrated (although dates on 
some photos would be helpful ) , is presented in clear type on good 
quality paper, and includes a thorough index. It is indeed a "rich 
feast," as Kennedy had hoped. 

Wisconsin State University Jack D. Filipiak 

War Drums and Wagon Wheels. By Raymond W. and Mary Lund 
Settle. (Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1966. Illus. 
Index. 152 pp. $5.00) 

Russell, Majors and Waddell! The mention of this well-known 
trio immediately brings to mind the exciting adventures of the Pony 
Express. It is indeed a strange paradox that they are best remem- 
bered for one of their last and most ruinous undertakings. War 
Drums and Wagon Wheels attempts to go beyond such a single- 
minded approach to trace the evolution of the partnership through 
its growth prior to its ultimate failure. To the authors "the rise 
and fall of the great freighting firm of Russell, Majors and Waddell, 
1855 to 1861, is one of the most fascinating and significant epi- 
sodes in the history of the American West." An additional objec- 
tive of the book is to make available much of the original manu- 


script material in the private collection of the authors. About one- 
third of the book is material in appendix form that the authors 
were not able to incorporate into the text. Herein lies one of the 
book's greatest assets, for it gives the reader a firsthand insight into 
some of the lesser-known details of the freighting business. 

The text begins as a general treatise on transportation in the 
west. Background is given on the Santa Fe trade and the problem 
of military supply during the Mexican War. As a result of the 
latter circumstance the army began freighting military supplies 
through the use of civilian contractors, many of whom had gained 
their experience along the Santa Fe Trail. This proposition set the 
stage for the formation of the partnership of William H. Russell, 
William B. Waddell and Alexander Majors in 1 854. From this 
point the narration is able to gain momentum in dealing with the 
role of the company in the "Mormon War,' 1 the Leavenworth and 
Pike's Peak Express, the Flour Contract and the Pony Express. 
With these events the firm's fortunes has eclipsed and so has the 
book's. The remainder deals with the dissolution of one of the 
largest and most influential business ventures of that era. 

This volume is not one for casual reading. Too much ground is 
covered for so few pages and fact upon figure has resulted in much 
of the human interest being lost. One will be left with considerable 
knowledge but very little feeling of the "dust, sweat and fear" of 
freighting on the early frontier. However, in keeping with the 
writers' expressed purposes, the presentation of new source mate- 
rial should make the book a very worthwhile reference on the 

Cheyenne William R. Barnhart 

Smoke Down the Canyons. By James L. Ehernberger and Francis 
G. Gschwind. Callaway, Nebraska., E and G Publications, 
1966. Illus. 64 pp. $3.50) 

The Idaho Division of the Union Pacific Railroad, its steam 
locomotives and trains, are subjects of Ehernberger and Gschwind's 
latest book. This operating division of the Union Pacific Railroad 
includes all parts of the old Oregon Short Line Railroad not 
assigned to the Utah Division of the same company. 

The main line of the Oregon Short Line Railway was completed 
from Granger, Wyoming, to Huntington, Oregon, in 1884, as a link 
in the first transcontinental railroad line to the Pacific Northwest. 
The village of Granger still forms the junction with the main line 
of the Union Pacific and was also formerly the eastern terminal of 
the "Short Line." Today, however, the Idaho Division trains are 


handled by their own crews through to Green River, about 30 miles 
to the east. 

Although the Oregon Short Line was constructed as a subsidiary 
of the Union Pacific it was merged during its early years with a 
group of Utah and Idaho railroads that were either built or con- 
trolled for a time by the Mormon Church. This, however, is an- 
other story, and a possible subject for a future volume. 

Besides telling considerable history of the various lines of the 
Idaho Division, Smoke Down the Canyons features a goodly num- 
ber of excellent steam train and engine photographs taken in the 
area. There are views of the "Portland Rose" and the "Yellow- 
stone Special," big freight engines and snowplowing. In general, 
the illustrations are of better quality than the average in the three 
other books by the same authors. Two large maps show just 
where the Idaho Division runs. 

This volume should be of interest to Wyoming historians since 
the Oregon Short Line played an important role in the development 
of the coal fields around Kemmerer, and for years has provided rail 
transportation for livestock raised in the Cokeville area of the Bear 
River Valley. 

Green River R. E. Prince 

Gold in the Sun. The History of San Diego. By Richard F. Pou- 
rade. Commissioned by James S. Copley. (San Diego, 
Union Tribune Publishing Company, 1965. Illus. Index. 
282 pp. $9.50) 

This is the most recent book in an historical series on San Diego, 
"the birthplace of civilization on the Pacific Coast." It is a close 
look at San Diego from 1900 to the 1920's, and how the town met 
the challenge of change and growth. 

Previous volumes in the series have been The Explorers, on the 
period of settlement; Time of the Bells, the story of mission and 
presidio life; The Silver Dons, the era of the great ranchos; The 
Glory Years, the booms and busts of the first wave of immigration 
and speculation. 

The Rummy Kid Goes Home and Other Stories of the Southwest. 
By Ross Santee, with illustrations by the author. (New York, 
Hastings House, 1965. 160 pp. $5.95) 

A new collection of short stories, written with honesty and real- 
ism, reflecting the poignancy, vitality and drama in the lives of 
Southwestern people. 


Recent Western Americana Paperbounds, (reprints), Yale Univer- 
sity Press, New Haven and London. 

Dakota Territory, A Study of Frontier Politics, by Howard 
Roberts Lamar 

Wagon Roads West, A study of Federal Road Surveys and 
Construction in the Trans-Mississippi West, 1846-1869. 
By W. Turrentine Jackson, with a foreword by William H. 

The Last Days of the Sioux Nation, by Robert M. Utley 

The Mormon Conflict, 1850-1859, by Norman F. Furniss 
Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-1863, William 
H. Goetzmann 

Recent Bison Books, paperback reprints, Lincoln, University of 
Nebraska Press 

Great Western Indian Fights, by Members of the Potomac 
Corral of the Westerners 

A Nation Moving West, Readings in the History of the Amer- 
ican Frontier, edited by Robert W. Richmond and Rob- 
ert W. Mardock 

My Life on the Plains, by General George A. Custer, edited 
with an introduction by Milo Milton Quaife 

War Path and Bivouac, The Big Horn and Yellowstone Ex- 
pedition, by John F. Finerty, edited with an introduction 
by Milo Milton Quaife 

The Adventures of Big-Foot Wallace, by John C. Duval, 
edited by Mabel Major and Rebecca W. Smith 

A Texas Cowboy, or Fifteen Years on the Hurricane Deck of 
a Spanish Pony, taken from real life by Charles A. 
Siringo, with an introduction and bibliography by J. 
Frank Dobie 

Desert Challenge, An Interpretation of Nevada, by Richard G. 

Kit Carson's Autobiography, edited with an introduction by 
Milo Milton Quaife 


Robert A. Murray. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 36, No. 1, 
April, 1964, p. 124. Mr. Murray is now Chief Historian at Fort 
Laramie National Historic Site. 

Daniel Y. Meschter. A native Pennsylvanian, Mr. Meschter 
lived in Rawlins from 1957 to 1962. He and his wife and their 
11 -year-old daughter now live in Denver. A geologist, he is a 
graduate of Dartmouth College and did a year's graduate work at 
Washington University in St. Louis. His hobbies include stamp 
collecting and, according to him, "... dabbling in oil painting and 
pastels when the mood strikes, which is rarely. 1 ' 

Burton S. Hill. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 34, No. 1, 
April, 1962, pp. 131-132. 

Francis A. Barrett. A Cheyenne surgeon, Dr. Barrett is the 
son of the late Frank A. Barrett, Governor of Wyoming from 1951 
to 1953, and later U. S. Senator from Wyoming. Dr. Barrett is a 
member of numerous professional organizations, and is a past pres- 
ident of the Wyoming State Medical Society. His story of John 
"Portugee" Phillips' ride was first published in the Rocky Mountain 
Medical Journal, July, 1966. 

. . . Wall paper and window shades, great variety, elegant 
patterns, and moderate prices at the news depot, Sixteenth Street, 
west of Eddy. 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 2, 1868. 

A poor, unfortunate individual died this morning at the City 
Hospital. Cause, too much fried lightning. Tipplers take warning. 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 29, 1868. 

The trains east and west for the last few days have been most 
admirably irregular in their arrivals here. Last evening the eastern 
express was three hours behind time. Today the western is as bad. 
The reason for all this is not known. 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, October 16, 1868. 

Qeneral fadex 

Absaraka, 38:2:215-216, 221 
Adams, D. C, 38:2:209 
Adams Museum, 38:1:102 
Adams, William W., 38:2:190 
Adventures of Big-Foot Wallace, 

The, by John C. Duval, ed. by 

Mabel Major and Rebecca W. 

Smith, 28:2:244 
Alcott Farrar Elwell, His Diary, 

Wyoming 1908, 38:2:143-172 
Alderson, Dr. William T., 38:1:118 
Alexander, Col. Edmund Brooke, 

38:1:14-15, 42, 47 
Alkali Stage Station, 38:1:91 
Allaman's Ranch, 38:2:165, 168 
Allen, Capt. Asaph, 38:1:15, 42 
Allen, R. M., 38:1:67 
Allerton, Lake & Spencer (LAK 

Co.), 38:1:95 
Ames, Frederick Lothrop, 38:1:52 
Ames Monument, 38:1:49-53; pho- 
to, 38:2:cover 
Ames, Oakes, 38:1:49-53 
Ames, Oliver, Jr., 38:1 :49-53 
Anderson, Harry, 38:1:103 
Andrews, Ralph W., Photographers 

of the Frontier West, review, 38: 

Andrews, Wayne, 38:1:50 
Angus, Sheriff W. G. (Red), 38:1: 

62, 64, 66; 38:2:168 
"Architecture of H. H. Richardson 

in Wyoming, The," by H. R. Die- 

terich, Jr., 38:1:49-53 
Armstrong Family, 38:2:202 
Army Exploration in the American 

West, 1803-1863, by William H. 

Goetzmann, review, 38:2:244 
Arnold, Carl Franklin, 38:2:197 
Arnold, C. P.. 38:2:198 
Arnold, Franklin Luther, 38:2:174, 

194 196 
Arnold. Gottfried Herman, 38:2: 

Arnold, John, 38:2:198 
Atlantic City, 38:2:189 
Axt, R. James, review of Custer's 

Gold, The United States Cavalry 

Expedition of 1874, 38:2:233-234 
Aztec Hill, 38:1:100 

Babcock's Ranch. 38:2:167 
Baber, Daisy F., 38:1:61 

Bacon, Maj. Jno. M., 38:1:74 
Bailey, Robert, 38:2:137 
Bailey, William, 38:2:227 
Bainbridge, Capt. Augustus Hudson, 

38:1:24, 42 
Bainton, Rev. Henry W., 38:2:180, 

Baker, Maj. Eugene Mortimer, 38: 

1:25, 42, 46-47 
Baker, Nathan, 38:1:126 
Bandy, W. R„ "Ghosts Took Over 

the Tunnel," 38:1:76-83; biog., 

Bankers and Cattlemen, by Gene M. 

Gressley, review, 38:2:229-230 
Banks, John, 38:1:111, photo, 118 
Banner, 38:2:146 
Barber, Acting Governor Amos, 38: 

Barkey, Mrs. — , 38:2:161 
Barlow, Bill, 38:1:126 
Barnett, Gene, 38:1:97 
Barnhart, William R., 38:1:116; re- 
view of War Drums and Wagon 

Wheels, 38:2:241-242 
Barrett, Francis A., "The Greatest 

Ride In Wyoming History," 38:2: 

223-228, biog., 245 
Barthelmess, Casey. Photographer 

On An Army Mule, review, 38: 

Bastian, Mrs. T. Wesley, 38:1:102 
Baxter, David Kennedy, 38:2:199 
Baxter, Ellen, 38:2:190, 199 
Baxter, John, 38:2:199 
Baxter, Robert W., 38:2:190, 199 
Baxter, William, 38:2:199 
Bealey, Rosalind, 38:1:102 
Beaver Station Stockade, 38:1:84, 

Beck, — , 38:2:215, 219, 221 
Bee, Capt. Barnard Elliott, 38:1:7, 

14, 42, 47; photo, 8 
Beekly. "Dad," 38:2:143, 148, 149, 

152, 153, 155, 156, 160, 166, 167, 

168; photo, 142 
Bell, Mrs. Ronald, 38:1:118 
Benham, Capt. Daniel Webster, 38: 

1:6, 35-38, 40, 42, 46 
Benson, Bari, 38:1:114 
Benton, 38:2:181 
Bergren, Winifred. S., 38:1:102 
Beryl. — , 38:1:76 
Bidderbeck Ranch, 38:2:169 



Big Horn Basin Development Co., 


Big Horn School, 38: 1 : 108 
"Big Tent, The," 38:2:181 
Bissonette, Joseph and Co., 38:2: 

Blackburn, Dune, 38:1:91 
Blair, Henry A., 38:1:68 
Blunt, Maj. Matthew Marsh. 38:1: 

22, 24, 42, 46, 47 
Boan, Fran, 38:1:85 
Boan, Mr. & Mrs. James & Kelley, 

Bordeaux (The Little Frenchman). 

Borach, Fred, 38:1:100, 103 
Bouyer, Mich, 38:2:139-140 
Box Elder Creek, 38:2:157 
Boysen Dam Marker, 38:1:111 
Bozeman, John M., 38:2:217 
Bozeman Trail, 38:2:137-139 
Brackett, Col. Albert Gallatin, 38: 

1:6, 7, 29, 30, 31, 42 
Bradley, Lt. Col. Luther Prentice. 

38:1:25, 42, 44; photo, 48 
Braeuninger, Moritz, 38:2:215-222: 

photo, 218 
Brannan, John, 38:2:190 
Brent, 1st Lt. Thomas L., 38:2:138 
Brewster, Stanford, 38:1:85 
Bridger's Ferry, 38:2:138 
Bridges, Lyman, 38:2:190, 193 
Brigham, Mr. & Mrs. H. N., 38:1: 

Britton, A. J. & Co., 38:2:172 
Brooke, Brig. Gen. John R., 38:1: 

63, 66 
Brough, Sgt. John C, 38:2:226-227 
Brown, C. H., 38:1:90 
Brown, Charles, 38:1:91 
Brown, Eva White, 38:2:200 
Brown, Capt. F. H., 38:2:225 
Brown, Gene, 38:1:107 
Brown, Jesse, 38:1:95 
Brown, Mabel E., 38:1:103, 117, 

"Canyon Springs," 96-97 
Brundage, Hiram, 38:1:126 
Bubb, Capt. John Wilson, 38:1:31, 

Buffalo Gap, 38:1:101 
Buffalo Wallows, 38:2:227 
Buffalo, 38:1:62; 38:2:146-147, 156 
Buffalo Bill Show, 38:2:163 
Bundy, Mrs. Howard, 38:1:111 
Bunge, — , 38:2:215, 218-219 
Burial Mountains, 38:2:138 
Burnett, Capt. Levi Frank, 38:1:41- 


Burns, Robert Ignatius, S. J., The 
Jesuits and the Indian Wars of the 
Far Northwest, review, 38:2:231- 

Burnt Station, 38:1:93 

Burritt, Mayor (Charles), 38:1:71 

Burrougs, Flarida and Spencer, see 

Burrows, Capt. Thomas Bredin, 38: 
1:25, 42, 46 

Burt, Lt. Col. Andrew Sheridan, 38: 
1 :40, 42; photo, 48 

Butterfly Slim, see Randier 

Byron, Mrs. E!sa Spear, 38: 1 : 1 1 1 

Cain, Capt. Avery Billings, 38:1:7, 
19-21, 28-29, 42, 46 

Calamity Jane, 38:1:102 

Caldwell, George, 38:1:126 

Camp Jenney, 38:1:94, 95 

Campbell, Hugh, 38:1:97 

Canton, Frank M., 38:1:61, 63 

"Canyon Springs," Mabel Brown, 

Carey, L. E., 38:1:103 

Carey, Sergeant (Wyo. Highway Pa- 
trol), 38:1:85, 102 

Carley, Maurine, 38:1:85, 102, 112, 
117; photo, 118 

Carlile, Mr. & Mrs. Douglas, 38:1: 

Carlisle, Virginia, 38:1:102 

Carmin, —,38:2:170 

Carrington, Frances Grummond, 38 

Carrington, Col. Henry B., 38:2 
223, 225, 226, 228 

Carson, Mr. and Mrs. Harold, 38:1 

Carter Mountain, 38:1:77 

Casey, Lt. E. W., 38:1:127 

Casper Marker, 38:1:111 

Cavalry, U. S., 3rd & 5th, 38:2:211 

"C" Company, W. N. G., 38:1:63 

Chadey, Henry, 38:1:109, 118 

Champ, Pvt. 38:1:73 

Champion, Nathan D., 38:1:62 

Chappell, Gordon, 38:1:5, 7; biog., 

Cheyenne Daily Sun, 38:1:111 

"Cheyenne Crossing Station," by 
Cushman Clark, 38:1:100-101 

Cheyenne River Station (Crossing), 
38:1:84, 93, 100 

Christian, Mrs. George, "Old Wom- 
an Creek Station," 38:1:89-90 

Clark, Charlotte, 38:1:101 



Clark, Cushman, "Cheyenne Cross- 
ing Station," 38:1:100-101 
Clark, Mr. & Mrs. Cushman, 38: 1 • 

100, 103 
Clark, Ella E., Indian Legends of the 

Northern Rockies, review, 38:2: 

Clark, Horace, 38:1:101 
Clark. Julie, 38:1:103 
Clarke, Capt. Francis Newman, 38" 

1:13. 42, 47 
Clay & Forrest, 38:1:68 
Clear Creek, 38:2:147, 150, 161 
Clearmont, 38:2:150-153 
"Coals of Newcastle," 38:1:117 
Cody Trading Company, 38:1:82 
"Cold Springs Station," by Joe Rol- 
ler, 38:1:98-100 
Cole, Lt. J. A.. 38:1:64 
Collier, Capt. William S., 38:1:29. 

30 31, 42, 46 
Collins, Lt. Col. Edward, 38:1:39, 

Collins, Lt. Col. William Oliver, 38: 

1:15-16, 42 
Comba, Capt. Richard, 38:1:35, 37- 

39, 42, 46 
Commanders at Fort Laramie, 

chronological list, 38:1:11-41 
Converse, Charles, 38:2:174 
Converse Cattle Co., 38:1 :68 
Converse, Miss Flavia, 38:2:174 
Cook, Charles W., The Valley of 

the Upper Yellowstone, review 

Cook, Edmund, Mr. & Mrs., 38:1: 

85, 93, 103 
Cook, Capt. James, 38:2:227 
Cook, Rev. Joseph W., 38:2:183, 

Cooke, Gen. Phillip St. George, 38: 

Cooksey, C. R. (Mose) & Mrs., 

"Robber's Roost Stage Station," 

38:1:93-94, 103 
Cooper, Billie. 38:1:117 
Corbett Tunnel, 38:1:82 
Cornell, Rev. John. 38:2:183, 188, 

Corsberg, Mike, 38:1:114, 117 
Crazy Horse Statue, 38:1:102 
"Crazy Woman Creek." 38:1:62: 

Crittenden, Eugene Wilkinson, 38: 1 : 

6, 22, 42 
Crocket, (Davy), 38:2:224 
Crook's Indian Expeditionary Force, 

Cross H Ranch, 38:2:171-172 
Cross. Jack. 38:1:95 

Crossen, Forest, review of Golden 
Rails, 100 Years of Operation of 
the Union Pacific Railroad, 38:2: 
Crossfield, Francis, 38:1:117 
Crossthwaite, F. B., 38:1:62 
Crow Indian Band, photo, 38:2:136 
Cushman, Dan, The Great North 

Trail, review, 38:2:239-240 
Custer, George A., 38:2:224; My 
Life on the Plains, ed. with an 
introduction by Milo Milton 
Quaife, review; 244; Custer's 
Gold, by Donald Jackson, review, 

Dakota Territory, by Howard Rob- 
erts Lamar, review, 38:2:244 
Daniels, Walter, 38:1:100 
Darrow, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis, 38: 

1:85, 93, 103 
David, Robert B., 38:1:61 
Davis, Scott, 38:1:90-91, 95, 97 
Davis, Col. W. R., 38:1:17, 42 
Dawson, Thomas F., 38:2:210 
Day, Maj. Hannibal, 38:1:14, 42, 

"Days That Are No More .... The," 

38:2:136, 141 
Dayton, Minerva Penfield, 38:2:196 
Deer Creek Indian Agency, 38:2: 

Deer Creek Stage Station, 38:2:215, 

217, 219, 220, 221; photo, 217 
Deerfield, 38:1:99 
de Laubenfels, John Laube, 38:1:9. 

24, 25, 42, 46 
De Gering, Mr. and Mrs. Albert, 

"Old Woman Creek Station," 38: 

1:89-90, 103 
Dc Gering, Leonard, 38:1:103 
Department of the Platte, Mountain 

District, 38:2:137 
Desert Challenge, An Interpretation 

of Nevada, by Richard G. Lillard, 

review, 38:2:244 
DeSmet, Father P. J., 38:2:221 
DeSmet, Lake, 38:2:146 
Devin, Col. Thomas Casimer, 38:1: 

27, 42, 44 
Dewes. Thomas B., 38:2:176-177 
Dey, Mrs. B. F. W., 38:2:185 
Dieterich. Herbert R., Jr., "The 

Architecture of H. H. Richardson 

in Wyoming," 38:1:49-53; biog., 

Dillon, George, 38:2:227 



Dividing the Waters: A Century of 
Controversy Between the United 
States and Mexico, by Norris 
Hundley, Jr., review, 38:2:232- 

Doane, — , 38:2:158 

Dobie, J. Frank, introduction and 
bibliography to A Texas Cowboy, 

Dodd, H. H., 38:1:103 

Dodge, Lt. Col. Richard Irving, 38: 

Doederlein, — , 38:2:215-216 

Draper, George, 38:1:91 

Drew, Maj. George Augustus, 38:1: 
9, 17, 42, 46 

Dry Creek Valley, 38:1:77; 38:2: 

Dry Fork, 38:2:217 

Dubois, Bill, 38:1:85, 102, 108, 116 

Du Fran, Philip, 38:1:72 

Dumbrill, Debbie, 38:1:103 

Dunovant, Capt. John, 38:1:7, 14. 
42; photo, 8 

Duval, John C, The Adventures of 
Big-Foot Wallace, ed. by Mabel 
Major and Rebecca W. Smith, re- 
view, 38:2:244 

Dye, Maj. William McEntire, 38:1: 
19-20, 42, 44, 46-47 

Dyer, John C, 38:2:187 

Eager Ranch, 38:1:95 

Eaton, 38:2:172 

Edgar, Robert, 38:1:117 

Edwards, Paul M., 38:1:54, 102, 
107; biog., 131; review of Old 
Forts of the Far West, 131; re- 
view of Red Man's Religion, 38: 

Edwards, William B. & Alice, 38:1: 
78, 82 

Egan, Capt. — , 38:1:88 

Egbert, Maj. H. C, 38:1:61, 67 

Eggenhofer, Nick, 38:1:106, 117 

Ehernberger, James L., review of 
Photographers of the Frontier 
West, 38:1:129-130 

Ehernberger, James L. and Francis 
G. Gschwind, Smoke Down the 
Canyons, review, 38:2:242-243 

Eklund, Mr. & Mrs. Albert, 38:1: 

Eklund, Dick, 38:1:85, 102 

Elliott, 1st Lt. Washington Lafay- 
ette, 38:1:5, 11, 42 

Ellis, Mr. & Mrs. George, 38:1:103 

Elwell, Alcott Farrar, 38:2:143; 

photo, 142 
Dwell, Mrs. Alcott Farrar, 38:2: 

Engebretson, Earl, 38:1:100 
Enlow, Mr. & Mrs. Sterling, 38:1: 

Espy, Mrs. Neal, 38:2:202 
Evans, Maj. Andrew Wallace, 38: 

1:26-27, 29, 42, 46, 47 
Evans, Robert, 38:1:108 
Evans, Maj. William H., 38:1:18, 

Ewing, Rev. Joseph M., 38:2:175 

Falconer, Andrew, 38:1:89 

Fann, Mildred W., 38:1:103 

Fanny's Peak, 38:1:96 

Fechet, Maj. E. G., 38:1:64, 67 

Feelev, Etta, 38:1:82 

Ferris & Pratt Cattle Co., 38:1:68 

Fessenden, F. M., 38:2:138 

Fetterman Massacre, 38:2:137, 139, 

Fetterman, Capt. William J., 38:2: 

146, 223-224 
Fielder, Mildred, Wild Bill and 

Deadwood, review, 38:1:128-129 
Fields, Katherine, 38:1:89 
Fields, Rosalie, 38:1:89 
Filipiak, Jack D., review of The 

Red Man's West, 38:2:240-241 
Finerty, John F., War Path and 

Bivouac, ed. with introduction by 

Milo Milton Quaife, review, 38: 

First Christmas Tree in Wyoming, 

38:2:216; photo, 214 
Fisher, —,38:2:169 
Fitz, Charles, 38:1:51 
Fitzwilliams, W. A. F., 38:1:96 
Flachenecker, — , 38:2:217, 219 
Flagg's Peoples Voice, 38:1:71 
Flannery, Mike, 38:1:79 
Flannery, Pat, 38:1:106 
Flarida, Burrougs (Burrows) and 

Spencer, 38:1:95 
Fleming, 2nd Lt. Hugh Brady, 38: 

1:9, 12, 42, 47 
Fletcher, Mr. & Mrs. James, 38:1: 

Flint, Col. Franklin Foster, 38:1: 

20-21, 42, 47 
Flying V Ranch, 38:1:95 
Folsom, David E., The Valley of the 

Upper Yellowstone, review, 38: 

Forrest & Clay, 38:1:68 




Bettens (P. A.), 38:1:72, 74 

Elkins, 38:1:74 

Fetterman, 38:1:67 

John, photo, 38:1:4 

Kearny (Phil), 38:2:137, 223, 

Laramie, 38:1:5-48; photo, 1858, 
4; 38:2:225, 227 

Chronological list, 38:1:11- 

Alphabetical list, 38:1:42-43 
Brevet Rank, 38:1:46 
West Point Graduates, 38:1: 

Those Addressed as General, 
Regiments at: 38:1:11-41 
McKinney, 38:1:59, 61, 70 
Reno, 38:2:138, 140-141, 225, 

Russell (D. A.), 38:1:61 
Smith (C. F.), 38:2:137, 139- 

141, 225 
Steele, 38:2:181, 188, 191, 208, 
Forty-One Ranch, 38:2:165 
Four Corners, 38:1:84, 96 
Fouts, Capt. William D., 38:1:16, 

France, Homer, 38:2:204 
France, James, 38:2:174, 183, 201, 

France Memorial Church, 38:2: 

173; photo, cover 
France, Walker, 38:2:204, 212 
Frank's Peak, 38:1:83 
Frantz, Abraham, 38:2:201 
Frazier, Rev. Stuart, 38:1:107-108, 

116, 119 
French, G. W., 38:1:91 
Friend, John C, 38:2:227 
Frink, Maurice, Photographer on 
An Army Mule, review, 38:1: 
'Frontier Powder River Mission," 

by Burton S. Hill, 38:2:215-222 
Fulton, Hugh K., 38:2:178, 188 
Furniss, Norman F., The Mormon 
Conflict, 1850-1859, review, 38: 
Furois, Mrs. Margaret, 38:1:100, 

Gage, Rev. John L., 38:2:189 
Galbraith, Robert, 38:2:182 

Gale. Hoyt S., 38:2:143-144, 146, 
148-149, 150, 152, 154-158, 160, 
162, 167, 169, 172; photo, 142 

Gardiner, Doane, 38:2:143, 148- 
151. 153, 155-156, 160, 161-162, 
166: photo. 142 

Garnett, 1st Lt. Richard Brooke, 
38:1:7, 12, 42, 47; photo, 8 

Gamier, Baptiste "Little Bat," 38:1: 

Gatewood, Lt. C. B., 38:1:64 

Gaylord, Rev. Ruben, 38:2:194 

"G" Company, W.N.G., 38:1:63 

Geddes. David, 38:1:103 

Geddes, Mrs. Marian, 38:2:174 

Geodetic Survey Camp on Clear 
Creek, photo, 38:2:142 

Geodetic Survey Crew, photo, 38: 

German Evangelical Lutheran Syn- 
od, 38:2:215-222 

Ghost Dance, 38:1:61 

'Ghosts Took Over the Tunnel," by 
W. R. Bandy, 38:1:77-83 

Gibbon, Col. John, 38:1:6, 9, 34-37, 
42, 44, 47 

Glenrock Park, 38:2:215 

Goetzmann, William H., The Mor- 
mon Conflict, 1850-1859, review, 

Gold in the Sun by Richard F. 
Pourade, review, 38:2:243 

Golden Rails, 100 Years of Opera- 
tion of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road, by William Kratville, re- 
view, 38:2:236-237 

Goldstein, Carl, 38:2:210-211 

Goldworthy, — , 38:1:90 

Gordon, Capt. D. S., 38:2:137 

Gordon, George, 38:2:210 

Gordon, John, 38:2:210-211 

Gore, Sir George, 38:1:96 

Gould, Lewis L., review of Bankers 
and Cattlemen, 38:2:230-231 

Government Road (Bozeman Trail). 

Graham, Sgt. Joseph, 38:2:137-140 

Graham, Marie (Mrs. Hugh), "Jen- 
ney Stockade," 38:1:94, 96 

Grant, Sgt. George, 38:1:109: 38: 

Graves, Dr. Paul, 38:1:114 

Gray, Alonzo, 38:1:64 

Gieat North Trail, The, by Dan 
Cushman. review, 38:2:239-240 

Great Western Indian Fights, by 
Members of the Potomac Corral 
of the Westerners, review, 38:2: 



"Greatest Ride in Wyoming History, 

The," by Francis A. Barrett, 38" 

Gressley, Gene M., Bankers and 

Cattlemen, review, 38:2:229-230 
Grey Eagle (horse), 38:2:226 
Grieve, Leeland U., 38:1:103 
Griffith, Mr. & Mrs. Jim, 38:1:85, 

Grouard, Frank, 38:1:62, 75 
Grover, Lt. Col. Cuvier, 38:1:23. 

42, 44, 47; photo, 10 
Grummond, Frances, 38:2:226 
Grummond, Lt. George, 38:2:225, 

Gschwind, Francis G., and James L. 

Ehernberger, Smoke Down the 

Canyons, review, 38:2:242-243 
Guilfoyle, Capt. Jonathan, 38:1:73 
Guthrie, Judge & Mrs. Rodney, 38: 


Haas, Lt. Herman, 38:2:228 

Haines, Aubrey L., ed. and intro- 
duction, The Valley of the Upper 
Yellowstone, review, 38:1:124 

Hall, Harry, 38:2:183, 186-187, 
192, 199, 208 

H. C. Hall & Co., 38:2:183 

Hall, William F., 38:2:183, 199 

Hamilton's Ranch, 38:2:157, 158 

Halverson, Katherine, 38:1:107; re- 
view of Newspapering in the Old 
West, 127-128 

Hamilton, William, 38:2:174, 200 

Hamm, Florence J., 38 : 1 : 109 

Hansen, Cliff, 38:1:102 

Harrington, Capt. Nicholas, 38:1: 
15, 42 

Hart, Herbert M., Old Forts of the 
Far West, review, 38:1:124-125 

Hart Mountain, 38:1:83 

Hart, Maj. Verling Kersey, 38:1:32- 
33, 42, 46 

Haseas, Marian, 38:1:102 

"Hat Creek Stage Station," 38:1:88- 

Hat Rock, 38:1:87, 88 

Hayes, Capt. Edward Mortimer, 38: 
1:31, 42 

Heady, Mr. & Mrs. Franklin, 38:1: 

Hefflefinger, James, 38:2:212 

Hellervell, Louis, 38:1:102 

Henderson, Harry B., 38:2:212 

Henderson, Paul & Helen, 38:1:85, 

Henlein, Paul C. 38:1:60 

Henry, — , 38:2:219 

Hertzler, Mr. & Mrs. Glenn, 38:1: 

Hesse, Fred, 38:1:63 

Hickok, (Wild Bill) James Butler, 
38:1:102, 128 

Hildebrand, Lyle, 38:1:85, 102 

Hill, Burton S., 38:2:215, 245; re- 
view of The War on Powder Riv- 
er, The History of an Insurrec- 
tion, 230-231 

Hill City, S. D., 38:1:99 

Hill, Galen, 38:1:97 

Hilton, Ben, 38:1:95 

Hilton, Frank, 38:1:95 

Hinkel, Joann, 38:1:117 

"History of the Presbyterian Church 
in Rawlins, Wyoming," by Dan- 
iel Y. Meschter, 38:2:173-212 

History of the United States Caval- 
ry, 38:1:9 

History of Wyoming, by T. A. Lar 
son, review, 38:1:120 

Hitchcock, Henry Russell, 38:1:50- 

Hoe Ranch, 38:1:70 

Hoffman, Maj. William, 38:1:13, 
42, 46-47 

Hogg, John T., 38:1:92; Will, 92 

Holly, Chris, 38:1:93 

Holm, Tex, 38:1:83 

Holtz, Mr. & Mrs. Durl, 38:1:89 

Homsher, Lola M., 38:1:113; re- 
view of History of Wyoming, 120- 
121; photo, 118 

Hooks, Sam, 38:1:98 

Hord, Violet (Mrs. Charles), 38:1: 
105, 108, 111; photo 118 

Horse Head Creek, 38:1:87 

Horseshoe Station, 38:2:138 

Horseshoe Telegraph Station, 38:2: 
227; photo, 224 

Hot Weather Rules, 38:2:213 

Hotchkiss Gun, 38:1:67 

Houston, Jane, 38:1:85, 102 

Howland, Maj. George Washington, 
38:1:18, 42, 47 

Hughes, Maj. A. J., 38:1:17, 42 

Hughes, Melancthon, 38:2:189 

Hull, A. C, 38:2:181 

Humfreville, Capt. Jacob Lee, 38: 
1:18, 42 

Hundley, Norris, Jr., Dividing The 
Waters: A Century of Contro- 
versy Between the United States 
and Mexico, review, 38:2:232-233 

Hunter, George, 38:1:101 

Hutchinson, Rev. J. N., 38:2:189 

Hutchinson, Mary, 38:1:102 



Ice Box Canyon, 38:1:100 

Ilges, Capt. Guido, 38:1:23, 43, 46 

Usley, Maj. C. S., 38:1:72 

Indian Creek Route, 38:1:84 

Indian Legends of the Northern 
Rockies, by Ella E. Clark, review. 


Big Nose, 38:2:224 
Black Shield, 38:2:224 
Crazy Horse, 38:2:224 
Dull Knife, 38:2:224 
Fred, 38:2:221 
Gottfried, 38:2:221 
Joseph, 38:1:123 
Paul (Paulus), 38:2:221 
Plenty Horse, 38:1:127 
Red Cloud, 38:2:146, 224 
Two Moons, 38:2:223 
White Bull, 38:2:224 


Arapahoe, 38:2:224 
Cheyenne, 38:2:137, 224 
Crow, 38:2:221 

Sioux, 38:2:137, 218, 223, 224 
Snake, 38:2:218 

Infantry, 4th, 38:2:211 

Inyan Kara, 38:1:87 

Irma Flat, 38:1:77 

lion Brigade, 38:1:9 

Jackson, Donald, Custer's Gold, The 

United States Cavalry Expedition 

of 1874, review, 38:2:233-234 
Jackson, Sheldon, 38:2:173, 177, 

181, 182, 185 
Jackson, W. Turrentine, Wagon 

Roads West, review, 38:2:244 
James, Frank, 38:1:90 
Jenney, Prof. Walter P., 38:1:94 
Jenney Stockade, by Marie Graham, 

38:1:84, 94 
Jesuits and the Indian Wars of the 

Far Northwest, The, by Robert 

Ignatius Burns, S. J., review, 38: 

2:23 1-232 
Johnson County Invasion, 38:1:59 
Johnson, 1st Lt. John Burgess, 38: 

1:28, 43 
Johnson, William Wallace (Lengthy). 

Johnston, Pvt. Willis, 38:1:73 
Jones. Mr. & Mrs. Bert, 38:1:102 
Jones, Dave, 38:1:82 
Jones, Grant. 38:1:126 
Jones, Henry, 38:1:108 

Josephy, Alvin M. Jr., The Nez 
Perce Indians and the Opening of 
the Northwest, review, 38:1:123 

Kaan, M. C, 38:1:103 

Kaan, Nick, 38:1:103 

Karolevitz, Robert F., Newspapering 

In the Old West, review, 38:1:126 
KC Ranch, 38:1:62 
Kearny, (Fort), 38:2:159-161 
Kearny, Maj. Gen. Philip, 38:2:223 
Keets, Henry, 38:1:94 
Keise, — , 38:1:94 
Kelley, D. C, 38:2:212 
Kellogg, Capt. Sanford Cobb, 38:1: 

32-33, 43, 46 
Kendall, John, 38:2:186, 192 
Kennedy, Michael S., ed., The Red 

Man's West, review, 38:2:240-241 
Kennedy, — , (U. S. Land Office). 

38:2:161, 165 
Kenyon, Eliza, 38:2:178, 182 
Kephart, Rev. William G., 38:2: 

189, 194 
Ketchum, Capt. William Scott, 38: 

1:11-12, 43, 47 
Ki-Ann Indian Dancers, 38:1:105 
King, Col. John Haskell. 38:1:24, 

25, 43, 45; photo, 8. 
Kirtland, Capt. Thaddeus Sandford, 
38:1:40, 43 

Kirwin Miners, 38:1:83 
Kit Carson's Autobiography, ed. 

with an introduction by Mi'lo Mil- 
ton Quaife, review, 38:2:244 
Koller, Joe, "Cold Springs Station," 

38:1:98; review of Wild Bill and 

Deadwood, 38:1:128-129 
Kratville, William, Golden Rails, 

100 Years of Operation of the 

Union Pacific Railroad, review, 

Krebs, Rev., 38:2:217, 219, 221; 

photo, Rev. Krebs and the Indian 

boys, 220 
Kritschel, George J., 38:2:222 
Kuhn, Mr. & Mrs. Joe, 38:1:103 
Kundz, Mr. & Mrs. Phil, 38:1:103 
Kuykendall, Judge W. L., 38:2:187 

La Bonte. Pierre (Pete), 38:1:85, 

LAK Ranch, 38:1:94 
Lake, Allerton & Spencer, 38:1:95 



Lamar, Howard Roberts, Dakota 

Territory, 38:2:244 
Lancaster, George, 38:1:190 
"Lance Creek Stage Station." 38:1: 

Lane, Lydia Spencer, 38:1:7 
Langen, John G., 38:1:117 
Larome, Larry, 38:1:105 
Larson, Robert, 38:1:102, 107 
Larson, Dr. T. A., 38:1:116-117, 
120; History of Wyoming, review, 
38:1:120-121; review of Dividing 
the Waters, 38:2:232-233 
Last Days of the Sioux Nation, The, 
by Robert M. Utley, review, 38: 
Lathrop, George, 38:2:226 
Lathrop Monument, 38:1:84 
Lee Street Bridge, 38:1:100 
Lc-May, Mr. & Mrs. J. A., 38:1:103 
Lenley, Mr. & Mrs. William, 38:1: 

Lillard, Richard G., Desert Chal- 
lenge, An Interpretation of Ne- 
vada, review, 38:2:244 
Lindsley. Lt. Elmer, 38:1:64 
Lodge Trail Ridge, 38:2:223-224 
Long, — , 38:2:171 
"Long Walk of Sergeants Grant and 
Graham, The," by Robert A. 
Murray, 38:2:137-141 
Lott, Emily B., 38:2:222 
Lott, Howard B., 38:2:222 
Louther, Alexander, 38:1:65 
Lovell, Capt. Christopher S., 38:1: 

13, 43 
Luning, J. J., 38:2:170, 172 
"Lurid Liar of Lander," 38:1:126 
Lusk Opery House, 38:1:87 
Lusk to Deadwood, map, 38:1:84 
Lynde, Maj. Isaac, 38:1:7, 13, 43, 

MacDougall, A. H., 38:1:105 
MacLeish Ranch, 38:2:171 
McAuslan, Edward, 38:1:106 
McCall, Jack, 38:1:102, 129 
McCarger, Al, 38:2:210-211 
McCoy, Sarah Thomson, 38:1:96 
McCoy, Sheila, 38:1:117; photo, 

McCracken, Dr. Harold, 38:1:106- 

107; photo, 114 
McCullock Peaks, 38:1:83 
McCullough, Jennie, 38:2:212 
McDermott, John Dishon, 38:1:5; 

biog., 131 

McEwen, John, 38:2:190 
McGinley. Hazel M., 38:1:102 
Mclver, 1st. Lt. George Wilcox, 38: 

1:41, 43, 47 
McKibben, Capt. Robert Pebbles, 

38:1:19, 43, 46 
McMillen, — , 38:2:212 
McNab, 1st Lt. John, 38:1:15, 43 
McShane, John A., 38:1:68 
Mackey, Maj. Thomas L., 38:1:15- 

17, 43 
Mador, John, 38:1:103 
Major, Mabel and Rebecca W. 

Smith, ed.. The Adventures of 

Big-Foot Wallace, by John C. 

Duval, review 38:2:244 
Majors, Capt. Thomas J., 38:1:17, 

Mallo Camp Ground, 38:1:96 
Manderson, Sen. C. F., 38:1:68, 70 
Manville, H. S., 38:1:68 
Marchant, Pauline. "May's Ranch 

or Lance Creek Stage Station," 

38:1:90-93, 103 
Mardock, Robert W. and Robert W. 

Richmond, ed., A Nation Moving 

West, Readings in the History of 

the American Frontier, review, 

Marlin, — , 38:2:172 
Marshall, Capt. Louis Henry, 38:1: 

15, 43, 47 
Marston, B. W., 38:1:108 
Martin, Mrs. Emma, 38:1:108 
Martin, Marguerite, 38:1:85, 102 
Mason, Maj. Julius Wilmot, 38:1: 

26-28, 42, 46 
Matter, Pastor, 38:2:221 
May, D. Boone, 38:1:90, 95 
May, Jim, 38:1:90 
Maynadier, Col. Henry Eveleth, 38: 

1:6, 17, 43, 45, 47 
"May's Ranch or Lance Creek Stage 

Station," 38:1:84, 89, 90-93 
Meeker, Nathan C, 38:2:210, 211 
Melodeon Theatre, 38:2:172 
Mercer, Asa S. 5 38:1:61, 126 
Merriam, Col. Henry Clay, 38:1: 

37-41, 43 
Merritt, Col. Wesley, 38:1:32-34, 

43, 45, 47; photo, 10 
Meschter, Daniel Y., "History of the 

Presbyterian Church in Rawlins, 

Wyoming," 38:2:173-212; biog., 

Middleton, Doc, 38:1:93 
Mikesell, Mr. & Mrs. W. A., 38:1: 

Miles, Gen. Nelson A., 38:1:127 



"Military Command at Fort Lara- 
mie," by John Dishon McDermott 
and Gordon Chappell, 38:1:5-48 

Miller, Neal E.. 38:1:106, 109-110. 
review of The Nez Perce Indians 
and the Opening of The North- 
west, 123; review of The Jesuits 
and the Indian Wars of the Far 
Northwest, 38:2:231-232 

Miller, Sidney, 38:1:103 

Miner, Bill, 38:1:97 

Mokler, Mr. & Mrs. Verne. 38:1: 

Monitor Stage Coach, 38:1:97 

Montana Road (Bozeman Trail) 

Moody, John, 38:1:100 

Moore, Capt. Alexander, 38:1:26. 
43, 46 

Moore, J. K., 38:1:118 

Moore, Julius, 38:2:210 

Mormon Conflict, 1850-1859, The. 
by Norman F. Furniss, review 

Morris Chapel, 38:2:192 

Morris Presbyterian Church, 38:2: 
186, 191 

Morris, Mrs. William E., 38:2:191 

Mountain City, S.D., 38:1:99 

Mule Creek Junction, 38:1:84, 89 

Mummy Cave, 38:1: 107 

Mummy Joe, 38:1:107 

Munkres, — , (Merchant), 38:1:71 

Munroe, Lt. Col. John, 38:1:13, 43, 

Munson, Capt. Samuel, 38:1:26, 43 

Murray, Robert A., "The United 
States Army in the Aftermath of 
the Johnson County Invasion," 
38:1:59-75, 116; review of The 
Valley of the Upper Yellowstone, 
124; "The Long Walk of Ser- 
geants Grant and Graham," 38:2: 
137-141, biog., 245 

My Life on the Plains, by Gen. 
George A. Custer, ed. with an in- 
troduction by Milo Milton Quaife, 
review, 38:2:244 

Nation Moving West, A, Readings 
in the History of the American 
Frontier, ed. by Robert W. Rich- 
mond and Robert W. Mardock, 
review, 38:2:244 

Nelson, Gerald, 38:1:115 

Nelson, Vance. 38:1:103 

Newspapering in the Old West, by 
Robert F. Karolevitz, review, 38: 

Nez Perce Indians and the Opening 
of the Northwest, The, by Alvin 
M. Josephy, Jr., review, 38:1:123 

Norcross Brothers, 38:1:51 

Nottage, Jim, photo, 38:1:114 

Nye, Bill, 38:1:126 

O'Brien, Ed, 38:2:176 

O'Brien, Maj. George Morgan, 38: 
1:18, 43, 45 

Oglalla Land & Cattle Co., 38:1:68 

Old Forts of the Far West, by Her- 
bert M. Hart, review, 38:1:124- 

Old Jules Country, by Mari Sandoz, 
review, 38:1:121-123 

"Old Woman Creek Station," by 
Mrs. George Christian, Albert 
DeGering, 38:1:89-90 

Olmstead, Frederick Law, 38:1:53 

Oneill Pass, 38:1:100 

Oregon Basin, 38:1:77 

Organ, Perry, 38:1:71 

Ostrander, A. B., 38:2:226-227 

Owen, William, 38:2:182 

Owen, W. O., 38:1:50 

Paddock, Lt. R. B., 38:1:64 
Palmer, Lt. Col. Innis Newton, 38: 

1:18-19. 43, 45, 47 
Palmer Ranch, 38:2:169, 171-172 
Parmelee, Capt. C. H., 38:1:64 
Parrot, Big Nose George, 38:1:93 
Partridge, Mrs. Charles, 38:1:92 
Patrick Bros., 38:1:68 
Patrick, Mrs. Lucille, 38:1:108 
Patterson, Mrs. Irene, 38:1:102 
Paxton. M. A., 38:1:68 
Payroll Development Committee, 

Casper, 38:1:117 
Peck, H. P., 38:2:189 
Pelton, B. H., 38:1:129 
Perrigoue, Nell, 38:1:85, 101 
Peters, Richard, 38:1:103 
Peterson, Mr. & Mrs. H. M., 38:1: 

Peterson, William, The Valley of the 

Upper Yellowstone, review, 38:1: 

Petty, Ruth, 38:1:103 
Phillips, A. L., 38:1:78 
Phillips, Hattie, 38:2:225 



Phillips, "Portugee," 38:2:137, 223- 

Photographer on an Army Mule, by 

Maurice Frink and Casey Barthel- 

mess, review, 38:1:127-128 
Photographers of the Frontier West, 

by Ralph W. Andrews, review, 

Pickett, Rev. J. W., 38:1:91 
Piney Creek, 38:2:149-150, 158. 

Pitcher Ranch, 38:2:165 
'Philosophy of History for the 

Small Museum, A," by Paul M. 

Edwards, 38:1:54-58 
Pluma, S. D., 38:1:100 
Point of Rocks Stage Station, 38:1: 

"Pony Express," poem, 38:1:104 
"Portugee" Phillips at Horseshoe 

Station, photo, 38:2:224 
Pourade, Richard F., Gold in the 

Sun, review, 38:2:243 
Powder River, 38:2:150-151 
Pratt & Ferris Cattle Co., 38:1:68 
Pratt, Orman, 38:1:109 
Prince, R. E., review of Smoke 

Down the Canyons, 38:2:242-243 
Proctor, Capt., 38:2:227 
Pumpkin Buttes, 38:2:164 

Quaife, Milo Milton, ed., My Life 
on the Plains, by Gen. George A. 
Custer, 38:2:244; ed., War Path 
and Bivouac, 38:2:244, ed., Kit 
Carson's Autobiography, 38:2: 

Red Butte, 38:1:98 

"Red Deer Ballet," 38:1:117 

Redfield, — , (Indian Agent for the 

Crow Tribe), 38:2:221 
Red Man's Religion, by Ruth M. 

Underhill, review, 38:2:235-236 
Red Man's West, The, ed., Michael 

S. Kennedy, review, 38:2:240-241 
Reed, Tom, 38:1:90 
Regan, Rev. Z., 38:2:191 
Regiments at Fort Laramie, 38:1: 

Richard, Jack, 38:1:117 
Richardson, Henry Hodson, 38:1: 

Richmond, Robert W., and Robert 

W. Mardock, ed., A Nation Mov- 
ing West, Readings in the History 

of the American Frontier, review, 

Richtofen, Walter von, 38:1:59 
Riley, James, 38:1:94 
Ritter, Vera, 38:1:102 
"Robber's Roost Stage Station," by 

C. R. (Mose) Cooksey, 38:1:93- 

Robinson, Capt. Daniel, 38:1:41, 43 
Robinson, Will, 38:1:98, 103 
Rochford Mines, 38:1:99 
Rummy Kid Goes Home and Other 

Stories of the Southwest, The, by 

Ross Santee, review, 38:2:243- 

Russell, Capt. Gerald, 38:1:28, 31, 

Russell, Mr. & Mrs. Warren, 38:1: 

Rziha, Capt. John, 38:1:9, 21, 43 

Ramsauer, Marie, 38:2:197 
Ramsey, Hannah, 38:2:200 
Randall, Bishop, 38:2:183 
Randier, Butterfly Slim. 38:2:169- 

Rankin, Jim, 38:2:207 
Rankin, Joe, 38:2:182, 202, 207 
Rankin, M. Wilson, 38:2:208 
Rankin, U. S. Marshall, 38:1:74 
Rawlins, John Aaron, 38:2:180 
Rawlins, 38:2:173 
Rawn, Capt. Charles Cotesworth, 

38:1:34-36, 43 
Ray, Nick, 38:1:62 
Raynolds, Capt. W. R., 38:2:215- 


Sage Creek, 38:1:77, 88 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus, 38:1:50, 

Saint Sebald, Iowa, 38:2:221 

Sample, Billy, 38:1:95 

Sander, Dorris, 38:1:102 

Sanderson, Maj. Winslow F., 38:1: 
5-11, 43 

Sandoz, Mari, Old Jules Country, 
review, 38:1:121 

Sanno, Capt. James Madison John- 
son, 38:1:37, 43 

Santee, Ross, The Rummy Kid Goes 
Home and Other Stories of the 
Southwest, review, 38:2:243-244 

Schacher, Mrs. Esther, 38:1:103 

Schenk, Marilyn, 38:1:103 

Schmidt, Pastor, 38:2:215-216 



Schofield, Maj. Gen., 38:1:63, 66 

Schwoob, Jake, 38:1:82 

Scott, Capt. G. L., 38:1:64 

Scotts Bluff, Nebr., 38:2:217-219 

Seminoe Mines, 38:2:208 

Scminoe Mountains, 38:2:176 

Sensel. Mrs. Ned, 38:2:161 

Settle, Mary Lund and Raymond 
W., War Drums and Wagon 
Wheels, review, 38:2:241-242 

Settle, Raymond W. and Mary 
Lund, War Drums and Wagon 
Wheels, review, 38:2:241-242 

Seyler, — , 38:2:215, 219, 221 

Shaffer, Mrs. Louise, 38:2:174 

Shaw, Dr. Cecil, 38:1:114 

Sheep Creek, 38:1:93 

Sheridan, 38:2:146 

Sheridan Inn, Inc.. 38:1:109 

Sheridan Inn, photo, 38:2:136 

Sheridan Stage Station, 38:1:102 

Sherman, 38:1:49-50, 52 

Shoshone Dam, 38:1:82 

Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rockies, 
The, 38:1:117 

Sinclair, F. H., review of Photog- 
rapher on an Army Mule, 38:1: 

Siringo, Charles A., A Texas Cow- 
hoy, with introduction and bib- 
liography by J. Frank Dobie, 38: 

Skiff, F. J. V., 38:2:210 

Slack, E. A.. 38:1:126 

Slemmer, Lt. Col. Adam Jacobv. 
38:1:7, 19, 43, 45, 47 

Smith, Cap, 38:1:97 

Smith, Helena Huntington. The War 
on Powder River, review, 38:2: 

Smith, Col. John Eugene, 38:1:22- 
24, 43, 45 

Smith, Perry L.. 38:2:186-187 

Smith, Pvt., 38:1:73 

Smith. Rebecca W. and Mabel Ma- 
jor, ed., The Adventures of Big- 
Foot Wallace, by John C. Duval, 
review, 38:2:244 

Smith's Ranch, 38:2:168, 171-172 

Smoke Down the Canyons, by 
James L. Ehernberger and Fran- 
cis G. Gschwind, review, 38:2: 

Snow, Charley W., 38:1:99 

Snowden, Joseph P., 38:1:102 

Society of Black Hill's Pioneers, 38: 

Songs of the Sage, excerpt, 38:1:89 

Sourdough Dick. 38:1:90 

South Pass City, 38:2:189 

Spearfish Canyon, 38:1:99 
Spencer, Flarida & Burrows, 38:1: 

Spencer, Mr. & Mrs. W. L., 38:1: 

Spohr, Mrs. Adolph, 38:1:116 
Stanton, Capt. William, 38:1:64, 90 
Starr, Capt. Samuel Henry, 38:1:5, 

14, 43 
Stevens, Mr. & Mrs. J. M., 38:1:102 
Stewart, Eliza, 38:2:190 
Stewart, Robert Laird, 38:2:178, 

Stone, Elizabeth Arnold (Martha), 

Stone Ranch, 38:2:154 
Stonewall City, S. D., 38:1:95 
Storrie, John, 38:1:89 
Stout, Mr. & Mrs. Ernest, 38:1:102 
Strande, Loretta, 38:1:102 
Suggs, 38:1:72 
Sullivan, Fred, 38:1:93 
Sullivan, Louis, 38:1:50 
Swain, Saul K., 38:2:186-187; Mrs.. 

Swan, Tom, 38:1:89 
Sweem, Glenn E., 38:1:111; photo, 

Sweet, Fred, 38:1:85 
Sweet, Thomas P., 38:1:96 
Sweetwater Mines, 38:2:189 

T A Ranch, 38:1:62, 64; 38:2:167 
Taylor, 1st Lt. Charles William, 38: 

1:41, 43, 47 
Telegraph Road, 38:1:99 
TE Ranch, 38:1:83 
Terry, Mrs. Glen, 38:2:174 
Texas Cowboy, A., by Charles A. 

Siringo, with introduction and 

bibliography by J. Frank Dobie, 

review, 38:2:244 
Thorn, — (banker), 38:1:71 
Thompkins, Pvt., 38:1:73 
Thompson, Henry, 38:1:92 
Thompson, Capt. John A., 38:1:15, 

Thompson, Rev., 38:2:194 
Thomson, Edward, 38:1:96 
Thornburgh, Thomas T., 38:2:211 
Thorp. Russell, 38:2:225-226 
Thorpe, Elizabeth & Stacey, 38:1: 

103, 117 
Tigerville, S. D., 38:1:99 
Tinton District, 38:1:99 
Towle (Toll), Frank, 38:1:90 
Towns, Mr. & Mrs. H. C, 38:1:102 



Townsend, Maj. Edwin Franklin, 

38:1:25-26, 43, 46-47 
Townsend, H. M. "Doc", 38:1:85, 

Trabing, 38:2:164, 172 
Trenholm, Virginia Cole, 38:1:117 
Trinity Church of Boston, 38:1:51- 

Twaton Ranch, 38:2:167 
Twentieth Century Club, Newcastle, 

Twiggs, Gen., 38:1:7 
Twiss, Maj. Thomas S., 38:2:215- 

216, 219 

Ulm, 38:2:158 

Union Pacific Railroad, 38:1:49 

Underhill, Ruth M., Red Man's Re- 
ligion, review, 38:2:235-236 

"United States Army in the After- 
math of the Johnson County In- 
vasion, The," by Robert A. Mur- 
ray, 38:1:59 

Upton, Rev. Gene H., 38:2:175 

Urbanek, Mae, 38:1:88; Wyoming 
Wonderland, review, 130; review 
of The Great North Trail, 38:2: 

239-240; Jerry, 38:1:88 

Utley, Robert M., The Last Days of 
the Sioux Nation , 38:1:61; 38:2: 

Valley of the Upper Yellowstone, 
The, by Charles W. Cook, David 
E. Folsom and William Peterson, 
review, 38:1:124 

Vandel, Grace, 38:1:103 

Van Horn, Col. J. J., 38:1:62-63, 65 

Van Rensselaer, Marianna Guilder, 

Van Voast, Maj. James, 38:1:18, 
43, 47; 38:2:137 

Van Valzah, Montgomery, 38:2:137 

Vaughn, Miss S. V., 38:2:190 

Wagon Roads West, by W. Turren- 
tine Jackson, review, 38:2:244 

Waitman, Mr. & Mrs. John, 38:1: 

Walker, Meda, 38:1:85, 102 

Wall, James, 38:1:91 

Wallace, Capt. W. M., 38:1:64 

War Drums and Wagon Wheels, by 
Raymond W. and Mary Lund 
Settle, review, 38:2:241-242 

War on Powder River, The, by Hel- 
ena Huntington Smith, review, 

War Path and Bivouac, by John 
Finerty, ed. with an introduction 
by Milo Milton Quaife, 38:2:244 

Ward, W. H., 38:1:97, 99 

Warren, Lt. G. K., 38:1:94 

Watson, Mr. & Mrs. J. P., 38:1:103 

Watts, Howard S., 38:1:102 

Watts Ranch, 38:2:148, 150, 155- 

Wegel's Ranch, 38:2:158 

Wegerman, Carroll, 38:2:143, 146- 
147, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157-158. 
161-162, 166-168; photo, 142 

Wellman, U. S. Marshal George, 

Welty, Frederick W., 38:2:200 

Wessells, Capt. Henry Walton Jr., 
38:1:31, 43; 38:2:137-140 

Westerners, Members of the Poto- 
mac Corral, Great Western Indian 
Fights, review, 38:2:224 

Whigam, Mrs. Gymaina, 38:2:174 

Whitewood Gulch, S.D., 38:1:99 

Whittenburg, Clarice, review of Old 
Jules Country, 38:1:121-123; re- 
view of Indian Legends of the 
Northern Rockies, 38:2:237-239 

Whorton's Ranch, 38:2:152, 154 

W ild Bill and Deadwood, by Mil- 
dred Fielder, review, 38:1:128 

Wiley Project, 38:1:77 

Wiley, S. L., 38:1:77 

Wilkins, Edness Kimball, 38:1:102. 

Williams, Christine, 38:1:103 

Williams, Capt. Constant, 38:1:39, 

Williams Ranch, 38:2:157 

Willson, Mr. & Mrs. Grant, 38:1: 

Wilson, Lt. R. H., 38:1:64 

Wilson, William C, 38:2:182, 185, 

190-192, 199 

Winchell, Karl, 38:1:114 

Wind River Mountain Men, 38:1: 

Windom, Dale, 38:1:103 

Windsor, Henry J., 38:1:68 

Winterling, — , 38:1:71 

Wolcott, Maj. Frank, 38:1:63, 65, 

Wood, John S., 38:1:16, 43 

Woods, L. R., 38:2:185 



Woodson, Capt. Albert Emmett, 38: 

1:33, 34, 43 
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 38:1:50 
Wyoming Station, 38:2:183 
Wyoming Wonderland, by Mae Ur- 

banek, review, 38:1:130 
Wyuse, — , 38:1:122 

Young, Lt. Bob, 38:2:176 

Youtz, Mr. & Mrs. H. Fletcher, 38: 

Yuill, Cawille, 38:1:103 

Zimmerman, John, 38:1:90 
Zorn, George W., 38:1:77 


The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its func- 
tion the collection and preservation of the record of the people of Wyo- 
ming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out of its 
function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve records and 
materials now in private hands where they cannot be long preserved. Such 
records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, account books, auto- 
biographical accounts. 

Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agriculture, 
railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business establishments, and of 
professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, dentists, ministers, and 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, manuscript 
materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religious, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications such 
as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any significant 
topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on western 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout the 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, Indian 
artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyoming and with 
special events in the State's history. 






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